WO2015018230A1 - 一种节能型除尘器 - Google Patents

一种节能型除尘器 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2015018230A1
WO2015018230A1 PCT/CN2014/079354 CN2014079354W WO2015018230A1 WO 2015018230 A1 WO2015018230 A1 WO 2015018230A1 CN 2014079354 W CN2014079354 W CN 2014079354W WO 2015018230 A1 WO2015018230 A1 WO 2015018230A1
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WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
dust
fan
axial flow
motor
energy
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PCT/CN2014/079354
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
董禹全
Original Assignee
Dong Yuquan
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Publication date
Priority claimed from CN201310344362.8A external-priority patent/CN103990334A/zh
Application filed by Dong Yuquan filed Critical Dong Yuquan
Publication of WO2015018230A1 publication Critical patent/WO2015018230A1/zh

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D46/00Filters or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D46/0002Casings; Housings; Frame constructions
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2273/00Operation of filters specially adapted for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D2273/30Means for generating a circulation of a fluid in a filtration system, e.g. using a pump or a fan

Definitions

  • the invention belongs to an environmental protection device, and particularly relates to an energy-saving dust collector matched by a plurality of new axial flow fans. Background technique
  • the current dust collectors have a history of 100 years, such as vibrating, rotary blowback, high-pressure pulse type dust collectors are very mature products, which can basically meet the technical requirements of industrial dust removal.
  • these types of structure dust collectors are mainly caused by high energy consumption, which makes the cost of treating soot too large.
  • the power consumption per kilowatt is only 100-500 cubic meters, which results in the total dust consumption of the country. And, accounting for 6% of total social power generation.
  • the centrifugal fan is characterized by the ability to solve the dust removal problem with high wind pressure.
  • the ability to handle the dust removal capacity per kilowatt of power is only 100-500 cubic meters per hour, and the efficiency is low.
  • Second, the bag cleaning is difficult to complete. The resistance of the bag filter is increased, which increases the power of the dust removal.
  • the working principle of the centrifugal fan is that the wind-driven impeller is a front and rear two-piece hub piece with a plurality of blades interposed therebetween, which is a centrifugal force generated by the rotation of a high-speed impeller to squeeze the air around.
  • the characteristics of this centrifugal structure are: High-pressure air is extruded, and high-pressure air of 2000-15000pa is generated, but the air volume is only a few tenths of that of the axial flow fan.
  • the difficulty of bag dust removal technology is the problem of cleaning ash: Because the dust is thicker and thicker when it is over-considered, the air that passes through must pass through the gap of dust before it can be discharged into the bag, so that the dust is not good, and the fan power is increased. Therefore, the falling ash method becomes a key technology of the dust collector.
  • pulse high pressure backflushing technology is the best dust collector. Although it is better than the old ones, the compression of high pressure air is different from the gas produced by the fan. The power consumption is 300 times lower, and the effective output is less. The rate of release of high-pressure air is only 8 times. The amount of air blown back is very small and the ash is not complete.
  • the dust on the bag is often two or three millimeters thick, and the resistance of the air is still several times that of the dust bag.
  • the object of the present invention is to provide an energy-saving type dust collector, which is innovative in the following three aspects: 1.
  • the working principle of the axial flow fan is equivalent to the electric fan.
  • the blade pushes the air forward at a small angle, and the air volume is large with a point-and-face type. It is dozens of times the air volume of the centrifugal fan.
  • the normal working pressure of the precipitator is 2000-15000pa. Because of the pressure of the current axial fan, most of it is between 50-600pa. Even the highest pressure mixed-flow fan has a wind pressure of only 800-1500pa. between. Therefore, if the 1500pa condition is reached, a centrifugal fan will be used. Therefore, the centrifugal fan is used for the dust collector, not the axial fan.
  • the first method adopted is to increase the boosting capacity of the axial flow fan; the second is to reduce the pressure of the working condition of the precipitator.
  • the axial flow fan adopts an impeller with overlapping anti-backflow.
  • the characteristic of the impeller is that the number of blades is 13-200 pieces, which is 3-20 times of the number of blades of the original mixed flow fan, and the number of blades increases, except that the number is increased directly. Outside the effective area of the air; there are more blades, the blades and the blades will overlap, and the increase in density can reduce the working distance between the blades and the blades, which can achieve the problem of controlling the backflow of high-pressure air from the large gap.
  • the impeller of the above technical point can be adapted to the dust collector of 2000-4000pa working condition.
  • the axial flow fan adopts a double-layer composite impeller with overlapping anti-backflow.
  • the characteristic of this impeller is that a small number of wide blades are combined with a layer of 2-50 times narrow blades, two layers combined, wide leaves.
  • the narrow blade anti-backflow with high honey quality pushes the air forward to improve the efficiency.
  • the axial flow fan equipped with double-layer impeller can adapt the dust collector of 4000-15000pa working condition.
  • the axial flow fan adopts multiple impellers to combine the boosting. At the two ends of the shaft of the motor, there is an impeller with a higher density than the oblique flow fan. This axial flow fan can be used for dust removal in 3000-5000pa working condition. Device.
  • the pressure of the dust collector working condition comes from two parts: one is the filtration resistance of the dust bag; the other is the resistance of the wind speed movement in the pipe and the friction of the pipe wall, and the normal pressure of the inlet gradually generates a high pressure of 1000-5000 pa, and the bag After the filter resistance is combined, a high pressure dust removal condition is generated.
  • multiple wind pressures can be installed in the air inlet pipe of the dust collector at 500 pa.
  • the following high-efficiency large-volume axial flow fan keeps the wind pressure in the pipeline within 500pa. Even if it reaches the normal or positive pressure in the dust box, the total pressure can be controlled below 3000pa, so that the wind is finally removed.
  • High-efficiency axial flow fans up to 3000 pa can be used. If the medium and low pressure axial flow fan is used, it has been energy-efficient from the configuration.
  • Dust bag will get more and more dust during work, so there are many kinds of cleaning technology, such as rapping and cleaning, rotary blowback cleaning, high pressure air pulse backflushing, and now the most popular pulse cleaning.
  • cleaning technology such as rapping and cleaning, rotary blowback cleaning, high pressure air pulse backflushing, and now the most popular pulse cleaning.
  • most dust collectors have 2-3 mm thick dust on the bag, and the resistance is equivalent to the bag layer.
  • the dust of the bag of a few dust collectors can reach 5-8 mm, which is two or three times the resistance of the bag. . If the dust thickness is controlled within 1 mm, the working pressure can be lowered by 1000-3000 Pa.
  • the configuration power can be directly reduced.
  • the low-pressure axial flow fan with higher indirect configurability can be configured. A complete solution to the cleaning can be used in two configurations.
  • a cylinder-controlled door is arranged on the air inlet pipe of the dust collector, and a cylinder opening device is arranged on the small cover of the dust box.
  • the main pipe door is closed momentarily, so that the air sucked by the negative pressure of the dust removal fan is only entered from the bag of a small warehouse, and the negative pressure back suction amount is several tens of high-pressure pulse backflushing amount. Double, the cleaning effect is very good.
  • Both of these methods of cleaning are based on the large air volume of the main fan, which exceeds the effect of high-pressure pulse back-blowing; it also saves the power to produce high-pressure air.
  • the high-pressure air used for cleaning is produced by the air compressor, and the configuration of the air-pressure phase is matched. Normally, it is 10-30% of the configuration of the main fan.
  • the fan is directly installed on the dust box, which will reduce the total pressure of dust removal.
  • the general structure of the dust collector is that the dust box is located in the middle section, and there is a long air inlet pipe in front of the dust box. After the dust box, there is a fan guide tube in the passage, and a fan of 10-20 meters is arranged behind the fan.
  • the dust collector is changed from a conventional one-floor centrifugal fan to a number of bins, and how many fans are installed.
  • This structure converts the dust collector into a fan from a dust collector and changes it into one.
  • the dust collector must be equipped with more than 4 or even 36 fans. This configuration change can reduce the total length of the duct by 20-50%, which can reduce the dust removal pressure by 10-30% and save the power by 10-30%.
  • the utility model relates to an energy-saving dust collector, which mainly comprises a dust box, an air inlet pipe and an axial flow fan, and is characterized in that: the number of fans is arranged according to the number of the warehouses, and each small warehouse on the dust box comprises a through-connection bin, and one is installed or Several axial fans have changed
  • a dust collector is introduced into the air duct to introduce a basic structure in which only one large fan is disposed.
  • the axial flow fan is directly exhausted on the top of the dust box, which reduces the total length of the air duct by 20-50%, can reduce the dust removal pressure by 10-30%, and save the power by 10-30%.
  • the axial flow fan is composed of a wind cylinder, a motor, a bracket and an impeller, and the impeller adopts an overlapping anti-backflow structure, and the overlapping anti-backflow structure is characterized in that: the number of blades reaches 13-200.
  • the invention is different from the 7-12 pieces of the number of existing mixed flow fan blades, and the effect of increasing the number of blades is that the multiple overlap can reduce the distance between the blades and the blades, and the full coverage between the blades and the blades can be controlled when pushing the air.
  • the problem of backflow from the large gap is to generate high-pressure air of 2000-4000pa.
  • the impeller of the axial flow fan is composed of an inner hub, an outer ring, a wide blade, a narrow blade, etc., and the axial flow fan adopts a double-blade combined impeller, wherein the number of narrow blades is wide 2-50 times the number of leaves.
  • a small number of wide vane wheels take the intake air in front, and a narrow impeller with high density pushes the air backwards to completely solve the problem of high-pressure air backflow. It is a new axial-flow fan that can generate high-pressure air with a pressure of 4000-15000pa. structure.
  • the axial flow fan comprises a air cylinder, a motor, a bracket, and an impeller, and the leaf shaft is provided with an impeller at each end of the motor.
  • An impeller structure is different from one motor of the current axial flow fan, and the axial flow fan that blows the wind is the structure of two motors in the air cylinder, and the two impellers are twisted together.
  • the axial flow fan is a combined fan, which is composed of a motor, a bracket seat, an output shaft, a wind wheel, and a wind wheel ring.
  • the motor is installed by the bracket seat outside the dust box, and the wind is The wheel and the wind wheel ring are installed under the clean room of the dust box and are connected by the motor output shaft.
  • the axial flow fan is composed of a motor, a wind wheel and a bracket, and the wind wheel is directly mounted on the motor, and is installed in the air inlet pipe in front of the dust box, and can be in the air inlet pipe. Install multiple units in sections.
  • This type of pressure-controlled fan group that controls the increase of the air pressure in the duct can keep the large flow of air in the long pipeline still in a constant state.
  • the motor is disposed at the corner of the air inlet pipe by the outer bracket, and the output shaft of the wind wheel is disposed in the air inlet pipe by the inner bracket, thereby pushing the air axial movement.
  • the dust box is composed of a dust removal bin, a cleaning bin, a dust bag, a plurality of small bins, and the like, and is characterized in that: a part of the small cover on the cleaning bin is provided with a cylinder control system, and the optimal configuration scheme is that each The small warehouse cover is equipped with two cylinders, the movable rod of the cylinder is fixed with the small storage cover, and the cylinder wall is fixed with the partition wall plate or the bottom flower board of the clean room to exert the expansion and contraction function of the cylinder, thereby forming the small warehouse cover with the damper closure and
  • the function of the opening, the air inlet pipe is characterized in that: a damper device controlled by a cylinder is added in the air inlet pipe, and the cylinder device is characterized in that: a cylinder of a control door in the air inlet pipe Set, and the cylinders in the multiple small cover are controlled by a PLC programming controller to form a small cover of the dust box, which can open the optimal time between 10 and 50
  • the PLC programming controller controls the damper device of the main air duct and the cylinders of each small bin in the dust box to cooperate with each other, and turns the small door opening and closing doors, and uses the structure of the matching to promote the vacuum cleaning by the main fan. Technology will save the power to produce high pressure air for cleaning.
  • Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of multiple axial fans on a dust box.
  • Figure 2 is a schematic view of the structure of the double-layer wind wheel.
  • Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view of the double-layer wind wheel.
  • Figure 4 is a schematic view showing the structure of the full-cover anti-high pressure reverse wind wheel.
  • Figure 5 Schematic diagram of the structure of the motor dual-winding axial fan.
  • Figure 6 is a schematic view of the structure of the combined fan.
  • Figure 7 is a diagram showing the setting of the pressure control fan group in the intake air duct.
  • Fig. 8 is a schematic view showing the structure of the negative pressure anti-cleaning intake valve under the action of the cylinder.
  • Figure 9 is a schematic view showing the structure of the air inlet pipe control gate device.
  • internal and external fan Motor 25, motor external bracket for internal and external fan, 26, internal and external motor output shaft, 27, inner wheel bracket for internal and external fan, 28, wind wheel for internal and external fan, 29, pressure control fan Motor, 30, control fan group motor wind wheel, 31, air inlet pipe, 32, pressure control fan unit motor frame, 33, dust collector box, 34, warehouse door, 35, cylinder, 36, flower board, 37 , small warehouse cover partition, 38, main shaft, 39, damper, 40, air duct, 41, connecting rod, 42, control door cylinder, 43, cylinder block.
  • the energy-saving type dust collector is composed of an intake pipe 1, a dust box 2, a separation small compartment 3, an axial flow fan 4, and a small warehouse cover 5.
  • the dust collecting bag 6 is composed of the dust collecting bag 6, and the air inlet pipe 1 is disposed in front of the dust removing box 2, and is responsible for the dust removing air intake function.
  • the plurality of separating small bins 3 are disposed on the dust removing box 2, and the axial flow fan 4 is disposed in the dust removing box 2 cleaning chamber 23 Above, the dust bag 6 is disposed in the dust box 2 below the flower board 36.
  • the inventor carried out energy-saving renovation of the dust collector of the 630 kW centrifugal fan of Ningbo Quanxing Steel Plant, and installed 24 5.5 kW axial flow fans directly on the 24 small warehouses of the dust box.
  • the middle of the dust box cleaning chamber 23 is an exhaust passage, so 24 small axial fans 4 and opposite sides are mounted on the wall of the clean room 23, and two cylinder control doors are respectively arranged at both ends of the exhaust passage, and 24 cylinder control doors were added to the 24 bins.
  • the axial fan 4 of the warehouse is stopped at the same time, and when the negative pressure in the dust box 2 is reversed to reverse the intake air, the two control doors are closed for 5 seconds, so that 23 units are closed.
  • the utility model relates to an energy-saving dust collector matched by a plurality of new axial flow fans, which is composed of an intake pipe 1, a dust box 2, a separated small warehouse 3, an axial flow fan 4, a small warehouse cover 5, a dust removal cloth bag 6, and the like, and the intake pipe 1 is arranged.
  • the dust box 2 In front of the dust box 2, it is responsible for the dust-removing air intake function.
  • the dust box 2 is provided with a plurality of compartments 3, the axial fan 4 is disposed on the dust box 2, and the dust bag 6 is disposed in the dust box. 2, under the flower board 36.
  • the inventor carried out an energy-saving retrofit on the precipitator of the original 97-kilowatt centrifugal fan of the Sun and Moon Group, and installed nine 3 kW two-wheel axial fan directly on the nine small cover 5 of the dust box.
  • the original 7.5 kW full-time anti-hair dryer it was changed to 10 seconds in an instant, and 9 sets of 3 kW two-wheel axial flow fans were rotated in reverse to increase the air volume, and the dust removal work of the dust collector was carried out.
  • the utility model relates to an energy-saving dust collector matched by a plurality of new axial flow fans, which is composed of an intake pipe 1, a dust box 2, a separated small warehouse 3, an axial flow fan 4, a small warehouse cover 5, a dust removal cloth bag 6, and the like, and the intake pipe 1 is arranged.
  • the dust-removing air intake function is carried out, and a plurality of compartments 3 are disposed on the upper surface of the dust box 2, the axial flow fan 4 is disposed on the cleaning chamber 23 in the middle of the dust box 2, and the dust cloth bag 6 is disposed in the dust removal chamber.
  • the flower board 36 Inside the box 2, below the flower board 36.
  • the inventor carried out energy-saving renovation of the original dust collector of the 800-kilowatt centrifugal fan of Yuanli Group, and installed 24 sets of 5.5-kilowatt dual-axle axial flow fans directly on the clean room 23 of 12 small compartments of the dust box. Since the working pressure of the precipitator has reached 7000pa, two 55 kW controlled pressure fans and internal and external fans will be installed in the air duct.
  • the pressure control fan is composed of a pressure control fan motor 29, a pressure control fan motor wind wheel 30, an air inlet pipe 31, a pressure control fan motor frame 32, and the like, and the pressure control fan motor 29 is placed at the center of the air inlet pipe 31.
  • the internal and external fan is composed of the motor 24 of the inner and outer fan, and the motor outer bracket 25 of the inner and outer fan.
  • the utility model relates to an energy-saving dust collector matched by a plurality of new axial flow fans, which is composed of an intake pipe 1, a dust box 2, a separated small warehouse 3, an axial flow fan 4, a small warehouse cover 5, a dust removal cloth bag 6, and the like, and the intake pipe 1 is arranged.
  • the dust-removing air intake function is carried out.
  • the upper part of the dust box 2 is provided with a plurality of compartments 3, and the axial fan 4 is disposed on the cleaning chamber 23 on the side of the dust box 2, and the dust bag 6 is disposed at Inside the dust box 2, below the flower board 36.
  • the inventor carried out an energy-saving retrofit on the dust collector of the original 55 kW centrifugal fan of Sichuan Juduan Company, and installed two 3 kW two-wheel axial flow fans directly on the clean room 23 of the six small compartments of the dust box. Due to the lack of six 0.75 kW dual impeller axial fans, they were replaced by two 3 thousand fans, and one fan configuration connected three compartments.
  • the axial-flow fan was instantaneously reversed, and the two-stage backflushing power from the exhaust to the intake air replaced the original 55 kW centrifugal fan with a 6-kilowatt axial fan.
  • the utility model relates to an energy-saving dust collector matched by a plurality of new axial flow fans, which is composed of an intake pipe 1, a dust box 2, a separated small warehouse 3, an axial flow fan 4, a small warehouse cover 5, a dust removal cloth bag 6, and the like, and the intake pipe 1 is arranged.
  • the dust-removing air intake function is carried out, and a plurality of compartments 3 are disposed on the upper surface of the dust box 2, the axial flow fan 4 is disposed on the cleaning chamber 23 in the middle of the dust box 2, and the dust cloth bag 6 is disposed in the dust removal chamber.
  • the flower board 36 Inside the box 2, below the flower board 36.
  • the inventor carried out energy-saving renovation of the dust collector of the original 800-kilowatt centrifugal fan of Zhejiang Shenlong Steel Plant, and installed 20 5.5-kilowatt dual-axle axial flow fans directly in the clean room 23 of the 20 small compartments of the dust box.
  • the control door device is composed of a main shaft 38, a damper 39, an air guiding pipe 40, a connecting rod 41, a control door cylinder 42, a cylinder block 43, and the like.
  • the damper 39 is disposed in the air inlet pipe 1 by the main shaft 38, and the connecting rod is pushed by the cylinder 42 41, reach the opening and closing of the control door.
  • the cylinder device is composed of a dust collector case 33, a cover door 34, a cylinder 35, a flower plate 36, a small cover cover plate 37, etc., and the base of the cylinder 35 is fixed with the flower plate 36 and the small cover cover plate 37, and the inner telescopic rod is The small warehouse door 29 is connected.
  • the small warehouse door 29 thus divided into compartments, under the action of the cylinder device 30, is lifted upward for 15 seconds, and the negative pressure in the dust box 2 will suck a large amount of outside air from the small warehouse door 29 into the dust box 2, which At the time, the damper device 34 controlled in the air inlet pipe 1 is closed for 3 seconds, and the total amount of suction of 20 5.5 kW dual-axle axial fans on the dust box is converted to this.
  • the amount of backwashing dust is more than 50 times that of the original high-pressure pulse. This kind of negative pressure cleaning effect is better than that of the large return air positive pressure back-blowing structure.
  • the utility model relates to an energy-saving dust collector matched by a plurality of new axial flow fans, which is composed of an intake pipe 1, a dust box 2, a separated small warehouse 3, an axial flow fan 4, a small warehouse cover 5, a dust removal cloth bag 6, and the like, and the intake pipe 1 is arranged.
  • the dust-removing air intake function is carried out.
  • the upper part of the dust box 2 is provided with a plurality of compartments 3, and the axial fan 4 is disposed on the cleaning chamber 23 on the side of the dust box 2, and the dust bag 6 is disposed at Inside the dust box 2, below the flower board 36.
  • the inventor carried out energy-saving renovation of the precipitator of the original 75 kW centrifugal fan of Jiangxi Guixi South Cement Plant, and installed 6 small compartments directly installed on the dust box with 6 2.2 kW full-cover anti-reverse axial fans.
  • the warehouse is cleaned on the room 23.
  • Fully covered backflow-proof axial flow fan consisting of anti-backflow fan outer ring 11, anti-backflow fan blade 12, anti-backflow fan inner hub 13, fan tube 14, motor bracket 15, motor 16 etc., due to impeller full coverage backflow Design, the 2.2 kW ultra-small fan has a number of blades of 20 pieces, which has reached the full coverage, and has been stacked from 30%, meeting the basic requirements of only 3,000pa for cement dust removal conditions.
  • An energy-saving dust collector matched by a plurality of new axial flow fans is composed of an intake pipe 1, a dust box 2, a small compartment 3, an axial fan 4, a small cover 5, a dust bag 6 and the like. Due to the manufacturing process of the double-layer impeller, it is more complicated than the single impeller of the above-mentioned several types of wind turbines. It has not yet been put into production, but it has been developed and produced. It is planned for the transformation of the high pressure precipitator at 5000-15000pa in the future, or super The transformation of the high pressure blower.

Abstract

一种节能型除尘器,主要由除尘箱(2)、进风管(1)、轴流风机(4)组成,该除尘器按仓室多少配置风机数量,包含贯通联仓在内、除尘箱上每一个小仓,都安装一台或几台轴流式风机。

Description

一种节能型除尘器 技术领域
本发明属于环保设备, 具体涉及一种由多款新式轴流风机配套的节能型除尘器。 背景技术
目前的除尘器, 已都有百年的历史, 如振打式、 回转反吹式、 高压脉冲式的除尘器都是 很成熟产品, 可基本满足工业除尘的技术要求。 但是这几类结构的除尘器, 主要是耗能偏高 的问题, 使处理烟尘的代价过大, 如每度耗电仅有处理 100-500立方米风量的能力, 致使全 国除尘总耗电量的和, 占社会发电总量的 6%。
现除尘器效能不高的主要原因, 源于两个方面: 一是为除尘专业配套的, 只能是离心式 风机。 离心式风机的特点是, 可解决风压较高的除尘问题, 伹每个千瓦功力处理除尘风量的 能力, 只有 100-500立方米 /小时, 而效能较低; 二是布袋清灰难彻底, 布袋过滤的阻力加 大, 增大了除尘配套功率。
离心风机效能不高的原因: 离心式风机的工作原理是, 产风的叶轮是前后两片轮毂片, 中间夹着多片风叶, 是以高速叶轮旋转产生的离心力, 将空气向四周挤。 这种离心结构的特 点是: 是挤出了高压空气, 可产生 2000-15000pa 的高压空气, 但其风量仅为轴流风机量的 几十分之一。
布袋除尘技术的难点是清灰问题: 因灰尘在过虑时越集越厚, 后经过的空气, 要先过灰 尘的间隙才能到达布袋内被排出, 这样清灰尘不好的就得多增加风机功力, 因此落灰方法成 为除尘器的关键技术。目前脉冲高压反吹技术是最好的除尘器,虽然比前几种老式的效果好, 但因高压空气的压缩与风机产气不同, 消耗的动力有三百倍之差, 有效产量少, 在使用中高 压空气释放的倍率仅为 8倍, 反吹的风量很少而落灰不彻底, 布袋上的灰尘还常有两三毫米 厚, 空气过虑的阻力仍会是除尘袋层的几倍。
发明内容
本发明的目的在于提供一种节能型除尘器, 在以下三个方面对其结构进行了创新: 一、 改变现有除尘器采用向四周挤空气的高耗能离心式风机的方式, 采用向前直接推空 气的高效率轴流风机。
轴流风机的工作原理相当于电风扇,是叶片小角度将空气向前推,以点带面式而风量大, 是离心风机风量的数十倍。 目前除尘器的正常工况压力, 是在 2000-15000pa, 因现在的轴流 风机的压力, 大多在 50-600pa之间, 即使是最高压的混流型风机, 其风压也只在 800-1500pa 之间。 因此, 若达到 1500pa工况的, 将都使用了离心风机。 所以用于除尘器配套的是离心 风机, 而不是轴流风机。 怎样才能让将空气向前推的轴流风机, 也能配套于除尘器, 取代耗 能高的离心风机,是本发明需要解决的技术问题。采用的方法一是提高轴流风机的升压能力; 二是采取降低除尘器工况的压力。
提高轴流风机的升压能力, 通过实践有三个途径:
1、 轴流风机采用重叠防倒流的叶轮, 这种叶轮的特点是, 叶片数量在 13-200片, 是原 混流风机叶片数的 3-20倍, 叶片数的增多, 除直接增加向前推空气的有效面积外; 叶片多 了, 叶片与叶片之间就会重叠, 其密度的加大可缩小叶片与叶片之间的工作距离, 可达到控 制高压空气从大缝隙中倒流的问题, 达到了上述技术要点的叶轮, 就能适配 2000-4000pa工 况的除尘器。
2、 轴流风机采用重叠防倒流的双层复合式叶轮, 这种叶轮的特点是, 一层数量少的宽 叶片, 再配一层加 2-50倍的窄叶片, 两层组合, 宽叶在前引风进入, 蜜度高的窄叶片防倒 流将空气向前推可提高效能, 如配用双层叶轮的轴流风机, 就能适配 4000-15000pa工况的 除尘器。
3、 轴流风机采用多个叶轮联组升压, 在电机的轴的两头各配一个比斜流风机叶片密度 更大的叶轮, 这种轴流风机就能适配 3000-5000pa工况的除尘器。
二、 采用新结构, 降低除尘工况的压力。
从实践得知, 风压的增加和汽车速度的增加, 有相同的耗功递增情况。 如汽车时速五十 公里与二百公里的时速, 不是简单的四倍, 而是功力要增加十至二十倍, 才能达到增加四倍 的速度。 除尘器原来除尘工况压力无论有多大, 都会由最后耗能高的离心风机来解决, 但为 了节能, 降低风压, 也会是间接地降低耗能。 另外己做过试验风机压力增加一倍, 所需耗功 的实践证明, 会增加三至五倍。 为此, 减压对除尘功力的下降非常重要, 有两类措施可降低 除尘器的风压。
1、 控压措施。
除尘器工况的压力来源于两部分: 一是除尘布袋的过滤阻力; 二是管道内风速运动与管 道壁摩擦的阻力, 才将进口的常压逐渐生成了 1000-5000 pa的高压, 与布袋的过滤阻力二者 合一后, 生成了高压除尘的工况。 为此, 可在除尘器进风管内, 分段安装多台风压在 500 pa 以下的高效大风量轴流风机, 使管道内的风压始终压制在 500pa以内, 甚至到达除尘箱内的 是常压或正压, 可将总压力控制在 3000 pa以下, 这样最后引风除尘, 可采用效能高的 3000 pa以下轴流风机。 如采用中低压的轴流风机, 从配置上就己经节能了。
2、 降压措施。
除尘布袋在工作中灰尘会越结越多, 所以产生了振打清灰、 回转反吹清灰、 高压空气脉 冲反吹的多种清灰技术, 现以脉冲清灰推广最多。 伹从实践看, 多数除尘器布袋上还有 2-3 毫米厚的灰尘, 其阻力还和布袋层相当, 少数除尘器的布袋灰尘的厚度可达 5-8毫米, 是布 袋阻力的二三倍。 如将灰尘厚度控制在 1毫米以内, 就能将工况压力降下 1000-3000pa, 一 是可直接将配置功力降下来, 二是间接可配置效能更高的低压轴流风机。彻底解决清灰可有 两种结构可选用。
( 1 )、 用除尘排出的空气进行大回风, 分仓轮流反吹。 在风机的出风口设控制门, 将排 出的风量集中用于轮流反吹除尘器上的的单个小仓室,对布袋有超过高空脉冲数倍的反吹能 力, 实践也证明了其清灰能力远大于高压空气脉冲反吹效果。
(2)、 负压反吸清灰。 在除尘器进风管上设一道由气缸控制的门, 在除尘箱上的小仓盖 上, 设由气缸开启装置。 将分室仓盖轮流打开时, 对主管道门瞬间关闭, 使除尘风机负压所 吸的空气, 仅是从一个小仓的布袋内进入, 其负压反吸量是高压脉冲反吹量的数十倍, 清灰 效果特佳。
这两种清灰方式, 都是借用主风机的超大风量, 超过高压脉冲反吹的效果; 同时也节省 了配套生产高压空气的动力。 清灰用的高压空气, 由空压机生产, 配套空压相功力的配置, 正常是主风机配置的 10-30%。
三、 风机直接安装在除尘箱上, 将减轻除尘的总压力。
目前除尘器的通用结构是, 除尘箱设在中段, 除尘箱前有很长的引风管, 除尘箱后有一 段落地的风机引管, 风机后还有一段 10-20多米的排风管。 现将除尘器由传统的只配置一台 落地的离心风机, 改为有多少仓, 就安装多少台风机, 这种结构将除尘器, 由一台除尘器配 置一台风机, 改变成了一台除尘器, 必须配置 4台以上, 甚至是 36台风机。 这种配置的变 化, 可使风管的总长度减少 20-50%, 可使除尘压力下降 10-30%, 节省功力 10-30%。
本发明采用以下技术方案:
一种节能型除尘器, 主要由除尘箱、 进风管、 轴流风机组成, 其特征在于: 按仓室多少 配置风机数量, 除尘箱上每一个小仓, 包含贯通联仓, 安装一台或几台轴流式风机, 改变了 现有技术中一台除尘器, 由风管引入仅配置一台大风机的基本结构。 所述的轴流式风机, 安 装在除尘箱顶上直接排气, 会减少风管总长度 20-50%, 可使除尘压力下降 10-30%, 节省功 力 10-30%
进一步地, 所述的轴流风机, 由风筒、 电机、 支架、 叶轮组成, 叶轮采用重叠防倒流的 结构, 重叠防倒流的结构的特征在于: 叶片数量达到了 13-200。 本发明区别于现有混流风机 叶片数的 7-12片, 将叶片增多的作用是, 多重叠可缩小叶片与叶片之间的距离, 其叶片与 叶片之间全覆盖在推气时, 可控制高压空气在向前推的过程中, 从大缝隙中倒流的问题, 是 可以产生 2000-4000pa中高压空气的。
在一个优选的实施例中, 所述的轴流风机的叶轮, 由内轮毂、 外环、 宽叶片、 窄叶片等 组成, 轴流风机采用双层叶片组合的叶轮, 其中窄叶片数量, 是宽叶片数量的 2-50倍。 数 量少的宽叶片轮在前承担进气, 密度高的窄叶轮将空气向后推排气, 可彻底解决高压空气倒 流的问题, 是可产生 4000-15000pa压力的高压空气的新型轴流式风机結构。
在另一个优选的实施例中, 所述的轴流风机包括风筒、 电机、 支架、 叶轮, 叶轴在电机 两头各设一个叶轮。 区别于现轴流风机的一台电机一个叶轮结构, 和遂道送风的轴流风机, 是风筒內两台电机, 两个叶轮同向挨在一起的结构。
在第三个优选的实施例中, 所述的轴流风机, 为组合式风机, 由电机、支架座、输出轴、 风轮、风轮圈组成, 电机由支架座安装在除尘箱外,风轮和风轮圈安装在除尘箱的清洁室下, 由电机输出轴联接。
在第四个优选的实施例中, 所述轴流风机, 由电机、 风轮、 支架组成, 风轮直接安装于 电机上, 由支架安装在除尘箱前的进风管内, 可在进风管内分段安装多台。 这种控制风管内 风压上升的控压风机组, 可使较长管道内的大流量空气, 仍能控制在常圧状态。 所述的轴流 风机, 由内外装式风机的电机, 内外装式风机的电机外支架, 内外装式电机输出轴, 内外装 式风机的风轮内支架, 内外装式风机的风轮等组成, 电机由外支架设置在进风管的拐弯处, 而风轮输出轴由内支架设置在进风管内, 从而推动空气轴向运动。
所述除尘箱, 由除尘仓、 清洁仓、 除尘布袋、 若干个小仓盖等组成, 其特征在于: 在清 洁仓上的部分小仓盖, 设置气缸控制系统, 最佳配置方案是, 每个小仓盖配两个气缸, 气缸 的活动杆与小仓盖固定,气缸座与清洁室的分隔墙板或底部花板固定,发挥气缸的伸缩作用, 从而将小仓盖形成了具有风门关和开的作用, 所述的进风管, 其特征在于: 在进风管内增设 一道由气缸控制的风门装置, 所述的气缸装置, 其特征在于: 进风管内一个控制门的气缸装 置, 和多个小仓盖内的气缸, 皆由一个 PLC编程控制器控制, 形成除尘箱体的小仓盖, 可 打开最佳吋间是 10-50秒, 除尘箱仓内的负压,会从小仓门打开的缝中,倒进气进入除尘袋, 反吹清理除尘袋上灰尘时, 此时, 进风管内控制门装置关闭 2-3秒, 可使除尘风机负压的总 风量, 瞬间都通过一个小仓门进入一个除尘小仓内的除尘袋上, 可使负压反清灰的风量, 瞬 间增加四至十数倍, 可保证清灰效果超过高压脉冲反清灰的能力, 由 PLC编程控制器控制, 将主风管的风门装置与除尘箱内的各个小仓的气缸实现相互配合, 轮流各小仓开关门, 运用 这套配合的结构, 促成由主风机负压清灰的技术, 将节省为清灰而生产高压空气的动力。 附图说明
图 1为除尘箱上配置多台轴流风机示意图。
图 2为双层风轮结构示意图。
图 3为双层风轮剖示图。
图 4全覆盖防高压倒流风轮的结构示意图。
图 5电机双风轮轴流风机结构示意图。
图 6组合式风机结构示意图。
图 7进气风管内控压风机组设置图。
图 8小仓盖在气缸作用下变负压反清灰进气门的结构示意图。
图 9进风管设控制门装置的结构示意图。
图中: 1、 进气管, 2、 除尘箱, 3、 分隔小仓, 4轴流风机, 5、 小仓盖, 6、 除尘布袋, 7、 外环, 8、 宽叶片, 9、 窄叶片, 10、 内轮毂, 11、 防倒流风机外环, 12、 防倒流风机叶 片, 13、 防倒流风机内轮毂, 14、 风机筒, 15、 电机支架, 16、 电机, 17、 双叶轮, 18、 除 尘箱上内风道, 19、 内风道处风轮圈, 20、 电机输出轴, 21、 组合式风机的电机, 22、 组合 式风机的叶片, 23、 清洁仓, 24、 内外装式风机的电机, 25、 内外装式风机的电机外支架, 26、 内外装式电机输出轴, 27、 内外装式风机的风轮内支架, 28、 内外装式风机的风轮, 29、 控压风机组电机, 30、 控压风机组电机风轮, 31、 引风管, 32、 控压风机组电机架, 33、 除 尘器箱体, 34、 仓盖门, 35、 气缸, 36、 花板, 37、 小仓盖隔板, 38、 主轴, 39、 风门, 40、 引风管, 41、 连杆, 42、 控制门气缸, 43、 气缸座。
具体实施方式
实施例 1
如图所示的节能型除尘器, 由进气管 1、 除尘箱 2、分隔小仓 3、轴流风机 4、小仓盖 5、 除尘布袋 6等组成, 进气管 1 设置在除尘箱 2的前面, 承担着除尘的进气功能, 除尘箱 2 的上面设置多个分隔小仓 3, 轴流风机 4设置在除尘箱 2清洁仓 23上, 除尘布袋 6设置在 除尘箱 2内, 花板 36之下。 发明人对宁波全兴钢厂的配 630千瓦离心式风机的除尘器, 进 行节能改造, 将 24台 5.5千瓦轴流风机, 直接安装在除尘箱的 24个小仓上。 原除尘箱清洁 室 23中间为排风通道, 所以将 24台小轴流风机 4、 对置侧装在清洁室 23壁上, 在排风通 道的两头, 各设置了两扇气缸控制门, 并对 24仓加设了 24个气缸控制门。 当其中一个小仓 盖打开 30秒时, 本仓的轴流风机 4同时停机后, 会被除尘箱 2内负压倒吸成反转进气时, 两头控制门关闭 5秒钟, 使 23台风机的所有排风全部进入一个小仓进行反清灰, 其清灰效 果大大好于原来配置的高压脉冲反吹清灰效果。 只因除尘袋 6的老灰层被清掉, 所以, 才有 用 1 32千瓦双叶轮轴流风机, 取代了原 630千瓦离心风机的成功。
实施例 2
一种由多款新式轴流风机配套的节能型除尘器, 由进气管 1、 除尘箱 2、 分隔小仓 3、 轴流风机 4、 小仓盖 5、 除尘布袋 6等组成, 进气管 1设置在除尘箱 2的前面, 承担着除尘 的进气功能, 除尘箱 2的上面设置多个分隔小仓 3, 轴流风机 4设置在除尘箱 2仓盖门 34 上, 除尘布袋 6设置在除尘箱 2内, 花板 36之下。 发明人对日月集团的原配 97千瓦离心 式风机的除尘器, 进行节能改造, 将 9台 3千瓦双轮轴流风机, 直接安装在除尘箱的 9个小 仓盖 5上。 利用原来的一台 7.5千瓦专职反吹风机, 改为瞬间 10秒钟, 与 9台 3千瓦双轮 轴流风机, 轮流配合反转加大了风量, 进行了除尘器的清灰工作。
实施例 3
一种由多款新式轴流风机配套的节能型除尘器, 由进气管 1、 除尘箱 2、 分隔小仓 3、 轴流风机 4、 小仓盖 5、 除尘布袋 6等组成, 进气管 1设置在除尘箱 2的前面, 承担着除尘 的进气功能, 除尘箱 2的上面设置多个分隔小仓 3, 轴流风机 4设置在除尘箱 2中间的清洁 仓 23上, 除尘布袋 6设置在除尘箱 2内, 花板 36之下。 发明人对元立集团的原配 800千 瓦离心式风机的除尘器, 进行节能改造, 将 24台 5.5千瓦双轮轴流风机, 直接安装在除尘 箱的 1 2个小隔仓的清洁室 23上, 由于本除尘器的工况压力己达 7000pa, 为此, 将在引风 管内安装两台 55千瓦控压式风机和内外装式风机。 控压风机由控压风机组电机 29, 控压风 机组电机风轮 30, 引风管 31, 控压风机组电机架 32等组成, 控压风机组电机 29置于引风 管 31 的中心位置, 安装在风机组电机架 32上, 控压风机组电机风轮 30与控压风机组电机 29轴上直接安装。内外装式风机由内外装式风机的电机 24,内外装式风机的电机外支架 25, 内外装式电机输出轴 26, 内外装式风机的风轮内支架 27, 内外装式风机的风轮 28等组成, 将内外装式风机的电机 24, 由内外装式风机的电机外支架 25, 安装在引风管 36的拐弯处, 内外装式电机输出轴 26, 将内外装式风机的风轮 28, 置于内外装式风机的风轮内支架 27 上。
实施例 4
一种由多款新式轴流风机配套的节能型除尘器, 由进气管 1、 除尘箱 2、 分隔小仓 3、 轴流风机 4、 小仓盖 5、 除尘布袋 6等组成, 进气管 1设置在除尘箱 2的前面, 承担着除尘 的进气功能, 除尘箱 2的上面设置多个分隔小仓 3, 轴流风机 4设置在除尘箱 2边上的清洁 仓 23上, 除尘布袋 6设置在除尘箱 2内, 花板 36之下。 发明人对四川巨端公司的原配 55 千瓦离心式风机的除尘器, 进行节能改造, 将 2台 3千瓦双轮轴流风机, 直接安装在除尘箱 的 6个小隔仓的清洁室 23上, 由于缺适配的 6台 0.75千瓦双叶轮轴流风机, 因而由两台 3 千风机替代,一台风机配置将三个分隔仓联通。利用原高压脉冲装置,加轴流风机瞬间反转, 由排气改为进气的两股反吹清灰力量, 使得用 6个千瓦轴流风机, 成功取代了原 55千瓦离 心式风机。
实施例 5
一种由多款新式轴流风机配套的节能型除尘器, 由进气管 1、 除尘箱 2、 分隔小仓 3、 轴流风机 4、 小仓盖 5、 除尘布袋 6等组成, 进气管 1设置在除尘箱 2的前面, 承担着除尘 的进气功能, 除尘箱 2的上面设置多个分隔小仓 3, 轴流风机 4设置在除尘箱 2中间的清洁 仓 23上, 除尘布袋 6设置在除尘箱 2内, 花板 36之下。 发明人对浙江神龙钢厂的, 原配 800千瓦离心式风机的除尘器, 进行节能改造, 将 20台 5.5千瓦双轮轴流风机, 直接安装 在除尘箱的 20个小隔仓的清洁室 23上, 在进风管 1 內安装 4台 22千瓦控压式风机组, 在 进风管 1 内安装控制门装置。 控制门装置由主轴 38, 风门 39, 引风管 40, 连杆 41, 控制 门气缸 42, 气缸座 43等组成, 风门 39由主轴 38设置在进风管 1 内, 外由气缸 42推动连 杆 41, 达到控制门的开和闭。对除尘箱上的 40个的小仓盖 5, 其中一半的 20个小仓门 29, 配置 40个气缸装置 30。 气缸装置由除尘器箱体 33, 仓盖门 34, 气缸 35, 花板 36, 小仓 盖隔板 37等组成, 气缸 35底座与花板 36和小仓盖隔板 37固定, 内伸缩杆与小仓门 29连 接。 这样分仓的小仓门 29, 在气缸装置 30的作用下, 向上顶开 15秒钟后, 除尘箱 2内的 负压, 会将大量外部空气从小仓门 29, 吸入除尘箱 2内, 这时将在进风管 1 内控制的风门 装置 34关闭 3秒种, 除尘箱上的 20台 5.5千瓦双轮轴流风机的吸风总量, 全部转换到这 20仓中的 1仓, 其反吹清灰风量是原高压脉冲反吹风量的五十倍以上, 这种负压清灰效果, 又优于大回风正压反吹结构的效果。
实施例 6
一种由多款新式轴流风机配套的节能型除尘器, 由进气管 1、 除尘箱 2、 分隔小仓 3、 轴流风机 4、 小仓盖 5、 除尘布袋 6等组成, 进气管 1设置在除尘箱 2的前面, 承担着除尘 的进气功能, 除尘箱 2的上面设置多个分隔小仓 3, 轴流风机 4设置在除尘箱 2边上的清洁 仓 23上, 除尘布袋 6设置在除尘箱 2内, 花板 36之下。 发明人对江西贵溪南方水泥厂的, 原配 75千瓦离心式风机的除尘器, 进行节能改造, 用 6台 2.2千瓦全覆盖防倒的轴流风机, 直接安装在除尘箱上的 6个小隔仓的清洁室 23上。 全覆盖防倒流的轴流风机, 由防倒流风 机外环 11, 防倒流风机叶片 12, 防倒流风机内轮毂 13, 风机筒 14, 电机支架 15, 电机 16 等组成, 由于叶轮为全覆盖防倒流设计, 2.2千瓦的超小型风机的叶片数也达 20片, 达到 了全覆盖, 还从叠了 30%, 满足了水泥除尘工况仅有 3000pa的基本要求。
一种由多款新式轴流风机配套的节能型除尘器, 由进气管 1、 除尘箱 2、 分隔小仓 3、轴 流风机 4、 小仓盖 5、 除尘布袋 6等组成。 由于双层叶轮的制造工艺, 比上述介绍的几种风 机的单个叶轮复杂一些, 还尚未投入生产, 但已有开发生产计划, 今后规划用于在 5000-15000pa高压力除尘器的改造, 或超高压鼓风机的改造中。
本技术领域中的普通技术人员应当认识到, 以上的实施例仅是用来说明本发明, 每一项 技术可单独实施, 也可组合实施, 所以并非作为对本发明的限定, 只要在本发明的实质范围 内, 对以上所述实施例的变化、 变型都将落在本发明权利要求书的范围内。

Claims

权利要求书
1、 一种节能型除尘器, 主要由除尘箱、 进风管、 轴流风机组成, 其特征在于: 按仓室多少配置风机数量, 包含贯通联仓在内、 除尘箱上每一个小仓, 都安装一台或 几台轴流式风机。
2、 根据权利要求 1所述的节能型除尘器, 其特征在于: 所述轴流电机包括风筒、 电机、 支架、 叶轮, 其中叶轮采用重叠防倒流的结构, 叶片数量为 13-200片。
3、 根据权利要求 1所述的节能型除尘器, 其特征在于, 所述轴流风机包括内轮 毂、 外环、 宽叶片、 窄叶片, 轴流风机采用双层叶片组合的叶轮, 其中窄叶片数量, 是宽叶片数量的 2-50倍。
4、 根据权利要求 1所述的节能型除尘器, 其特征在于, 所述轴流风机包括风筒、 电机、 支架、 叶轮, 其中电机两头各设一个叶轮。
5、 根据权利要求 1所述节能型除尘器, 其特征在于, 所述轴流风机为组合式风 机, 由电机、 支架座、 输出轴、 风轮、 风轮圈组成, 电机由支架座安装在除尘箱外, 风轮和风轮圈安装在除尘箱的清洁室下, 由电机输出轴联接。
6、 根据权利要求 1所述节能型除尘器, 其特征在于, 所述轴流风机由电机、 风 轮、 支架组成, 风轮直接安装于电机上, 由支架安装在除尘箱前的进风管内, 可在进 风管内分段安装多台。
7、 根据权利要求 1所述节能型除尘器, 其特征在于, 所述除尘箱由除尘仓、 清 洁仓、除尘布袋、若干个小仓盖组成,在清洁仓上的部分小仓盖, 设置气缸控制系统, 每个小仓盖配两个气缸, 气缸的活动杆与小仓盖固定, 气缸座与清洁室的分隔墙板或 底部花板固定; 在进风管内增设一道由气缸控制的风门装置, 进风管内一个控制门的 气缸装置, 和多个小仓盖内的气缸, 均由一个 PLC编程控制器控制, 形成除尘箱体 的小仓盖与进气管内控制门联动结构。
PCT/CN2014/079354 2013-08-06 2014-06-06 一种节能型除尘器 WO2015018230A1 (zh)

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