WO2014059948A9 - 一种电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统 - Google Patents

一种电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统 Download PDF

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WO2014059948A9
WO2014059948A9 PCT/CN2013/086491 CN2013086491W WO2014059948A9 WO 2014059948 A9 WO2014059948 A9 WO 2014059948A9 CN 2013086491 W CN2013086491 W CN 2013086491W WO 2014059948 A9 WO2014059948 A9 WO 2014059948A9
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power
power generation
energy storage
control unit
unit
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PCT/CN2013/086491
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English (en)
French (fr)
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WO2014059948A1 (zh
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蒋志祥
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Jiang Zhixiang
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Publication of WO2014059948A9 publication Critical patent/WO2014059948A9/zh

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/34Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering
    • H02J7/35Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering with light sensitive cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion systems, e.g. maximum power point trackers

Definitions

  • the invention relates to the storage of electric energy and the fields of off-grid, grid-connected inverter power generation, etc., specifically refers to storing solar energy and grid electrical energy in an energy storage device (such as a battery pack), and then off-grid or grid-connected inverter when needed.
  • an energy storage device such as a battery pack
  • renewable resources have some drawbacks, and one major drawback is its dependence on geographic location. For example, the best place to get solar energy is in the desert. However, many of the customers who need it will not be living in these dry areas. Wind power is also facing geographical problems. The best available wind energy is in the Midwest and Great Plains of the United States. Similarly, most of this energy consumer is not in these areas.
  • Another disadvantage of renewable energy is its intermittent nature. When an accident occurs and the wind speed drops, the coal-fired power plant needs more extra energy to make up for the power generation. However, coal-fired power plants cannot rapidly increase their raw material supply to offset the effects of lack of wind energy. Therefore, energy storage systems and renewable energy sources are needed to offset the effects of intermittent.
  • an energy storage device is needed to address peak energy usage issues and intermittent problems with renewable resources.
  • the battery's energy storage system (BES) is affected.
  • An effective BES system can provide additional energy during periods of heavy energy consumption and intermittent periods of renewable resources.
  • Distributed energy storage systems combined with renewable energy and coal-fired power generation can help the grid operate more efficiently while ensuring cost-effectiveness.
  • the currently used solar energy utilization modes mainly include the photovoltaic utilization mode of small off-grid power generation in Figure 1, the photovoltaic utilization mode of large-scale photovoltaic power generation on-grid generation in Figure 2 and the large-scale energy storage power station in Figure 3.
  • photovoltaic utilization modes mainly include the photovoltaic utilization mode of small off-grid power generation in Figure 1, the photovoltaic utilization mode of large-scale photovoltaic power generation on-grid generation in Figure 2 and the large-scale energy storage power station in Figure 3.
  • the small-scale photovoltaic off-grid power generation utilization mode in Figure 1 is suitable for applications such as street lamps, billboards, small-scale photovoltaic building integration, and residential roof power generation. Because the power grid is not scheduled, the stored electrical energy may be consumed without load for a long time. The solar cell array cannot store energy to the battery pack or supply power to the load, resulting in great waste and low system economy.
  • the grid-connected power generation utilization mode of the large-scale photovoltaic power station in Figure 2 is applied more.
  • the scale of such photovoltaic power plants is still relatively small, and the impact of grid-connected power generation on the power grid is still relatively small.
  • Photovoltaic power generation is extremely unstable. During the day, there is no night, even during the day, it is extremely unstable. Therefore, it is difficult to dispatch and manage the power supply system.
  • the large-scale energy storage power station of Figure 3 is formed to alleviate the power supply scheduling problem.
  • the grid load is heavy, the energy stored in the large energy storage unit array or the energy generated by the solar array can be connected to the grid for power generation.
  • the grid load is light, the excess power of the grid can be temporarily stored.
  • This kind of utilization mode can alleviate the problem of power supply scheduling.
  • investing in the construction of such a large-scale energy storage power station requires large blocks of land and many large-scale energy storage batteries, which conflict with the current situation of increasingly tight land resources, and large-scale energy storage batteries.
  • the security of centralized configuration also needs to be considered.
  • the technical problem to be solved by the present invention is: ()) solving the problem that the photovoltaic power generation system reduces the solar energy utilization rate due to the short-board effect of the solar battery;
  • the technical solution adopted by the circuit of the present invention is:
  • the power distributed energy storage device and the control system thereof comprise a system main control unit and an inverter unit, an off-grid/grid control unit, and additionally comprise one or more power generation devices, corresponding to the number of power generation devices
  • the power generation device, the energy storage unit, and the power generation/storage control unit are a group, each group is disposed in an area, and the three functional modules share one inverter unit and one off-grid/grid control unit, and are collected through the connection line. To the inverter unit.
  • each module that is, the power generation device adopts a solar cell array or a wind power generator set or a combination of the two, and the connection with the power generation/storage control unit is controlled by the unit;
  • the energy storage unit is composed of a storage device such as a battery or a super capacitor.
  • Parallel composition connected with the power generation/storage control unit is controlled by the unit to realize the storage of electric energy;
  • the power generation/storage control unit communicates with the system main control unit, and receives the command of the system main control unit to realize the conversion of the electric energy in the system;
  • the conversion includes two-way power conversion between the power grid and the energy storage unit, power conversion from the power generation device to the power grid, the power generation device to the AC load, the power generation device to the energy storage unit, and the energy storage unit to the AC load; and the energy storage unit And its own state information is sent to the system main control unit,
  • the inverter unit adopts a bidirectional inverter circuit, and is connected with each power generation/storage control unit, and is controlled by the system main control unit to complete the bidirectional power conversion between the power grid and the energy storage unit.
  • the power generation device to the grid the power generation device to the AC load, storage
  • the off-grid/grid control unit is connected between the inverter unit and the AC load, and is controlled by the system main control unit to realize the AC load and the power supply switching of the power grid, each sub-switch
  • the system can be configured in a separate building area.
  • system control unit communicates with the power grid monitoring and dispatching system, and is coordinated by the power grid monitoring and dispatching system to control the direction of the power in the system.
  • the energy storage unit is internally provided with a battery management system (BMS); the power generation I energy storage control unit further communicates with a battery management system (BMS) of the energy storage unit to implement state monitoring of the energy storage unit.
  • BMS battery management system
  • the system of the invention can realize the storage and utilization of a plurality of surplus electric energy, thereby realizing the function of peak regulation and valley adjustment of the power grid; the function design of each module is independent and perfect, and the functions of each module complement each other, and are applied in a large-scale energy storage power station.
  • a unit device fails, only the energy storage and power generation units directly related to the equipment cannot work normally, and will not have a great impact on the entire system.
  • the engineering and cost of maintenance and maintenance are relatively small;
  • key components such as a power generation device, an energy storage unit, a power generation/storage control unit, and an inverter unit may be dispersedly arranged on a roof, a curtain wall, and an idle land of a certain area. There is no need to open up additional land to install these power generation equipment and save resources;
  • the system of the invention can cancel the lightning protection combiner box that must be configured in the existing solar power inverter system, and can cancel the maximum power point tracking function of the inverter unit, and change to the power generation/storage control unit By completing these functions, it is possible to ensure that each of the power generating devices operates near their respective maximum power points to improve the power generation efficiency of the power generating device.
  • Figure 1 is a schematic block diagram of the principle of photovoltaic utilization mode for small and medium off-grid power generation in the prior art
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a photovoltaic utilization mode principle of a large-scale photovoltaic power plant grid-connected power generation in the prior art
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a photovoltaic utilization mode of a large-scale energy storage power station in the prior art
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of the composition principle of the power distributed energy storage device and the control system thereof according to the present invention
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram showing the composition principle of another embodiment of the power distributed energy storage device and the control system thereof according to the present invention
  • Figure 6 is a second schematic view of the present invention.
  • Figure 7 is a third schematic view of the present invention.
  • Figure 8 is a fourth schematic view of the present invention.
  • Figure 9 is a fifth schematic view of the present invention. detailed description
  • the power distributed energy storage device and the control system thereof comprise a system main control unit and an inverter unit, an off-grid/grid control unit, and additionally include one or more Power generation device, energy storage unit corresponding to the number of power generation devices, and number of corresponding power generation devices A quantity of power generation / energy storage control unit.
  • the above-mentioned power generation device, energy storage unit, and power generation/storage control unit are a group, each group is disposed in an area, and the three functional modules share one inverter unit and one off-grid/grid control unit through the connection. The lines are collected to the inverter unit.
  • each module is similar to that of the previous one, that is, the power generation device adopts a solar cell array or a wind power generator set or a combination of the two, and the connection with the power generation/storage control unit is controlled by the unit;
  • the energy storage unit is composed of a battery or a super capacitor.
  • the energy storage device is composed of series and parallel, and is connected with the power generation/storage control unit to be controlled by the unit to realize the storage of electric energy; the power generation/storage control unit communicates with the system main control unit, and receives the command of the system main control unit to realize the conversion of the electric energy in the system.
  • the conversion of the electric energy includes two-way electric energy conversion between the power grid and the energy storage unit, power conversion from the power generation device to the power grid, the power generation device to the AC load, the power generation device to the energy storage unit, and the energy storage unit to the AC load;
  • the energy storage unit and its own status information are sent to the system control unit.
  • the inverter unit adopts a bidirectional inverter circuit and is connected to each power generation/storage control unit.
  • the two-way power conversion between the power grid and the energy storage unit is controlled by the system master control unit, and the power generation device communicates to the power grid and the power generation device.
  • the electrical energy converted by the load and the energy storage unit to the electrical energy of the alternating current load.
  • the off-grid/grid control unit is connected between the inverter unit and the AC load, and is controlled by the system master control unit to realize the AC load and the grid power supply and power switch.
  • Each subsystem can be configured in a separate building area.
  • system control unit communicates with the power grid monitoring and dispatching system, and is coordinated by the power grid monitoring and dispatching system to control the direction of the power in the system.
  • the energy storage unit is internally provided with a battery management system (BMS); the power generation I energy storage control unit further communicates with a battery management system (BMS) of the energy storage unit to implement state monitoring of the energy storage unit.
  • BMS battery management system
  • the system of the invention can realize the storage and utilization of a plurality of surplus electric energy, thereby realizing the function of peak regulation and valley adjustment of the power grid; the function design of each module is independent and perfect, and the functions of each module complement each other, and are applied in a large-scale energy storage power station.
  • a unit device fails, only the energy storage and power generation units directly related to the equipment cannot work normally, and will not have a great impact on the entire system.
  • the engineering and cost of maintenance and maintenance are relatively small;
  • key components such as a power generation device, an energy storage unit, a power generation/storage control unit, and an inverter unit may be dispersedly arranged on a roof, a curtain wall, and an idle land of a certain area. There is no need to open up additional land to install these power generation equipment and save resources;
  • the system of the invention can cancel the lightning protection combiner box that must be configured in the existing solar power inverter system, and can cancel the maximum power point tracking function of the inverter unit, and change to the power generation/storage control unit By completing these functions, it is possible to ensure that each of the power generating devices operates near their respective maximum power points to improve the power generation efficiency of the power generating device.
  • the power distributed energy storage device and the control system thereof include a power generation device A, a power generation/storage control unit, an energy storage unit (inverter unit B, an off-grid/grid control unit) , system master control unit, grid monitoring and dispatching system.
  • the utility model is applied to a large-scale energy storage power station application system, wherein the power generation/storage control unit is connected with the power generation device A, the energy storage unit (the AC power grid, the system main control unit, and the power generation/storage control unit passes the communication line) Communicate with the battery management system (BMS) of the energy storage unit, monitor the state of the energy storage unit, communicate with the system control unit through the communication line, receive the command of the system control unit, and send the energy storage unit and the power generation device to the system control unit.
  • BMS battery management system
  • Power generation device 1, energy storage unit 1, power generation/energy storage control unit 1 are arranged in area one; power generation device 2, energy storage unit 2, power generation/energy storage control unit 2 are arranged in area two
  • the power generation device 12, the energy storage unit 12, the power generation I energy storage control unit 12 are disposed in the area N, and are arranged in the area one, two, ... N power generation / energy storage control unit 1, 2, ...
  • the outputs of 12 are connected in parallel, as the input to the inverter unit, the inverter unit is connected to the system master control unit, the AC grid, and the off-grid/grid control unit.
  • the unit receives the command of the total control unit of the system, and operates in an off-grid mode that supplies power to the load when the load is needed.
  • the power generation device can generate electricity and the grid has scheduling requirements
  • the grid-connected mode of generating electricity to the grid is operated in the power generation device.
  • the power generation/storage control unit 1, 2, ... n can receive the command of the system control unit, and the power of the grid is corrected by rectification and power factor, and the high frequency is converted to the energy storage unit 1, 2 , ... n energy storage, through the reasonable scheduling of the grid monitoring and dispatching system, can achieve the function of peaking and valley adjustment of the AC grid.
  • the inverter unit no longer integrates the function of maximum power tracking, but will maximize the power tracking.
  • the function is added to the power generation/storage control unit, so that the power generation devices generate power at their respective maximum powers, thereby maximizing the power generation efficiency of the entire power generation device system.
  • the above distributed energy storage inverter system has at least six modes of operation, which will be described in detail below with reference to FIG.
  • Mode 1 The power generation mode of the power generation device. Under the condition that the power generation device is generating normally, the energy storage unit is insufficient, the power grid monitoring and dispatching system is not dispatching instructions, and the AC load is not working, the power generation device can control the energy storage to the energy storage unit through the power generation/storage control unit.
  • the power generation/storage control unit communicates with the BMS system of the energy storage unit to intelligently monitor the state of the energy storage unit in real time to ensure safe and reliable energy storage.
  • Mode 2 Grid energy storage mode. In the case that the power generation device cannot generate electricity, the energy storage unit is insufficient, and the grid load is not heavy, the power grid monitoring and dispatching system issues an instruction, and the power generation/storage control unit internal charging control module starts to work, and the grid power is stored in the energy storage unit. .
  • Mode 3 The mode in which the power generation device can generate both the simultaneous and the grid-connected inverter. Under the condition that the new energy power generation device has normal power generation, the energy storage unit has insufficient power, the power grid monitoring and dispatching system has dispatching instructions, and the AC load does not work, the electric energy generated by the power generating device is controlled by the power generation/storage control unit to the energy storage unit. At the same time, the power generation/storage control unit outputs stable DC power and is connected to the grid for power generation.
  • Mode 4 The mode in which the power generation device can generate both the simultaneous and off-grid inverter power generation. This mode differs from mode three in that the inverter unit is not connected to the grid and only supplies power to the AC load in the area.
  • Mode 5 The mode of stored power connected to the grid to generate electricity.
  • the power generation device cannot generate electricity, the energy storage unit has sufficient power, and the grid load is heavy, the power grid monitoring and dispatching system issues an instruction, and the stored power is connected to the grid through the power generation/storage control unit and the inverter unit.
  • Mode 6 The mode of stored electrical energy off-grid inverter power generation. This mode differs from mode five in that the inverter unit is not connected to the grid and only supplies power to the AC load in the area.
  • the power generation/storage control unit n, the energy storage unit n work in the energy storage state, and when it is in the power generation state, the system main control unit is completely based on the collected power generation device, the energy storage unit, and the communication. The current state of the grid and other equipment is determined.
  • FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing another embodiment of the system according to the present invention. It is more suitable for use in small power generation systems.
  • the embodiment shown in FIG. 5 is different from the embodiment shown in FIG. 4 in that the DC power transmissions of the respective power generation/storage control units are not connected in parallel, but are each connected to a small inverter unit, and the inverter unit is connected to the off-grid/ The grid-connected control unit is then powered off-grid or connected to the grid.
  • a power generation device is provided with a power generation/storage control unit, an energy storage unit, an inverter unit, and an off-grid/grid control unit. These modules are grouped and arranged in the same area, and their working modes and principles are The embodiment shown in FIG. 4 is similar, and details are not described herein again.
  • the functional units not specifically described in the present invention may adopt the mature functional modules in the prior art, and are not described herein again.

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Abstract

一种电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统,包括一系统总控单元、一逆变器单元、一离网/并网控制单元、一个或多个受总控单元控制的子系统,每个子系统包括一个或多个数量对应的电力发电装置、储能单元以及发电/储能控制单元,该装置中的一个子系统发生故障时,其他子系统仍可正常工作,并可提高太阳能利用率。

Description

一种电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统 技术领域
本发明涉及电能的储存以及离网、并网逆变发电等领域,具体是指将太阳能、 电网电能储存在储能器件( 如电池组) 中 ,在需要的时候再离网或并网逆变发电 的一种控制系统。 背景技术
随着世界人口的增加和人们继续追求更高标准的生活。对能源的需求将继续 增加, 所面临的挑战在于如何提供这种可靠的和可持续的能量来源,同时保持对 环境的尊重。 燃煤发电和其他的化石燃料能源是有限的资源,但是,它们也导 致对环境的不良影响。 虽然很明显,可再生能源在和传统的能量结合使用的时 候,它肯定能发挥作用 ,但是也很明显,可再生资源不能立即取代传统能源, 解决问题。
可再生资源有一些缺点,一个主要的缺点是它对地理位置的依赖。 例如,获 得太阳能量的最佳位置在沙漠地区。 然而,许多需要的客户不会驻留在这些干 旱地区消费。 风力发电也同样的面临着地理问题。 最好的可利用的风能是在美 国中西部和大平原, 同样,大多数此能源消费者不在这些地区。 可再生能源的 另一个缺点是具有间歇性。 当发生意外,风速下降时,燃煤电厂需要更多的额 外能量去弥补发电量。 然而,燃煤发电厂不能快速提升他们的原料补给以抵缺 乏风能所消影响, 因此,就需要能量存储系统和可再生能源配合使用 ,以抵消 间歇性所造成的影响。
电网面临的另一个问题是用电高峰问题。这个问题出现的时间是在能源需求 量最大的时候,一般发生在下午 5 点至晚上 7 点这段时间 ,如在图 1 所示。 在 这几个小时内,发电厂必须增加能源补给以跟上能量需求的增长。 在这几个小 时里, 电力设施所消耗的能量是昂贵的,这个过程成本很高。 这些增加的价格 通常是由商业和工业客户支付的。目前,大部分住宅客户支付的统一税率; 然而, 随着计量技术的改进,公用事业公司将对这个时间段的用电收取不同的费率价 格。
与此相反,在深夜和清晨,能源需求下降到远低于基线期间发电量,在这几 个小时的电能很便宜实用 ,适合消费者购买。
显然,需要一个储能装置来解决能量使用高峰期问题,和可再生资源间歇性 问题。 如图 2所示, 电池的能量存储系统( BES )的影响。 一个有效的 BES 系 统可以在能源消耗繁忙时期,和可再生资源间歇性时期提供额外的能量。 分布 式能源存储系统与可再生能源和燃煤发电结合使用 ,可以帮助电网更高效的运 行, 同时保证成本效益。
在光伏发电领域, 目前常用的太阳能的利用模式主要有附图 1 的小型离网发 电的光伏利用模式, 附图 2 的大型光伏电站并网发电的光伏利用模式和附图 3 的大型储能电站的光伏利用模式等几种。
附图 1 的小型光伏离网发电利用模式适合应用在路灯、广告牌、小型光伏建 筑一体化、 住所屋顶发电等场合, 因未接受电网的调度,储存的电能可能会长 时间无负载消耗掉而使太阳能电池阵列不能向电池组储能或向负载供电,造成 很大的浪费,系统经济性不高。
附图 2 的大型光伏电站的并网发电利用模式,应用较多。 目前,这种光伏 电站规模还比较小,并网发电对电网造成的影响还比较小,当大型光伏电站建 设达到一定规模,势必会对电网造成很大的困扰。,光伏发电是极不稳定的, 白 天有,晚上没有,即使白天也是极不稳定的, 因此,供电系统很难调度管理。 大型光伏电站需要铺设很多块太阳能电池板,多块太阳能电池板串联后再经汇 流箱并联汇流,然后输入到多台并联的几百千瓦甚至兆瓦级的逆变器,经逆变 器并网发电。 很多块太阳能电池板串并联的缺点是整个太阳能电池阵列的输出 是以发电效果最差的那串太阳能电池为基准的,太阳能电池阵列还受到所处环 境的云层、 建筑物阴影、 灰尘、 温度、 线路分布阻抗等的影响严重,太阳能电 池阵列可能会形成多个不断变化的最大功率点。 一般,太阳能电池的最大功率 追踪功能都是集成在逆变器中 , 因此,逆变器有可能不是工作在实际最佳的最 大功率点上,造成光伏电站发电效率不高,光伏电站投资效益不高。
附图 3 的大型储能电站是为了缓解供电调度问题而形成的。 在电网负荷重的 时候,可以将大型储能单元阵列储存的电能或者是太阳能电池阵列所产生的电 能经逆变器并网发电,在电网负荷轻的时候,可以将电网多余的电能暂时储存 在大型储能单元阵列中 ,以备急需。 此种利用模式能起到缓解供电调度问题, 但是投资建造这种大型储能电站,需要大块土地和许多大型储能用电池,与当 前土地资源日趋紧张的局面形成冲突,大型储能用电池集中配置的安全性也需 要考虑,而且,当储能电站其中某个太阳能电池板、 某个蓄电池或某台大功率 设备出现问题,将使储能电站中大片设备停机待修,无法执行电网调度指令, 造成极大浪费,投资收益降低。 因此,有必要研究新的储能逆变发电系统来解 决上述问题。
发明内容
本发明需解决的技术问题是: α)、解决光伏发电系统因太阳能电池的短板效应而使太阳能利用率降低的问 题;
(2) , 解决现有储能电站占用大量土地资源,维护成本高,效益低的问题;
(3)、 解决现有光伏发电系统无电网调峰调谷功能的问题;
(4) , 解决富余电能储存的问题。
为解决上述技术问题,本发明电路所采取的技术方案是:
所述电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统包括一系统总控单元及一逆变器单元、 一离网 /并网控制单元,另外包括一个或多个电力发电装置、 对应电力发电装 置数量的储能单元、 对应电力发电装置数量的发电 /储能控制单元。 上述电力 发电装置、 储能单元、 发电 /储能控制单元为一组,每组设置在一区域内 , 上述三个功能模块共用一路逆变器单元及一路离网 /并网控制单元,通过连接 线路汇集至逆变器单元。
其中各个模块的功能,即:电力发电装置采用太阳能电池阵列或风力发电机 组或二者结合,与发电 /储能控制单元连接受该单元控制;储能单元由蓄电池 或者超级电容等储能器件串并联组成,与发电 /储能控制单元连接受该单元控 制实现电能的存储;发电 /储能控制单元与系统总控单元通讯,接受系统总控 单元命令实现系统内电能的转换;所述电能的转换包括电网与储能单元之间双 向的电能变换、 电力发电装置向电网、 电力发电装置向交流负载、 电力发电装 置向储能单元、 储能单元向交流负载的电能转换;并将储能单元及自身的状态 信息发送给系统总控单元,逆变器单元采用双向逆变电路,与各个发电 /储 能控制单元连接,受系统总控单元控制完成电网与储能单元之间双向的电能变 换及电力发电装置向电网、 电力发电装置向交流负载、 储能单元向交流负载的 电能转换的电能转换;离网 /并网控制单元,连接于逆变器单元与交流负载之 间 ,受系统总控单元控制实现交流负载与电网的供用电切换,每个子系统可配 置于一独立建筑区域内。
进一步的,所述系统总控单元与电网监控调度系统通讯,受电网监控调度 系统调度协调控制系统内电能的走向。
进一步的,所述储能单元内部带有电池管理系统 (BMS) ;所述发电 I储能控 制单元还与储能单元的电池管理系统 (BMS)通讯,实现储能单元状态监控。 相对于现有技术,本发明的有益效果在于:
1)、 本发明所述系统能实现多种富余电能的储存利用 ,进而实现电网的调峰 调谷的功能;其各模块功能设计独立、 完善,各模块功能相辅相成,应用在大 型储能电站中 ,某个单元设备出现故障时,只与此设备直接相关的储能及发电 单元不能正常工作,不会对整个系统造成很大影响,维修及维护的工程和造价 都比较小; 2)、 本发明所述系统中电力发电装置、 储能单元、 发电 /储能控制单元、 逆 变器单元等关键组成部件可以分散布置在某个区域内建筑的屋顶、 幕墙、 闲置 地块上,无需另外开辟土地来安装这些发电设备,节省资源;
3)、 采用本发明所述系统可以取消现有太阳能发电逆变系统中必须配置的防 雷汇流箱,并可取消逆变器单元的最大功率点跟踪功能,而改由发电 /储能控 制单元完成这些功能,可以最大限度保证各个电力发电装置都工作在各自的最 大功率点附近,提高电力发电装置发电效率。 附图说明
图 1 是现有技术中小型离网发电的光伏利用模式原理示意框图 ;
图 2 是现有技术中大型光伏电站并网发电的光伏利用模式原理示意图 ; 图 3 是现有技术中大型储能电站的光伏利用模式示意图 ;
图 4 是本发明所述电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统组成原理示意图 ; 图 5 是本发明所述电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统另一实施例组成原理 示意图 ;
图 6 是本发明示意图之二;
图 7 是本发明示意图之三;
图 8 是本发明示意图之四;
图 9 是本发明示意图之五。 具体实施方式
为了便于本领域的技术人员理解,下面结合具体实施例及附图对本发明作 进一步的详细描述。
本发明电路所采取的技术方案是:所述电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统包 括一系统总控单元及一逆变器单元、 一离网 /并网控制单元,另外包括一个或 多个电力发电装置、 对应电力发电装置数量的储能单元、 对应电力发电装置数 量的发电 /储能控制单元。 上述电力发电装置、 储能单元、 发电 /储能控制单 元为一组,每组设置在一区域内 ,上述三个功能模块共用一路逆变器单元及一 路离网 /并网控制单元,通过连接线路汇集至逆变器单元。
其中各个模块的功能与上一方案类似,即:电力发电装置采用太阳能电池阵 列或风力发电机组或二者结合,与发电 /储能控制单元连接受该单元控制;储 能单元由蓄电池或者超级电容等储能器件串并联组成,与发电 /储能控制单元 连接受该单元控制实现电能的存储;发电 /储能控制单元与系统总控单元通讯, 接受系统总控单元命令实现系统内电能的转换;所述电能的转换包括电网与储 能单元之间双向的电能变换、 电力发电装置向电网、 电力发电装置向交流负载、 电力发电装置向储能单元、 储能单元向交流负载的电能转换;并将储能单元及 自身的状态信息发送给系统总控单元。 逆变器单元采用双向逆变电路,与各个 发电 /储能控制单元连接,受系统总控单元控制完成电网与储能单元之间双向 的电能变换及电力发电装置向电网、 电力发电装置向交流负载、 储能单元向交 流负载的电能转换的电能转换。 离网 /并网控制单元,连接于逆变器单元与交 流负载之间 ,受系统总控单元控制实现交流负载与电网的供用电切换。 每个子 系统可配置于一独立建筑区域内。
进一步的,所述系统总控单元与电网监控调度系统通讯,受电网监控调度 系统调度协调控制系统内电能的走向。
进一步的,所述储能单元内部带有电池管理系统 (BMS) ;所述发电 I储能 控制单元还与储能单元的电池管理系统 (BMS) 通讯,实现储能单元状态监控。 本发明的有益效果在于:
1)、 本发明所述系统能实现多种富余电能的储存利用 ,进而实现电网的调峰 调谷的功能;其各模块功能设计独立、 完善,各模块功能相辅相成,应用在大 型储能电站中 ,某个单元设备出现故障时,只与此设备直接相关的储能及发电 单元不能正常工作,不会对整个系统造成很大影响,维修及维护的工程和造价 都比较小; 2)、 本发明所述系统中电力发电装置、 储能单元、 发电 /储能控制单元、 逆 变器单元等关键组成部件可以分散布置在某个区域内建筑的屋顶、 幕墙、 闲置 地块上,无需另外开辟土地来安装这些发电设备,节省资源;
3)、 采用本发明所述系统可以取消现有太阳能发电逆变系统中必须配置的防 雷汇流箱,并可取消逆变器单元的最大功率点跟踪功能,而改由发电 /储能控 制单元完成这些功能,可以最大限度保证各个电力发电装置都工作在各自的最 大功率点附近,提高电力发电装置发电效率。
如图 4 ,该实施例所述电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统包括电力发电装置 A、 发电 /储能控制单元、 储能单元(、 逆变器单元 B、 离网 /并网控制单元、 系统总控单元、 电网监控调度系统。
其应用于大型储能电站应用系统中 ,所述的发电 /储能控制单元和电力发 电装置 A、 储能单元(、 交流电网、 系统总控单元相连接,发电 /储能控制单元 通过通讯线和储能单元的电池管理系统 (BMS) 通讯,监控储能单元状态,还通 过通讯线和系统总控单元通讯,接收系统总控单元指令和向系统总控单元发送 储能单元、 电力发电装置的状态信息。 电力发电装置 1、 储能单元 1、 发电 /储能 控制单元 1被配置在区域一;电力发电装置 2、 储能单元 2、 发电 /储能控制单元 2被配置在区域二内;电力发电装置 12、储能单元 12、发电 I储能控制单元 12被 配置在区域 N 内,配置在区域一、 二、 ...N 的发电 /储能控制单元 1、 2、 ...12 的输出并联在一起,作为逆变器单元的输入,逆变器单元和系统总控单元、 交 流电网以及离网 /并网控制单元相连接。 逆变器单元和离网 /并网控制单元接 收系统总控单元指令,在负载需要时,工作在向负载供电的离网模式, 当电力 发电装置可以发电且电网有调度需求时,工作在向电网发电的并网模式,在电 力发电装置发不出电的时候,发电 /储能控制单元 1、 2、 ...n 可以接收系统总控 单元指令,将电网电能经整流和功率因数校正以及高频变换后向储能单元 1、 2、 ...n储能,通过电网监控调度系统的合理调度,可以实现对交流电网的调 峰调谷的功能。 逆变器单元不再集成最大功率追踪的功能,而将最大功率追踪 的功能加入到发电 /储能控制单元中 ,使得电力发电装置都按各自最大功率来 发电,使整个电力发电装置系统发电效率最大化。
上述分布式储能逆变系统至少有六种工作模式,下面将结合附图 4 加以详细 说明。
模式一: 电力发电装置所发电能储存模式。 在电力发电装置发电正常、 储 能单元电量不足、 电网监控调度系统未发调度指令、 交流负载不工作的条件下, 电力发电装置所发电能经发电 /储能控制单元控制向储能单元储能,发电 /储 能控制单元和储能单元的 BMS 系统通讯,实时智能监控储能单元状态,保证储 能安全可靠进行。
模式二: 电网电能储存模式。 在电力发电装置不能发电、 储能单元电量不 足、 且电网负荷不重的情况下, 电网监控调度系统发出指令,发电 /储能控制 单元内部充电控制模块开始工作, 电网电能储存在储能单元中。
模式三:电力发电装置所发电能既储存同时又并网逆变发电的模式。 在有新 能源发电装置发电正常、 储能单元电量不足、 电网监控调度系统有调度指令、 交流负载不工作的条件下, 电力发电装置产生的电能经发电 /储能控制单元控 制向储能单元储能的同时,发电 /储能控制单元输出稳定直流电经逆变器单元 并网发电。
模式四:电力发电装置所发电能既储存同时又离网逆变发电的模式。 此模式 和模式三不同的是逆变器单元不并网,只向区域内的交流负载供电。
模式五:储存的电能并网逆变发电的模式。 在电力发电装置不能发电、 储能 单元电量充足、 且电网负荷重的情况下, 电网监控调度系统发出指令,储存的 电能经发电 /储能控制单元和逆变器单元并网发电。
模式六:储存的电能离网逆变发电的模式。 此模式和模式五不同的是逆变器 单元不并网 ,只向区域内的交流负载供电。 分布式储能逆变系统中分布在某个 区域的电力发电装置 1 ,发电 I储能控制单元 1、 储能单元 1 与分布在另一区域的 电力发电装置 2、 发电 /储能控制单元 2、 储能单元 2 或者分布在其他区域的电 力发电装置 n、 发电 /储能控制单元 n、 储能单元 n何时工作在储能状态,何时 工作在发电状态,完全由系统总控单元根据采集的电力发电装置、 储能单元、 交流电网及其它设备的当前状态来决定。
图 5 为本发明所述系统另一实施例组成框图。 其比较适合应用于小型电力发 电系统。 图 5 所示实施例与图 4 所示实施例不同的是,各个发电 /储能控制单 元的直流输不是并联在一起,而是各自连接小型逆变器单元,逆变器单元连接 离网 /并网控制单元,然后离网或并网发电。 一个电力发电装置配置一个发电 /储能控制单元、 一个储能单元、 一个逆变器单元、 一个离网 /并网控制单元, 这些模块为一组,配置在同一区域,其工作模式与原理与图 4 所示实施例类似, 在此不再赘述。
本发明中未具体描述的功能单元均可采用现有技术中的成熟功能模块,在此 不再赘述。
需要说明的是,上述实施方式仅为本发明较佳的实施方案,不能将其理解 为对本发明保护范围的限制,在未脱离本发明构思前提下,对本发明所做的任 何均等变化与修饰均属于本发明的保护范围。

Claims

权 利 要 求 书
1. 一种电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统,其特征在于,包括:
一系统总控单元;
一个或多个电力发电装置,采用太阳能电池阵列或风力发电机组或二者结 合,与发电 /储能控制单元连接受该单元控制;
对应电力发电装置数量的储能单元,由蓄电池或者超级电容等储能器件串并 联组成,与发电 /储能控制单元连接受该单元控制实现电能的存储;
对应电力发电装置数量的发电 /储能控制单元,与系统总控单元通讯,接受 系统总控单元命令实现系统内电能的转换;所述电能的转换包括电网与储能单 元之间双向的电能变换、 电力发电装置向电网、 电力发电装置向交流负载、 电 力发电装置向储能单元、 储能单元向交流负载的电能转换;并将储能单元及自 身的状态信息发送给系统总控单元;
一逆变器单元,采用双向逆变电路,与各个发电 /储能控制单元连接,受系 统总控单元控制完成电网与储能单元之间双向的电能变换及电力发电装置向电 网、 电力发电装置;向交流负载、 储能单元向交流负载的电能转换的电能转换; 一离网 /并网控制单元,连接于上述逆变器单元与交流负载之间 ,受系统总 控单元控制实现交流负载与电网的供用电切换。
2. 根据权利要求 1 所述的电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统,其特征在于, 所述储能单元内部带有电池管理系统 (BMS)。
3. 根据权利要求 1 所述的电力分布式储能装置及其控制系统,其特征在于, 所述系统以对应设置的电力发电装置、 储能单元、 发电 /储能控制单元为一组, 每组设置在一区域内,通过连接线路汇集至逆变器单元。
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