WO2011029283A1 - Method for composite utilizing coal and system thereof - Google Patents

Method for composite utilizing coal and system thereof Download PDF

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WO2011029283A1
WO2011029283A1 PCT/CN2010/001407 CN2010001407W WO2011029283A1 WO 2011029283 A1 WO2011029283 A1 WO 2011029283A1 CN 2010001407 W CN2010001407 W CN 2010001407W WO 2011029283 A1 WO2011029283 A1 WO 2011029283A1
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coal
gasification
zone
residue
gasifier
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Chinese (zh)
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毕继诚
李金来
甘中学
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新奥科技发展有限公司
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    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/46Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension
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    • C10J3/482Gasifiers with stationary fluidised bed
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    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
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    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
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    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
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    • C10J2300/0986Catalysts
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    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/16Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant
    • C10J2300/164Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant with conversion of synthesis gas
    • C10J2300/1656Conversion of synthesis gas to chemicals
    • C10J2300/1662Conversion of synthesis gas to chemicals to methane (SNG)
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    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
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    • C10J2300/164Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant with conversion of synthesis gas
    • C10J2300/1656Conversion of synthesis gas to chemicals
    • C10J2300/1665Conversion of synthesis gas to chemicals to alcohols, e.g. methanol or ethanol
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    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/16Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant
    • C10J2300/1681Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant with biological plants, e.g. involving bacteria, algae, fungi
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    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/16Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant
    • C10J2300/1684Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant with electrolysis of water
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
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    • Y02E60/36Hydrogen production from non-carbon containing sources, e.g. by water electrolysis
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02P20/129Energy recovery, e.g. by cogeneration, H2recovery or pressure recovery turbines
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Abstract

A method for composite utilizing coal and a system thereof are provided. Said method comprises: converting coal into clean energy sources such as methane and the like and/or clean electric power by integrating such sub-methods as multi-section coal gasification, coal-based poly-production, hydrogen production by composite energy and/or carbon absorption by algae. In the sub-method of multi-section coal gasification coal powder is added to gasification furnace having a partial pyrolysis region (40), a catalytic gasification region (41) and a residue gasification region (42) to produce a gas stream containing methane in the presence of catalyst and gasification agent. Said system comprises a gasification furnace for producing gas containing methane through coal gasification and a poly-production subsystem. Said furnace has a partial pyrolysis region (40), a catalytic gasification region (41) and a residue gasification region (42).

Description

煤的综合利用方法及系统 技术领域  Comprehensive utilization method and system of coal

本发明涉及煤化工, 特别是涉及一种多区煤气化子方法和子 系统耦合其它子方法和子系统的煤的综合利用方法及系统。  The present invention relates to coal chemical industry, and more particularly to a method and system for comprehensive utilization of coal in a multi-zone coal gasification sub-method and sub-system coupled with other sub-methods and subsystems.

背景技术 Background technique

我国是富煤贫油少气的国家, 随着社会、 经济的快速发展, 我国天然气需求急剧攀升, 在能源结构中的比例迅速增加。 而国 内天然气仍处于勘探开发早期, 进口也处于起步阶段, 供应能力 严重滞后, 导致天然气供需矛盾日益突出。 利用我国资源优势相 对较大的煤炭, 不仅能促进煤炭的高效、 清洁利用; 而且可利用 已有的天然气管道, 以较低的经济代价, 有效緩解天然气的供需 矛盾, 这是劣质煤炭资源进行综合利用的有力措施。  China is a country rich in coal and oil-poor. With the rapid development of society and economy, China's natural gas demand has risen sharply, and the proportion in the energy structure has increased rapidly. While domestic natural gas is still in the early stage of exploration and development, imports are also in their infancy, and supply capacity is seriously lagging behind, resulting in an increasingly prominent contradiction between natural gas supply and demand. The use of coal with relatively large resource advantages in China can not only promote the efficient and clean utilization of coal; but also utilize existing natural gas pipelines to effectively alleviate the contradiction between supply and demand of natural gas at a lower economic cost. This is a synthesis of inferior coal resources. Powerful measures to take advantage of.

通常的煤气化技术, 即煤在高温下与氧气(或空气)和 /或蒸 汽 (也称为水蒸气)组成的气化剂进行气化反应, 生成含有少量 甲烷(CH4 ) 的合成气(主要是氢气、 一氧化碳和二氧化碳) , 之 后进行水气变换及甲烷化工序, 采用两步法制备甲烷。 该煤气化 技术具有气化反应所需的温度高、 能耗大、 对设备要求高, 且需 三个反应装置、 工艺较复杂等缺点。 The usual coal gasification technology, that is, the gasification of coal at a high temperature with oxygen (or air) and/or steam (also called steam), produces a synthesis gas containing a small amount of methane (CH 4 ) ( Mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide), followed by a water gas shift and methanation process, using a two-step process to prepare methane. The coal gasification technology has the disadvantages of high temperature required for gasification reaction, high energy consumption, high requirements on equipment, three reaction devices and complicated processes.

煤催化气化技术是煤洁净高效利用的一种重要方式, 采用煤 催化气化技术,煤在相对较低的温度下与蒸汽(H20 )、氢气(H2 )、 一氧化碳(CO )组成的气化剂在催化剂的催化作用下进行气化反 应, 生成高浓度的曱烷(CH4 ) 。 煤催化气化技术与其他煤气化技 术相比, 具有甲烷含量高、 气化反应所需的温度低等优点。 Coal catalytic gasification technology is an important way to clean and use coal. It uses coal catalytic gasification technology. Coal is composed of steam (H 2 0 ), hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) at relatively low temperature. The gasification agent undergoes a gasification reaction under the catalytic action of the catalyst to form a high concentration of decane (CH 4 ). Compared with other coal gasification technologies, coal catalytic gasification technology has the advantages of high methane content and low temperature required for gasification reaction.

目前, 相关专利中提到的煤催化气化技术, 气化反应所需的 最优温度和压力范围是 593 ~ 700X和 20 ~ 40atm, 使用碱金属碳 酸盐作为催化剂。 采用深冷分离将产气中的曱烷与一氧化碳、 氢 气进行分离, 将反应气体中的氢气和一氧化碳循环到气化炉中, 使之在气化炉中进行曱烷化反应转化为曱烷, 从而提高系统甲烷 的产量。 该煤催化气化技术具有气化反应速率低、 反应时间长, 碳转化率较低, 气体分离系统投资高等缺点; 为满足反应器热平 衡的需要, 需将进炉过热蒸汽加热到较高温度, 蒸汽过热系统及 热交换系统负荷较高, 经济性差。 At present, the coal-catalyzed gasification technology mentioned in the relevant patents, the optimum temperature and pressure range required for gasification reaction are 593 ~ 700X and 20 ~ 40atm, using alkali metal carbon The acid salt acts as a catalyst. The cryogenic separation is used to separate the decane in the gas from the carbon monoxide and the hydrogen, and the hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the reaction gas are recycled to the gasification furnace to be converted into decane by a decane reaction in the gasifier. Thereby increasing the production of system methane. The coal catalytic gasification technology has the disadvantages of low gasification reaction rate, long reaction time, low carbon conversion rate and high investment in gas separation system; in order to meet the heat balance of the reactor, it is necessary to heat the superheated steam into the higher temperature. Steam superheating systems and heat exchange systems have high loads and poor economics.

美国专利 4, 077, 778 提出采用多级流化床反应器的煤催化 气化工艺, 消除原催化气化工艺的不足, 使气化更高效地进行, 充分利用进料碳资源, 提高碳转化率。 主流化床反应器操作气速 较高, 将部分碳颗粒夹带至二级流化床反应器, 在较低气速下进 行气化反应, 增长固相停留时间, 最大限度提高碳转化率。 采用 多级气化较之单级气化可将碳利用率由 70 - 85%提高至 95 %以 上。 但该煤催化气化工艺采用多个流化床反应器, 设备投资高, 操作较复杂。  U.S. Patent 4,077,778 proposes a coal catalytic gasification process using a multi-stage fluidized bed reactor to eliminate the deficiencies of the original catalytic gasification process, to make gasification more efficient, to fully utilize feed carbon resources, and to improve carbon conversion. rate. The mainstream bed reactor operates at a higher gas velocity, entraining some of the carbon particles into the secondary fluidized bed reactor, and performing a gasification reaction at a lower gas velocity, increasing the solid phase residence time and maximizing the carbon conversion rate. Multi-stage gasification can increase carbon utilization from 70 - 85% to over 95% compared to single-stage gasification. However, the coal catalytic gasification process uses a plurality of fluidized bed reactors, and the equipment investment is high and the operation is complicated.

另外, 美国专利 4, 094, 650提到在碱金属的催化作用下, 可 将含碳固体气化, 制备曱烷, 催化剂需回收再用。 通过多级水洗 回收水溶性催化剂, 石灰消化回收非溶性催化剂. 美国专利 0277437 在美国专利 4, 094, 650基础上,采用一级处理将碱金属 物质从反应器固体残渣中分离, 简化了碱金属催化剂回收过程, 改善了催化气化工艺的经济性及总效率, 但该回收系统仍然较复 杂, 回收方法较昂贵。  In addition, U. The water-soluble catalyst is recovered by multi-stage water washing, and the insoluble catalyst is recovered by lime digestion. U.S. Patent No. 0,277,437, based on U.S. Patent No. 4,094,650, which utilizes a primary treatment to separate the alkali metal material from the reactor solid residue, simplifying the alkali metal. The catalyst recovery process improves the economics and overall efficiency of the catalytic gasification process, but the recovery system is still complicated and the recovery method is expensive.

另外, 为了充分利用热量, 制取煤气, 美国专利 5, 064, 444 提出加压水蒸气气化的方法, 将流化床气化炉分为热解段、 气化 段、 冷却段, 各段用隔板分开。 气化炉内热解段、 气化段放置蛇 状盘管 (蛇管换热器) , 管中通入 900X - 950 的高温气体如燃 料燃烧后的气体加热煤粉, 提供气化、 热解所需热量, 制取煤气。 该流化床气化炉可以为立式, 也可为卧式, 以 700Π - 800 的过 热蒸汽为气化剂, 冷却段通入饱和蒸汽, 煤粉夹带在过热蒸汽一 起进入气化炉。 但是气化炉内的反应体积利用率低, 影响固相加 工; 仅以过热蒸汽为气化剂致使碳转化率不高, 故残渣中含碳量 较高, 煤难以得到有效利用; 该方法中高温气体中的热量需要通 过蛇状盘管的管壁传递给煤粉和蒸汽, 与气固接触传热相比, 这 种间接加热方式传热速度慢且热效率低, 床层内固相受热不均; 同时设备繁杂, 特别是卧式炉。 In addition, in order to make full use of heat and to produce gas, U.S. Patent No. 5,064,444 proposes a method for gasification of pressurized steam, and the fluidized bed gasification furnace is divided into a pyrolysis section, a gasification section, and a cooling section. Separate with a partition. A serpentine coil (snake heat exchanger) is placed in the pyrolysis section and the gasification section of the gasification furnace, and a high temperature gas such as a 900X-950 is introduced into the tube. The burned gas heats the pulverized coal to provide heat for gasification and pyrolysis to produce gas. The fluidized bed gasifier can be vertical or horizontal, with a superheated steam of 700 Π - 800 as a gasifying agent, and a cooling steam is introduced into the cooling section, and the pulverized coal is entrained in the gasification furnace together with the superheated steam. However, the utilization rate of the reaction volume in the gasification furnace is low, which affects the solid phase processing; only the superheated steam is used as the gasifying agent, so that the carbon conversion rate is not high, so the carbon content in the residue is high, and the coal is difficult to be effectively utilized; The heat in the high-temperature gas needs to be transmitted to the coal powder and steam through the wall of the serpentine coil. Compared with the gas-solid contact heat transfer, the indirect heating method has a slow heat transfer rate and low thermal efficiency, and the solid phase in the bed is not heated. At the same time; the equipment is complicated, especially the horizontal furnace.

在煤催化气化的产品分离出曱烷后, 仍有合成气存在, 仍需 对其进一步利用以生产曱醇、 乙二醇、 低碳醇或二甲醚等。 同时 系统也会产生二氧化碳, 而二氧化碳排放对全球气候变化的影响 已经为世界所关注, 所以需要解决二氧化碳的排放问题。  After the separation of decane from the product of coal catalytic gasification, there is still syngas present, which needs to be further utilized to produce sterol, ethylene glycol, lower alcohol or dimethyl ether. At the same time, the system also produces carbon dioxide, and the impact of carbon dioxide emissions on global climate change has been the focus of the world, so it is necessary to solve the problem of carbon dioxide emissions.

合成气生产曱烷、 曱醇、 乙二醇、 低碳醇或二曱醚等时, 通 常需要调节碳氢比 (如向合成气中添加一定量的氢气或者补充一 氧化碳) 。 目前大约 96%的工业用氲来源于天然气、 石油和媒等 化石能源, 但使用化石能源制氢的生产技术与工艺不能解决二氧 化碳排放问题, 因而不能实现生态循环生产。 其它制氢技术中, 目前应用较广且相对成熟的制氢方法包括水电解制氢、 生物制 氢、 生物电化学制氢和光电化学制氢等。 利用可再生能源所产生 的电能 (包括太阳能、 风能等)作为动力来水电解制氢是目前最 具前景而且最可行的技术, 被称为通向氢经济的最佳途径。  When syngas produces decane, decyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, lower alcohols or dioxins, it is often necessary to adjust the hydrocarbon ratio (such as adding a certain amount of hydrogen to the synthesis gas or supplementing carbon monoxide). At present, about 96% of industrial waste is derived from fossil energy sources such as natural gas, petroleum and media. However, the production technology and process for producing hydrogen from fossil energy cannot solve the problem of carbon dioxide emissions, and thus cannot achieve eco-circulation production. Among other hydrogen production technologies, currently widely used and relatively mature hydrogen production methods include water electrolysis hydrogen production, biological hydrogen production, bioelectrochemical hydrogen production, and photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. The use of renewable energy sources (including solar energy, wind energy, etc.) as a power source for water electrolysis hydrogen production is currently the most promising and most viable technology known as the best way to the hydrogen economy.

综上, 世界各国相继发展的煤基化工多联产技术都没有系统 考虑二氧化碳资源化利用问题, 如何控制和减少煤在转化和燃烧 过程中产生的二氧化碳, 并将其资源化利用, 成为新型煤化工技 术发展的首要问题。 虽然鉴于 "温室效应" 的严重性, 欧美国家 近年来开始研究煤基近零排放多联产系统, 但由于二氧化碳化学 性质稳定, 这种煤基近零排放多联产系统无法在生产过程中实现 二氧化碳减排, 只能采用捕集和封存的方法去解决, 而此方法成 本高昂、 不能真正从量上减少二氧化碳, 长远看来仅为权宜之 计。 要彻底解决二氧化碳的问题, 就必须突破现有化石能源的局 限, 把可再生能源引入煤基化工产品的生产过程, 实现多能源的 融合, 将二氧化碳转化为能源化工产品, 从而实现生产过程二氧 化碳的近零排放。 In summary, coal-based chemical polygeneration technologies developed in various countries in the world have not systematically considered the problem of carbon dioxide resource utilization. How to control and reduce the carbon dioxide generated by coal in the process of conversion and combustion, and use it to become a new type of coal. The primary problem in the development of chemical technology. Although given the severity of the "greenhouse effect", European and American countries In recent years, the coal-based near-zero emission polygeneration system has been studied. However, due to the stable chemical nature of carbon dioxide, this coal-based near-zero emission polygeneration system cannot achieve carbon dioxide emission reduction in the production process. It can only be used for capture and storage. The method is solved, and this method is costly and cannot really reduce carbon dioxide in quantity. In the long run, it is only a matter of expediency. To completely solve the problem of carbon dioxide, we must break through the limitations of existing fossil energy, introduce renewable energy into the production process of coal-based chemical products, realize the integration of multiple energy sources, convert carbon dioxide into energy chemical products, and realize carbon dioxide in the production process. Near zero emissions.

发明内容 Summary of the invention

本发明提供一种煤的综合利用方法, 包括:  The invention provides a comprehensive utilization method of coal, which comprises:

多区煤气化子方法和多联产子方法, 其中所述多区煤气化子 方法包括下列步骤:  A multi-zone coal gasification process and a multi-generation sub-process, wherein the multi-zone coal gasification process comprises the following steps:

a.将煤粉加入到含部分热解区、 催化气化区和残渣气化区的 气化炉的部分热解区, 在那里该煤粉与来自催化气化区的气体物 流接触以部分热解所述煤粉, 生成含甲烷的气体物流和部分热解 的煤粉,  a. adding pulverized coal to a partial pyrolysis zone of a gasification furnace comprising a partial pyrolysis zone, a catalytic gasification zone and a residue gasification zone, where the pulverized coal is in contact with a gas stream from the catalytic gasification zone for partial heat Solving the pulverized coal to form a methane-containing gas stream and a partially pyrolyzed coal powder,

b.将所述部分热解的煤粉送入催化气化区并在催化剂存在下 与来自残渣气化区的气体物流接触, 生成的气体物流进入部分热 解区和未充分反应的煤残渣进入残渣气化区, 和  b. feeding the partially pyrolyzed coal powder to a catalytic gasification zone and contacting the gas stream from the residue gasification zone in the presence of a catalyst, the resulting gas stream entering a partial pyrolysis zone and an insufficiently reacted coal residue entering Residue gasification zone, and

c.将所述煤残渣在残渣气化区与气化剂接触, 生成的气体物 流进入催化气化区和生成的灰渣排出气化炉。  c. contacting the coal residue with the gasifying agent in the residue gasification zone, and the generated gas stream enters the catalytic gasification zone and the generated ash is discharged to the gasification furnace.

在一个优选的实施方案中, 本发明的方法还包括藻类吸碳子 方法《  In a preferred embodiment, the method of the invention further comprises an algae carbon uptake method.

在一个优选的实施方案中, 本发明的方法还包括复合能源制 氢子方法。  In a preferred embodiment, the method of the present invention further comprises a composite energy hydrogen generation process.

在一个优选的实施方案中, 本发明的方法还包括回收多区煤 气化子方法中的催化剂、 水或齊汽, 回收所述含曱烷的气体物流 中固体物料并循环之, 以及利 ^所述方法中的余热或余压发电或 产生蒸汽。 In a preferred embodiment, the method of the invention further comprises recovering multi-zone coal The catalyst, water or vapor in the gasification process recovers and recycles the solid material in the decane-containing gas stream, and generates or generates steam from waste heat or residual pressure in the process.

本申请还提供一种煤的综合利用系统, 包括:  The application also provides a comprehensive utilization system for coal, including:

煤气化制备含甲烷的气体的气化炉和多联产子系统, 其中所 述煤气化制备含甲烷的气体的气化炉从上到下依次包括:  A gasification furnace and a polygeneration subsystem for preparing a methane-containing gas by gasification, wherein the gasification furnace for preparing a gas containing methane by gasification includes, in order from top to bottom:

a.部分热解区, 用于将煤粉与来自催化气化区的气体物流接 触, 生成的含曱烷的气体物流离开气化炉和生成的部分热解的煤 粉送入催化气化区;  a part of the pyrolysis zone for contacting the pulverized coal with the gas stream from the catalytic gasification zone, and the generated decane-containing gas stream exits the gasifier and generates a portion of the pyrolyzed pulverized coal to be fed to the catalytic gasification zone ;

b.催化气化区, 用于将来自部分热解区的部分热解的煤粉与 来自残渣气化区的气体物流接触, 生成的气体物流进入所述部分 热解区和未充分反应的煤残渣送入残渣气化区; 和  b. a catalytic gasification zone for contacting a portion of the pyrolyzed coal powder from the partial pyrolysis zone with a gas stream from the residue gasification zone, the resulting gas stream entering the partial pyrolysis zone and the less fully reacted coal The residue is sent to the residue gasification zone; and

c.残渣气化区, 用于将来自所述催化气化区的煤残渣与气化 剂接触, 生成的气体物流进入催化气化区, 生成的灰渣排出气化 炉。  c. a residue gasification zone for contacting the coal residue from the catalytic gasification zone with a gasifying agent, and the generated gas stream enters the catalytic gasification zone, and the generated ash is discharged to the gasification furnace.

在一个优选的实施方案中, 本发明的系统还包括藻类吸碳子 系统。  In a preferred embodiment, the system of the present invention further comprises an algae carbon uptake subsystem.

在一个优选的实施方案中, 本发明的系统还包括复合能源制 氢子系统。  In a preferred embodiment, the system of the present invention further includes a composite energy hydrogen production subsystem.

在一个优选的实施方案中, 本发明的系统还包括回收煤气化 制备含曱烷的气体的气化炉中的催化剂、 水或蒸汽的设备, 回收 所述含曱烷的气体物流中固体物料并循环之的设备, 以及利用所 述系统中的余热或余压发电或产生蒸汽的设备。  In a preferred embodiment, the system of the present invention further comprises an apparatus for recovering a catalyst, water or steam in a gasification furnace for gasification to produce a gas containing decane, recovering the solid material in the decane-containing gas stream and Circulating equipment, and equipment that uses the residual heat or residual pressure in the system to generate electricity or generate steam.

附图说明 DRAWINGS

图 1为本发明实施例提供的气化炉的结构示意图;  1 is a schematic structural view of a gasification furnace according to an embodiment of the present invention;

图 2为本发明的多区煤气化子方法与多联产子方法、 藻类吸 碳子方法和复合能源制氢子方法联合的一个实施方案示意图。 图 3为本发明的多区煤气化子方法与多联产子方法、 藻类吸 碳子方法和复合能源制氢子方法联合的另一个实施方案示意图。 2 is a multi-zone coal gasification method and polygeneration method of the present invention, and algae suction A schematic diagram of one embodiment of a combination of a carbon sub-method and a composite energy hydrogen production sub-method. 3 is a schematic view showing another embodiment of the multi-zone coal gasification process of the present invention in combination with a polygeneration process, an algae carbon uptake process, and a composite energy hydrogen generation process.

图 4为本发明的多区煤气化子方法与多联产子方法和回收能 量的子方法的一个实施方案示意图。  Figure 4 is a schematic illustration of one embodiment of a multi-zone coal gasification process and a multi-generation sub-method and a sub-method of recovering energy of the present invention.

可以理解的是, 附图仅仅是说明性的, 不打算以任何方式限 制本发明的范围。 本发明的范围应由权利要求的内容所确定。 具体实施方式  It is to be understood that the appended drawings are not intended to The scope of the invention should be determined by the content of the claims. Detailed ways

一、 多区煤气化子方法及子系统  1. Multi-zone coal gasification method and subsystem

为实施本申请的方法, 多区煤气化子方法包括下列步驟: a.将煤粉加入到含部分热解区、 催化气化区和残渣气化区的 气化炉的部分热解区, 在那里该煤粉与来自催化气化区的气体物 流接触以部分热解所述煤粉, 生成含曱烷的气体物流和部分热解 的煤粉,  To carry out the method of the present application, the multi-zone coal gasification process comprises the steps of: a. adding pulverized coal to a partial pyrolysis zone of a gasification furnace comprising a partial pyrolysis zone, a catalytic gasification zone and a residue gasification zone, Wherein the pulverized coal is contacted with a gas stream from the catalytic gasification zone to partially pyrolyze the pulverized coal to form a decane-containing gas stream and a partially pyrolyzed pulverized coal.

b.将所述部分热解的煤粉送入催化气化区并在催化剂存在下 与来自残渣气化区的气体物流接触, 生成的气体物流进入部分热 解区和未充分反应的煤残渣进入残渣气化区, 和  b. feeding the partially pyrolyzed coal powder to a catalytic gasification zone and contacting the gas stream from the residue gasification zone in the presence of a catalyst, the resulting gas stream entering a partial pyrolysis zone and an insufficiently reacted coal residue entering Residue gasification zone, and

c.将所述煤残渣在残渣气化区与气化剂接触, 生成的气体物 流进入催化气化区和生成的灰渣排出气化炉。 本发明的子方法所采用的核心设备是多区式气化炉。 该气化 炉一般竖直放置或倾斜放置, 倾斜放置时其倾斜角度足以使得炉 中的固体物料例如煤粉在其自身重力下向下运动。 可使用分布板 将气化炉从下至上分为三个区, 按照各区的功能, 依次为残渣气 化区、 催化气化区和部分热解区, 如图 1所示。 该分布板一般为 多孔分布板。 其中固体物料, 例如煤, 从上向下运动, 最终从气 化炉底部的排渣口离开气化炉, 而气体物料, 则从下向上运动, 最终从气化炉顶部的排气口离开气化炉。 固体物料和气体物料在 气化炉内基本上呈逆流接触的形式。 本发明的气化炉, 基本上越 靠近底部温度越高, 越靠近顶部温度越低。 c. contacting the coal residue in the residue gasification zone with the gasifying agent, and the generated gas stream enters the catalytic gasification zone and the generated ash is discharged to the gasification furnace. The core equipment used in the sub-method of the present invention is a multi-zone gasifier. The gasifier is generally placed vertically or tilted, and is inclined at an angle sufficient to cause the solid material in the furnace, such as pulverized coal, to move downward under its own weight. The gasifier can be divided into three zones from bottom to top using a distribution plate. According to the functions of each zone, the residue gasification zone, the catalytic gasification zone and the partial pyrolysis zone are sequentially shown in Fig. 1. The distribution plate is typically a porous distribution plate. Among them, solid materials, such as coal, move from top to bottom, and finally from gas. The slag discharge port at the bottom of the furnace leaves the gasifier, and the gas material moves from the bottom to the bottom, and finally exits the gasifier from the exhaust port at the top of the gasifier. The solid material and the gaseous material are in substantially countercurrent contact form within the gasifier. In the gasification furnace of the present invention, the temperature is substantially closer to the bottom, and the temperature is lower toward the top.

本发明的子方法中, 煤、 气化剂和催化剂的进料位置可以根 据需要加以选择或调整。 例如, 至少一部分煤可以从本发明的气 化炉的部分热解区和 /或催化气化区的任意一处或几处进入气化 炉; 甚至, 当仅靠残渣气化产生的热量不足以维持催化气化所需 温度要求时, 也可将一部分煤从残渣气化区进入气化炉。 而催化 剂的进料方式可分为两种, 对于能在本发明的残渣气化区的高温 下发生气化的催化剂, 例如碱金属碳酸盐, 可以从气化炉的部分 热解区和 /或催化气化区和 /或残渣气化区通入气化炉; 而对于在 本发明的残渣气化区的高温下不能发生气化的催化剂, 例如碱土 金属碳酸盐, 则从部分热解区和 /或催化气化区通入气化炉; 而气 化剂则从残渣气化区的底部和 /或侧面通入气化炉中。不管煤和催 化剂从哪一区进料,它们最终会在气化炉的催化气化区相互接触, 并同时与包含合成气在内的气体物流相接触。 显然, 煤和催化剂 也可以混合进料, 例如煤粉直接与催化剂本身混合后进料, 或煤 粉与催化剂水溶液混合后进料, 等等。 当混合进料时, 二者的混 合物可以从催化气化区或煤热解区中的一处或几处进料。 对本发 明中使用的煤没有限制, 其可以选自烟煤、 无烟煤、 褐煤等, 并 且优选在进入本发明的气化炉之前被粉碎成煤粉, 煤粉的粒度一 般可为 0. 1 ~ lmm。  In the sub-method of the present invention, the feed position of the coal, gasification agent and catalyst can be selected or adjusted as needed. For example, at least a portion of the coal may enter the gasifier from any one or more of the partial pyrolysis zone and/or the catalytic gasification zone of the gasifier of the present invention; even when the heat generated by the gasification of the residue alone is insufficient When maintaining the temperature requirements for catalytic gasification, a portion of the coal can also be passed from the residue gasification zone to the gasifier. The catalyst can be fed into two types. For the catalyst which can be gasified at the high temperature of the residue gasification zone of the present invention, for example, an alkali metal carbonate can be obtained from a partial pyrolysis zone of the gasifier and/or Or the catalytic gasification zone and/or the residue gasification zone are passed into the gasification furnace; and for the catalyst which cannot be gasified at the high temperature of the residue gasification zone of the present invention, such as an alkaline earth metal carbonate, from partial pyrolysis The zone and/or catalytic gasification zone is passed to the gasifier; and the gasification agent is passed into the gasifier from the bottom and/or sides of the residue gasification zone. Regardless of the zone from which the coal and catalyst are fed, they eventually contact each other in the catalytic gasification zone of the gasifier and simultaneously with the gas stream containing the syngas. Obviously, the coal and the catalyst may also be mixed, for example, the coal powder is directly mixed with the catalyst itself, or the coal powder is mixed with the aqueous catalyst solution, and the like. When the feed is mixed, the mixture of the two may be fed from one or more of the catalytic gasification zone or the coal pyrolysis zone. There is no limitation on the coal used in the present invention, which may be selected from the group consisting of bituminous coal, anthracite, lignite, etc., and is preferably pulverized into pulverized coal before entering the gasification furnace of the present invention. The particle size of the pulverized coal may generally be 0.1 to 1 mm.

本发明的第一实施方案的步骤 a 发生在气化炉的部分热解 区, 加入到该区中的煤与来自催化气化区的气体物流接触, 并部 分热解所述煤粉, 生成含甲烷的气体物流和部分热解的煤粉。 该 区中的所有气体离开气化炉, 而部分热解后的煤沿气化炉向下运 动。 在该步骤中, 至少一部分煤从所述部分热解区通入气化炉, 优选绝大部分煤、 甚至更优选全部的煤从所述部分热解区通入气 化炉。 这样做的好处是充分利用了在催化气化区中合成气发生甲 烷化反应所放出的热量, 该热量随着催化气化区反应后的气体进 入部分热解区后, 与从部分热解区进入气化炉的煤接触, 使该煤 预热并快速热解, 把煤中挥发份热解出来, 由于煤的挥发份中含 有曱烷, 因此该区不仅起到对煤进行预热的作用, 而且还进一步 通过煤的部分热解增加了气体产物中的曱烷含量。 热解还产生了 焦油, 焦油在该区的条件下随气体产物离开气化炉, 而部分热解 后的煤粉则向下进入到气化炉下面各区继续反应。 该部分热解区 中的温度主要通过下面各区的气体流量及加入到该区中的煤粉的 进料量来调节, 一般是 450- 650 。 Step a of the first embodiment of the present invention occurs in a partial pyrolysis zone of the gasification furnace, the coal added to the zone is in contact with the gas stream from the catalytic gasification zone, and the coal powder is partially pyrolyzed to form a A gas stream of methane and a partially pyrolyzed coal powder. The All of the gas in the zone leaves the gasifier, while the partially pyrolyzed coal moves down the gasifier. In this step, at least a portion of the coal is passed from the partial pyrolysis zone to a gasifier, preferably a majority of the coal, even more preferably all of the coal, is passed from the partial pyrolysis zone to the gasifier. The advantage of this is that the heat released by the methanation reaction of the synthesis gas in the catalytic gasification zone is fully utilized, and the heat enters the partial pyrolysis zone with the gas after the reaction in the catalytic gasification zone, and the partial pyrolysis zone The coal entering the gasifier contacts, the coal is preheated and rapidly pyrolyzed, and the volatiles in the coal are pyrolyzed. Since the volatile matter of the coal contains decane, the zone not only plays a role in preheating the coal. Further, the decane content in the gaseous product is further increased by partial pyrolysis of the coal. The pyrolysis also produces tar, which leaves the gasifier with the gas product under the conditions of the zone, and the partially pyrolyzed coal powder enters the lower zone of the gasifier to continue the reaction. The temperature in the portion of the pyrolysis zone is primarily regulated by the gas flow rate of the zones below and the amount of coal powder fed to the zone, typically 450-650.

本发明的第一实施方案的步骤 b 发生在气化炉的催化气化 区。 在该步骤中, 部分热解的煤粉被送入催化气化区后在催化剂 的作用下与来自残渣气化区的气体物流接触并发生反应, 生成气 体物流和未充分反应的煤残渣, 其中该生成的气体物流中主要含 有 CH4、 C0、 H2和 C02,以及少量的 H2S和 NH3等。 在该催化气化区 中发生的主要反应如下: Step b of the first embodiment of the invention occurs in the catalytic gasification zone of the gasifier. In this step, the partially pyrolyzed coal powder is fed into the catalytic gasification zone and contacted with the gas stream from the residue gasification zone by the catalyst to react and form a gas stream and an insufficiently reacted coal residue, wherein The resulting gas stream mainly contains CH 4 , C0, H 2 and C0 2 , and a small amount of H 2 S, NH 3 and the like. The main reactions occurring in this catalytic gasification zone are as follows:

2C + 2H20 → 2H2 + 2C0 (1) 2C + 2H 2 0 → 2H 2 + 2C0 (1)

CO + H20 → C02 + H2 (2) CO + H 2 0 → C0 2 + H 2 (2)

3H2 + CO → CH4 + H20 (3) 3H 2 + CO → CH 4 + H 2 0 (3)

C + 2H2 → CH4 (4) C + 2H 2 → CH 4 (4)

所述催化气化区的反应温度为 650 ~ 750 , 压力为 0. 1 ~ 4MPa (绝对压力, 下同)。 在催化气化区中, 来自气化炉残渣气化 区的 CO和 H2在催化剂的作用下发生曱烷化反应, 如反应式(3 ) 所示, 增加了曱垸产率, 同时放出的反应热被反应生成的气体向 上运动携带到所述部分热解区中以进行步骤 a, 而未充分反应的 煤残渣则进入残渣气化区。此外,还发生碳的气化反应( 1 )和( 4 )、 一氧化碳变换反应(2)等反应。 其中所述催化剂选自: (1 )碱金属 或碱土金属的氧化物、 碳酸盐、 氢氧化物、 醋酸盐、 硝酸盐、 卤 化物或它们的混合物, 例如氧化钠、 氧化钙、 碳酸钠、 碳酸钾、 碳酸锂、 碳酸钙、 氢氧化钾、 氢氧化钠、 氢氧化钙、 醋酸钠、 硝 酸钙、 氯化钙等;或者(2 )过渡金属的氧化物, 例如铁、 钴、 镍、 钼等的氧化物; 或者以上 (1 )和 (2 ) 的混合物。 当催化剂为过 渡金属的氧化物时, 可通过向气化炉中加入过渡金属的可分解性 盐或氢氧化物来原位生成过渡金属的氧化物, 因为这些可分解性 盐或氢氧化物在气化炉的高温下很容易分解为相应的氧化物。 该 区中的催化剂与煤粉重量比为 0. 05 ~ 0. 2。 The reaction temperature of the catalytic gasification zone is 650 ~ 750, and the pressure is 0. 1 ~ 4MPa (absolute pressure, the same below). In the catalytic gasification zone, CO and H 2 from the gasification zone of the gasifier residue undergo a decaneization reaction under the action of a catalyst, such as reaction formula (3) As shown, the ruthenium yield is increased while the evolved heat of reaction is carried upward by the reaction-generated gas into the partial pyrolysis zone to carry out step a, while the insufficiently reacted coal residue enters the residue gasification zone. In addition, reactions such as carbon gasification reactions (1) and (4), carbon monoxide shift reaction (2), and the like occur. Wherein the catalyst is selected from the group consisting of: (1) an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxide, carbonate, hydroxide, acetate, nitrate, halide or a mixture thereof, such as sodium oxide, calcium oxide, sodium carbonate , potassium carbonate, lithium carbonate, calcium carbonate, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium acetate, calcium nitrate, calcium chloride, etc.; or (2) oxides of transition metals, such as iron, cobalt, nickel, An oxide of molybdenum or the like; or a mixture of the above (1) and (2). When the catalyst is an oxide of a transition metal, the oxide of the transition metal can be formed in situ by adding a decomposable salt or hydroxide of a transition metal to the gasifier, since these decomposable salts or hydroxides are The gasifier is easily decomposed into the corresponding oxide at high temperatures. 5〜 0. 2。 The ratio of the ratio of the catalyst and the pulverized coal is 0. 05 ~ 0. 2.

本发明的第一种实施方案的步骤 c发生在气化炉的残渣气化 区。 步骤 b的煤残渣向下进入该区后, 与通入该区的气化剂接触, 其中所述气化剂含有氧气以及饱和蒸汽或过热蒸汽, 其中过热蒸 汽的温度可为 200 - 500 , 通入气化炉的过热蒸汽与通入气化炉 的煤的重量比一般为 0. 5 ~ 5,通入的氧气与进入气化炉的煤粉的 重量比 0. 1 ~ 1. 0。 过热蒸汽和氧气可以以混合物形式通入该区, 也可以分别通入该区并在该区中发生混合。 在该区发生的主要的 反应如下:  Step c of the first embodiment of the present invention occurs in the residue gasification zone of the gasifier. After the coal residue of step b enters the zone, it is contacted with a gasifying agent which is introduced into the zone, wherein the gasifying agent contains oxygen and saturated steam or superheated steam, wherein the temperature of the superheated steam may be 200-500. The weight ratio of the oxygen entering the gasifier to the coal powder entering the gasifier is 0.1 to 1. 0. The superheated steam and oxygen may be passed to the zone as a mixture, or may be passed to the zone separately and mixing occurs in the zone. The main reactions that occur in this area are as follows:

C + 02 → C02 (5) C + 0 2 → C0 2 (5)

C + C02 → 2C0 (6) C + C0 2 → 2C0 (6)

C + H20 → CO + H2 (7) C + H 2 0 → CO + H 2 (7)

CO + H20 → C02 + H2 (8) 这些反应生成包括合成气在内的气体物流和灰渣, 在该区中 碳的总转化率可达 90%以上。 其中所述包括合成气在内的气体物 流还包括二氧化碳和未反应的水蒸气以及可能的氧气等气体, 该 气体物流向上进入所述催化气化区以进行步骤 b, 而所述灰渣则 排出气化炉。 由于该区中的反应为强氧化反应,放出大量的热量, 故该区的温度是气化炉中最高的。 可通过调节气化剂的进料速率 和 /或组成来将该区的温度控制在适合于生成合成气的温度下,一 般为 800-1200 , 所放出的反应热为上面的催化气化区提供热 量。 在该区中, 通入的水蒸气与进入气化炉的煤的重量比一般为 0. 5 ~ 5,通入的氧气与进入气化炉的煤的重量比一般为 0. 1 ~ 1. 0。 若本发明的方法中采用的催化剂在该区的温度下不能气化, 则该催化剂随着灰渣排出气化炉, 进入到催化剂回收单元进行回 收; 若本发明的方法中采用的催化剂在该区的温度下能够气化, 则该催化剂被气化成蒸气并随着所述包括合成气在内的气体物流 向上进入到所述催化气化区, 并随着气体温度的降低而冷凝在煤 上重复发挥催化作用。 CO + H 2 0 → C0 2 + H 2 (8) These reactions produce a gas stream including ash and ash, and the total conversion of carbon in the zone can be over 90%. The gas stream including the syngas further includes carbon dioxide and unreacted water vapor and possibly oxygen, the gas stream is directed upward into the catalytic gasification zone to perform step b, and the ash is discharged Gasifier. Since the reaction in this zone is a strong oxidation reaction, a large amount of heat is released, so the temperature in this zone is the highest in the gasifier. The temperature of the zone can be controlled to a temperature suitable for the synthesis gas by adjusting the feed rate and/or composition of the gasifying agent, typically from 800 to 1200, and the heat of reaction evolved to provide the above catalytic gasification zone. Heat. 1 - 1. The weight ratio of the oxygen entering the gas to the gasifier is generally 0. 1 ~ 1. 0. If the catalyst used in the process of the present invention is not vaporizable at the temperature of the zone, the catalyst is withdrawn from the gasifier as the ash is passed to the catalyst recovery unit for recovery; if the catalyst employed in the process of the invention is The gas can be vaporized at the temperature of the zone, and the catalyst is vaporized into a vapor and flows upward into the catalytic gasification zone along with the gas stream including the synthesis gas, and condenses on the coal as the gas temperature decreases. Repeat the catalytic effect.

或者, 更广义地, 本发明的多区煤气化子方法中, 可以省略 部分热解区, 因此, 本发明的多区煤气化子方法可以包括以下步  Alternatively, more broadly, in the multi-zone coal gasification process of the present invention, a partial pyrolysis zone may be omitted, and therefore, the multi-zone coal gasification process of the present invention may include the following steps

1 ) .将煤粉加入到含催化气化区和残渣气化区的气化炉的催 化气化区, 在那里该煤粉与来自残渣气化区的气体物流在催化剂 存在下接触, 生成含曱烷的气体物流和未充分反应的煤残渣, 和 1) adding pulverized coal to a catalytic gasification zone of a gasification furnace containing a catalytic gasification zone and a residue gasification zone, where the pulverized coal is contacted with a gas stream from the residue gasification zone in the presence of a catalyst to form a a gas stream of decane and an insufficiently reacted coal residue, and

2 ) .将步骤 1)的煤残渣送入残渣气化区与气化剂接触, 生成 的气体物流进入催化气化区和灰渣排出气化炉。  2) The coal residue of step 1) is sent to the residue gasification zone to be in contact with the gasifying agent, and the generated gas stream enters the catalytic gasification zone and the ash is discharged to the gasification furnace.

其中至少一部分煤从所述催化气化区进入气化炉。 在步骤 1 ) 中, 煤在该催化气化区中与来自残渣气化区的气体物流在催化剂 存在下接触生成含曱烷的气体物流和未充分反应的煤残渣, 其中 催化剂、 温度、 压力工艺条件等与上文对第一种实施方案的步骤 b 所述的工艺条件基本相同, 生成的含甲烷的气体物流向上流出 气化炉, 而未充分反应的煤残渣向下运动到残渣气化区。 At least a portion of the coal enters the gasifier from the catalytic gasification zone. In step 1), the coal in the catalytic gasification zone and the gas stream from the residue gasification zone are in the catalyst Contacting to form a decane-containing gas stream and an insufficiently reacted coal residue, wherein the catalyst, temperature, pressure process conditions, and the like are substantially the same as those described above for step b of the first embodiment, and the resulting The methane gas stream flows upwardly out of the gasifier, while the less fully reacted coal residue moves down to the residue gasification zone.

在步骤 2 )中, 来自步骤 1 )的煤残渣进入残渣气化区后与气 化剂接触, 其中步骤 2 ) 中所发生的反应、 气化剂种类和组成、 所生成的气体物流的组成、 温度、 压力等工艺条件也与上文中的 第一种实施方案的步驟 c基本相同。  In step 2), the coal residue from step 1) enters the residue gasification zone and is contacted with a gasifying agent, wherein the reaction occurring in step 2), the type and composition of the gasifying agent, the composition of the generated gas stream, The process conditions of temperature, pressure and the like are also substantially the same as step c of the first embodiment above.

本发明还涉及一种煤的综合利用系统, 该系统包括煤气化制 备含曱烷的气体的气化炉和多联产子系统, 其中所述煤气化制备 含甲垸的气体的气化炉从上到下依次包括:  The present invention also relates to a comprehensive utilization system for coal, the system comprising a gasification furnace and a multi-generation subsystem for gasification to produce a gas containing decane, wherein the coal gasification furnace for preparing a gas containing formazan is Top to bottom includes:

a.部分热解区, 用于将煤粉与来自催化气化区的气体物流接 触, 生成的含甲烷的气体物流离开气化炉和生成的部分热解的煤 粉送入催化气化区;  a partial pyrolysis zone for contacting the pulverized coal with a gas stream from the catalytic gasification zone, and the generated methane-containing gas stream exits the gasification furnace and the generated partially pyrolyzed coal powder is sent to the catalytic gasification zone;

b.催化气化区, 用于将来自部分热解区的部分热解的煤粉与 来自残渣气化区的气体物流接触, 生成的气体物流进入所述部分 热解区和未充分反应的煤残渣送入残渣气化区; 和  b. a catalytic gasification zone for contacting a portion of the pyrolyzed coal powder from the partial pyrolysis zone with a gas stream from the residue gasification zone, the resulting gas stream entering the partial pyrolysis zone and the less fully reacted coal The residue is sent to the residue gasification zone; and

c.残渣气化区, 用于将来自所述催化气化区的煤残渣与气化 剂接触, 生成的气体物流进入催化气化区, 生成的灰渣排出气化 炉。  c. a residue gasification zone for contacting the coal residue from the catalytic gasification zone with a gasifying agent, and the generated gas stream enters the catalytic gasification zone, and the generated ash is discharged to the gasification furnace.

其中各区之间用分布板隔开, 该分布板上具有供气体物料通 过的孔。 气体分布板上还贯通设有呈两端开放的管状形式的溢流 装置, 该溢流装置用于使固相原料自上而下, 从上层空间通过溢 流装置流向下层空间。  The zones are separated by a distribution plate having holes for the passage of gaseous material. The gas distribution plate is further provided with an overflow device having a tubular form open at both ends, and the overflow device is for flowing the solid phase raw material from the upper layer to the lower layer space from the upper space through the overflow device.

或者, 其中的部分热解区也可以省略, 在这种情况下, 本发 明的系统中的煤气化制备含曱烷的气体的气化炉从上到下依次包 括: Alternatively, a part of the pyrolysis zone may be omitted, in which case the gasification furnace for gasification of the decane-containing gas in the system of the present invention is sequentially packed from top to bottom. Includes:

1 ) . 催化气化区, 用于将煤粉与来自残渣气化区的气体物流 在催化剂存在下接触, 生成含曱烷的气体物流和未充分反应的煤 残渣; 和  a catalytic gasification zone for contacting a pulverized coal with a gas stream from a residue gasification zone in the presence of a catalyst to form a decane-containing gas stream and an insufficiently reacted coal residue;

2 ) . 残渣气化区, 用于将来自所述催化气化区的煤残渣与 气化剂接触, 生成的气体物流进入催化气化区, 生成的灰渣排出 气化炉。  2) A residue gasification zone for contacting the coal residue from the catalytic gasification zone with a gasifying agent, and the generated gas stream enters the catalytic gasification zone, and the generated ash is discharged to the gasification furnace.

在气化炉的各区都可根据需要设有用于将物料, 例如煤、 催 化剂、 煤与催化剂的混合物、 气化剂等通入气化炉的进料设备, 这些进料设备是本领域技术人员公知的。 此外, 在气化炉的底端 和顶端还设有供气体和灰渣离开气化炉的出料设备, 这些出料设 备也是本领域技术人员公知的。  Feeding equipment for introducing materials such as coal, a catalyst, a mixture of coal and a catalyst, a gasifying agent, etc. into a gasifier may be provided in each zone of the gasifier as needed, and these feeding apparatuses are those skilled in the art. openly known. In addition, discharge means for the gas and ash to leave the gasifier are provided at the bottom and top ends of the gasifier, and such discharge devices are also well known to those skilled in the art.

在一个优选实施方案中, 本发明的气化炉包括用于将至少一 部分煤从气化炉的部分热解区和 /或催化气化区的任意一处或几 处加入气化炉的设备。 这些进料设备可包括料仓、 旋转给料设备 以及必要的连接管道。取决于气化炉釆用常压气化还是高压气化, 进料设备可在常压或高压下运行。  In a preferred embodiment, the gasifier of the present invention includes equipment for introducing at least a portion of the coal from any one or more of the partial pyrolysis zone and/or the catalytic gasification zone of the gasifier to the gasifier. These feeding devices can include silos, rotating feed devices, and the necessary connecting pipes. Depending on whether the gasifier is gasified at atmospheric pressure or high pressure, the feed equipment can be operated at atmospheric or high pressure.

在另一个优选实施方案中, 本发明的气化炉包括用于将催化 剂混入煤粉的设备和用于将催化剂直接加入气化炉的设备。  In another preferred embodiment, the gasifier of the present invention includes an apparatus for mixing a catalyst into pulverized coal and an apparatus for directly introducing the catalyst to the gasifier.

在另一个优选实施方案中, 本发明的气化炉还包括用于将至 少部分热解的煤粉从热解区输送到催化气化区的设备, 例如溢流 管等, 和用于将煤残渣从催化气化区输送到残渣气化区的设备, 这样的设备可为本领域已知的排渣设备。 在优选的实施方案中, 在气化炉底端出口处设置两个串联的排渣设备, 其中一级排渣设 备与气化炉之间设有阀门、 二级排渣设备与一级排渣设备之间也 设有阀门, 两个排渣设备上还均设置有放空阀门和充压岡门。 排 渣时, 首先将一级排渣设备与二级排渣设备之间的阀门关闭, 并 将一级排渣设备与气化炉之间的阀门打开, 灰渣排入一级排渣设 备中。 待一级排渣设备接收的灰渣的质量达到设定阈值后, 打开 二级排渣设备的充压阀门为二级排渣设备充压, 在二级排渣设备 的压力与一级排渣设备的压力一致时, 打开一级排渣设备与二级 排渣设备之间的连通岡门, 一级排渣设备中的固体送入二级排渣 设备后, 关闭一级排渣设备与二级排渣设备之间的连通阀门, 打 开二级排渣设备的放空阀门为二级排渣设备卸压, 将二级排渣设 备中的灰渣排出。 In another preferred embodiment, the gasifier of the present invention further comprises means for transporting at least partially pyrolyzed coal fines from the pyrolysis zone to the catalytic gasification zone, such as an overflow pipe, etc., and for use in coal The equipment for transporting the residue from the catalytic gasification zone to the residue gasification zone, such equipment may be a slagging apparatus known in the art. In a preferred embodiment, two slagging devices are arranged in series at the outlet of the bottom end of the gasifier, wherein a valve, a secondary slagging device and a primary slag are arranged between the primary slag discharging device and the gasification furnace. Valves are also provided between the devices, and both slag discharge devices are also provided with venting valves and filling gates. Row In the case of slag, the valve between the primary slagging device and the secondary slag discharging device is first closed, and the valve between the primary slag discharging device and the gasification furnace is opened, and the ash slag is discharged into the primary slag discharging device. After the quality of the ash received by the primary slagging device reaches a set threshold, the charging valve of the secondary slagging device is opened to charge the secondary slag discharging device, and the pressure of the secondary slag discharging device and the primary slag discharging When the pressure of the equipment is the same, the connection gate between the first-stage slagging equipment and the second-stage slagging equipment is opened, and the solid in the first-stage slagging equipment is sent to the second-stage slagging equipment, and the first-stage slagging equipment is closed. The communication valve between the slag discharge devices opens the venting valve of the secondary slagging device to relieve the pressure of the secondary slagging device, and discharges the ash from the secondary slag discharging device.

使用本发明的气化炉来实施本发明的子方法还包括煤粉制备 设备、 将催化剂与煤粉混合的混料设备、 将混料干燥及预氧化的 设备和煤粉进料设备, 这些设备都是本领域公知的。  The sub-method for carrying out the invention using the gasifier of the present invention further comprises a pulverized coal preparation device, a mixing device for mixing the catalyst with the pulverized coal, a device for drying and pre-oxidizing the mixture, and a pulverized coal feeding device, which are They are all well known in the art.

使用本发明的气化炉来实施本发明的子方法还包括将离开气 化炉的含甲烷的气体物流分离和提纯的设备和将气化炉底部的灰 渣排出的排渣设备, 这些设备也是本领域公知的。  The sub-method for carrying out the invention using the gasifier of the present invention further comprises a device for separating and purifying the methane-containing gas stream leaving the gasifier and a slagging device for discharging the ash from the bottom of the gasifier, and these devices are also It is well known in the art.

二、 多联产子方法及子系统  Second, the polygeneration sub-method and subsystem

多联产子方法是用于将本发明的多区煤气化子方法的产品分 离出曱烷后的合成气进一步利用以生产甲醇、 曱烷、 乙二醇、 低 碳醇、 二曱醚中的至少一种的方法。 多联产子方法可以配入适量 的氢气或补充一氧化碳来调节氢碳比。 利用合成气生产这些产品 的方法及设备在本领域都是公知的。  The poly-produced sub-process is used to further utilize the synthesis gas obtained by separating the product of the multi-zone coal gasification process of the present invention from decane to produce methanol, decane, ethylene glycol, lower alcohol, diterpene ether. At least one method. The polygeneration method can be formulated with an appropriate amount of hydrogen or supplemented with carbon monoxide to adjust the hydrogen to carbon ratio. Methods and apparatus for producing these products using syngas are well known in the art.

三、 藻类吸碳子方法及子系统  Third, algae carbon absorption sub-method and subsystem

为了实现二氧化碳的接近零排放, 本发明的方法还包括藻类 吸碳子方法用以吸收所述煤的综合利用方法最终剩余的二氧化 碳。  In order to achieve near zero emissions of carbon dioxide, the method of the present invention also includes an algae carbon uptake sub-process for absorbing the final remaining carbon dioxide of the integrated utilization of the coal.

所述的藻类吸碳技术, 是利用藻类的光合作用吸收本发明方 法中产生的二氧化碳,同时产生氧气和生物质。 产生的氧气可循 环回多区煤气化子方法中。 产生的生物质可用来生产生物柴油, 也可用来生产虾青素、 类胡萝卜素、 藻胆蛋白等高附加值产品, 产生的藻类残渣可直接处理作为肥料等, 还可经过生物发酵产生 甲烷、 氢气或乙醇中的一种或多种。 产生的氢气可以反馈回多区 煤气化子方法和多联产子方法, 形成循环工艺。 The algae carbon absorption technology utilizes photosynthesis of algae to absorb the present invention. The carbon dioxide produced in the process produces both oxygen and biomass. The oxygen produced can be recycled back to the multi-zone coal gasification process. The biomass produced can be used to produce biodiesel, and can also be used to produce high value-added products such as astaxanthin, carotenoids, phycobiliproteins, and the resulting algae residues can be directly treated as fertilizers, and bio-fermentation can also produce methane. One or more of hydrogen or ethanol. The generated hydrogen can be fed back to the multi-zone coal gasification process and the multi-generation sub-process to form a recycling process.

藻类吸碳可釆用棵藻、 绿藻、 轮藻、 金藻、 甲藻、 红藻、 硅 藻、 衣藻、 黄藻、 褐藻或蓝藻等常见藻类, 当然也可以使用多种 上述藻类的混合物。  Algae can absorb common algae such as algae, green algae, diatoms, algae, dinoflagellates, red algae, diatoms, chlamydia, yellow algae, brown algae or cyanobacteria. Of course, a mixture of various algae can also be used. .

四、 复合能源制氢子方法及子系统  Fourth, composite energy hydrogen generation method and subsystem

本发明的方法还包括复合能源制氢子方法以提供本发明的方 法需要的氢和 /或氧。  The process of the present invention also includes a composite energy hydrogen producer process to provide the hydrogen and/or oxygen required by the process of the present invention.

复合能源制氢子方法选自水电解制氢子方法、 生物制氢子方 法、 生物电化学制氢子方法或光电化学制氢子方法。  The composite energy hydrogen generation method is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen electrolysis hydrogen production, biological hydrogen production method, bioelectrochemical hydrogen production method or photoelectrochemical hydrogen production method.

所述的水电解制氢子方法, 其水电解方式可以采用固体聚合 物电解质 ( Sol id Polymer Electrolyte, SPE ) 电解槽系统, 也 可以釆用传统的碱性电解槽系统, 还可以釆用固体聚合物电解质 电解槽系统。  The water electrolysis hydrogen production method can adopt a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolyzer system, or a conventional alkaline electrolysis cell system, and can also adopt solid polymerization. Electrolyte electrolytic cell system.

其中, 基于固体聚合物电解质的水电解系统整体上可以分为 两大部分: 工艺部分和电路控制部分, 为减少防爆元件的应用, 可以将两部分分开并密封。 工艺部分一般包括电解模块、 供水模 块和气体净化模块, 为保证电解过程的安全, 一般会在该部分添 加气体报警设备和吹扫设施; 电路控制部分一般包括供电模块、 电气仪表控制模块和多级开关模块, 为简化该部分, 一般可以采 用电路集成并通过远程电脑进行控制。 固体聚合物电解质的水电 解系统 (SPE- WE )技术可以直接生产高纯 (>99. 9999% ) 和高压 Ol OMPa ) 氢气, 体积小, 产氢量高, 且可以与可再生能源发电 系统及燃料电池系统协同形成能源的绿色循环。 Among them, the water electrolysis system based on the solid polymer electrolyte can be divided into two parts as a whole: the process part and the circuit control part, in order to reduce the application of the explosion-proof element, the two parts can be separated and sealed. The process part generally includes an electrolysis module, a water supply module and a gas purification module. To ensure the safety of the electrolysis process, gas alarm devices and purging facilities are generally added in this part; the circuit control part generally includes a power supply module, an electric instrument control module and multiple stages. The switch module, in order to simplify this part, can generally be integrated with circuitry and controlled by a remote computer. The solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system (SPE-WE) technology can directly produce high purity (>99.9999%) and high pressure Ol OMPa ) Hydrogen, small in volume, high in hydrogen production, and can be combined with renewable energy power generation systems and fuel cell systems to form a green cycle of energy.

碱性电解槽主要有两种: 传统的碱性电解槽 ( Alka l ine Electrolyzer ) 和新兴的固体聚合物电解槽。 上世纪 70年代起, 研究者把目光转向碱性聚合物电解质(Alkal ine Sol id Polymer Electrolyte, ASPE)。 ASPE传导的是氢氧根离子, 而不是质子, 工作环境由酸性变成了碱性, 既作为隔离氢气和氧气的隔膜, 又 通过传导氢氧根离子起到导电的作用。 ASPE碱性电解槽使用非贵 金属作为催化剂, 目前以镍基催化剂为主, 其他非贵金属催化剂 为辅的二元或者多元催化剂。 在碱性电解槽中, 催化剂是通过电 化学方法电镀在双极板上的。 因此,催化剂和双极板是一体式的。 在双极板方面, 碱性电解槽使用不锈钢双极板, 其作用是既做极 板又当催化剂基底。 在碱性体系中, 不锈钢也具备化学稳定性。 与传统碱性电解槽相比, 新型的碱性聚合物电解质膜无毒, 无污 染, 其机械性能、 稳定性和成本上都具有很好的优势。 代替有毒 的石棉隔膜, 电解液由 25-30wt%浓度的氢氧化钾溶液更换成了去 离子水, 避免了碱液的侵蚀, 有效增加了电解槽的使用寿命, 降 低了维护费用。 在电流密度方面, 电流效率相对碱性电解槽有提 高。 在电极制备上, ASPE作为固体聚合物电解质膜, 需要制备膜 电极, 同时采用不锈钢流场作为极板, 而碱性电解槽一般是在不 锈钢极板上电镀 Ni基非贵金属催化剂。  There are two main types of alkaline electrolysis cells: the traditional alkaline electrolysis cell (Alka l ine Electrolyzer) and the emerging solid polymer electrolysis cell. Since the 1970s, researchers have turned their attention to alkaline polymer electrolytes (Alkal ine Sol id Polymer Electrolyte, ASPE). ASPE conducts hydroxide ions instead of protons. The working environment changes from acidic to alkaline, acting as a separator for isolating hydrogen and oxygen, and conducting electricity by conducting hydroxide ions. ASPE alkaline electrolyzers use non-noble metals as catalysts. Currently, nickel-based catalysts are mainly used as binary or multi-component catalysts supplemented by other non-precious metal catalysts. In an alkaline cell, the catalyst is electroplated onto the bipolar plates. Therefore, the catalyst and the bipolar plate are integrated. In the case of bipolar plates, the alkaline cell uses a stainless steel bipolar plate that functions as both a plate and a catalyst substrate. Stainless steel is also chemically stable in alkaline systems. Compared with traditional alkaline electrolyzers, the new alkaline polymer electrolyte membranes are non-toxic, non-polluting, and have excellent mechanical properties, stability and cost. Instead of the toxic asbestos diaphragm, the electrolyte is replaced with deionized water by a 25-30wt% potassium hydroxide solution, which avoids the erosion of the lye, effectively increases the service life of the electrolyzer and reduces maintenance costs. In terms of current density, current efficiency is improved relative to alkaline cells. In electrode preparation, ASPE is used as a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and a membrane electrode is required. At the same time, a stainless steel flow field is used as a plate, and an alkaline electrolytic cell is generally plated with a Ni-based non-precious metal catalyst on a stainless steel plate.

所述的生物制氢技术, 包括但不限于以生物质为原料利用热 物理化学原理和技术制取氢气和利用生物代谢过程将有机物或水 转化为氢气。 后者包括但不限于光合生物直接制氢和生物质发酵 制氢。  The biological hydrogen production technology includes, but is not limited to, using biomass as a raw material to utilize hydrogen physicochemical principles and techniques to produce hydrogen and to convert organic matter or water into hydrogen using a biological metabolic process. The latter include, but are not limited to, direct hydrogen production from photosynthetic organisms and hydrogen production from biomass fermentation.

生物制氢的微生物种类包括光合生物 (厌氧光合细菌、 蓝细 菌和绿藻) , 非光合生物 (严格厌氧细菌、 兼性厌氧细菌和好氧 细菌)和古细菌类群。 其中蓝细菌和绿藻类生物可利用体内的光 合机构转化太阳能为氢能。 光裂解水产氢是理想制氢途径, 但在 光合放氢同时, 伴随氧的释放, 除产氢效率较低外, 还伴随着放 氢酶遇氧失活的关键问题; 厌氧光合细菌的厌氧光合放氢过程不 产氧, 工艺简单, 产氢纯度和产氢效率高; 非光合生物可降解大 分子有机物产氢的特性, 使其在生物转化可再生能源物质 (纤维 素及其降解产物和淀粉等) 生产氢能。 Microbial species of biological hydrogen production include photosynthetic organisms (anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria, blue fine Bacteria and green algae), non-photosynthetic organisms (strictly anaerobic bacteria, facultative anaerobic bacteria and aerobic bacteria) and archaeal groups. Among them, cyanobacteria and green algae organisms can use the photosynthetic mechanism in the body to convert solar energy into hydrogen energy. Hydrogen production by photolysis of water is an ideal hydrogen production route, but in the photosynthetic hydrogen release, accompanied by the release of oxygen, in addition to the low hydrogen production efficiency, it is accompanied by the key problem of deactivation of hydrogenase by oxygen; anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria Oxygen photosynthetic hydrogen evolution process does not produce oxygen, simple process, high hydrogen production purity and hydrogen production efficiency; non-photosynthetic organisms can degrade the hydrogen production characteristics of macromolecular organics, making them biotransformable renewable energy materials (cellulose and its degradation products) And starch, etc.) to produce hydrogen energy.

生物制氢过程可以分为 5类: (1 )利用藻类或者青蓝菌的生 物光解水法; ( 2 )有机化合物的光合细菌光分解法; ( 3 )有机 化合物的发酵制氢; (4 )光合细菌和发酵细菌的耦合法制氢; (5 ) 酶催化法制氢。 目前发酵细菌的产氢速率较高, 而且对条件要求 较低, 具有直接应用前景。  The biological hydrogen production process can be divided into five categories: (1) biophotolysis of water using algae or blue-green bacteria; (2) photolysis of photosynthetic bacteria of organic compounds; (3) hydrogen production by fermentation of organic compounds; Hydrogen production by coupling of photosynthetic bacteria and fermenting bacteria; (5) Hydrogen production by enzyme catalysis. At present, fermenting bacteria have a higher hydrogen production rate and lower requirements on conditions, and have direct application prospects.

所述的生物电化学制氢技术, 是由微生物燃料电池( MFC )技 术发展而来, MFC 是基于微生物的厌氧呼吸为基础, 即以阴极为 唯一电子受体的电子传递过程。 在 MFC工作过程中, 首先一些微 生物氧化有机底物产生电子和质子, 电子转移到阳极, 被阳极接 受后通过导线传递到阴极, 质子通过阳离子交换膜从阳极室渗透 到阴极室, 在阴极上与氧气和电子作用生成水, 通过源源不断地 电子流动产生电流。 生物电化学制氢气系统, 阳极附近的运作与 MFC 相似, 细菌氧化有机物生成二氧化碳、 质子和电子, 电子被 转移到阳极, 而质子转移到阴极。 阴极的运作与 MFC区别较大, 阴极反应室是密闭的, 保持无氧环境, 通过电化学方法利用外电 源在 MFC电路中增强阴极的电势, 一方面提供部分细菌生长所需 的能量, 另一方面提供电子给阴极。 而在阴极质子直接被用作电 子受体, 产生氢气。 这种方法利用有机物直接生产氢气, 与电解 水相比极大地降低了能耗。 该方法利用一个大于 l l OmV (如 300mV ~ 400mV ) 的电压, 理论上阴极就可以产生氢气。 这个电压 要比电解水产生氢气的电压 (理论 1210mV, 电解液 pH为中性) 低的多。 釆用生物电化学制氢技术则可以用生物制氢后的发酵产 物、 有机废水等为基质产氢。 以乙酸作为基质, 外加电压为 250mV为例, 生产 lm3氢只需 0. 6kWh的电量, 而电解水生产 lm3 氢则需消耗电 4. 5 ~ 5kWh。 The bioelectrochemical hydrogen production technology is developed by microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, which is based on microbial anaerobic respiration, that is, an electron transfer process in which a cathode is the sole electron acceptor. During the operation of MFC, some microorganisms first oxidize the organic substrate to generate electrons and protons. The electrons are transferred to the anode, which is received by the anode and then transmitted to the cathode through the wire. The protons permeate from the anode chamber to the cathode chamber through the cation exchange membrane. Oxygen and electrons form water, which produces electricity through a constant flow of electrons. In bioelectrochemical hydrogen systems, the operation near the anode is similar to that of MFC. The bacteria oxidize organic matter to form carbon dioxide, protons and electrons, electrons are transferred to the anode, and protons are transferred to the cathode. The operation of the cathode is quite different from that of the MFC. The cathode reaction chamber is sealed and maintains an oxygen-free environment. The external power source is used to enhance the potential of the cathode in the MFC circuit by electrochemical means, on the one hand, the energy required for the growth of part of the bacteria, and the other Aspects provide electrons to the cathode. In the cathode, protons are directly used as electron acceptors to generate hydrogen. This method uses organic matter to directly produce hydrogen, and electrolysis Compared to water, energy consumption is greatly reduced. The method utilizes a voltage greater than ll OmV (e.g., 300 mV to 400 mV), which theoretically produces hydrogen. This voltage is much lower than the voltage at which hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water (theoretical 1210 mV, electrolyte pH is neutral).生物Using bioelectrochemical hydrogen production technology, hydrogen can be produced from fermentation products such as bio-hydrogen production, organic wastewater, and the like. 5〜5kWh。 The acetic acid is used as the substrate, the applied voltage is 250mV, the production of lm 3 hydrogen is only 0. 6kWh of electricity, and the electrolyzed water to produce lm 3 hydrogen is required to consume 4. 5 ~ 5kWh.

所述的光电化学制氢技术, 是将太阳能转化为氢能的一种低 成本制氢技术。 在太阳能转化为氢能的过程中, 利用光电协同效 应达到提高光转化率的目的。 在光电化学制氢体系中, 半导体光 催化材料作为光阳极, 光阳极吸收光子后产生电子-空穴对, 空 穴具有较强的氧化能力, 将水中氢氧根离子氧化为氧气, 电子具 有较强的还原能力, 在外加偏压作用下转移至阴极还原水中质子 生成氢气。 五、 回收物质和能量的子方法及子系统  The photoelectrochemical hydrogen production technology is a low-cost hydrogen production technology that converts solar energy into hydrogen energy. In the process of converting solar energy into hydrogen energy, the synergistic effect of photoelectricity is used to achieve the purpose of increasing the light conversion rate. In the photoelectrochemical hydrogen production system, the semiconductor photocatalytic material acts as a photoanode, and the photoanode absorbs photons to generate electron-hole pairs. The holes have strong oxidizing ability, and the hydroxide ions in the water are oxidized to oxygen. Strong reduction ability, transferred to the cathode to reduce hydrogen to form hydrogen under external bias. V. Sub-methods and subsystems for recovering matter and energy

本发明的方法还包括回收多区煤气化子方法中的催化剂、 水 或蒸汽, 回收所述含曱垸的气体物流中固体物料并循环之, 以及 利用所述方法中的余热或余压发电或产生蒸汽。 这样的方法通过 能实现上述过程的相应的子系统来实现。 具体实施方式  The method of the present invention also includes recovering the catalyst, water or steam in the multi-zone coal gasification process, recovering and recycling the solid material in the helium-containing gas stream, and utilizing waste heat or residual pressure in the process to generate electricity or Produce steam. Such an approach is implemented by a corresponding subsystem that implements the above process. Detailed ways

给出以下实施例以举例说明本发明, 这些实施例并非限制性 的。  The following examples are given to illustrate the invention, which are not intended to be limiting.

实施例一:  Embodiment 1:

参见图 1 , 图 1 中的气化炉从上至下包括三个区, 分别是部 分热解区 40、 催化气化区 41、 残渣气化区 42。 原煤通过管线 43 进入部分热解区 40, 部分热解区 40温度为 450 ~ 650 , 来自催 化气化区 41中的气体物流在部分热解区 40中加热进料原煤煤粉, 使之发生部分热解及加氢热解, 得到含甲烷的气体产物、 焦油及 热解后的煤粉。 气体产物和焦油从出口管线 48离开气化炉,进入 后续分离设备。 热解后的煤粉向下运动进入到催化气化区 41。 另 有一部分煤和催化剂以混合物的形式从管线 44 进入到催化气化 区, 这些煤与来自部分热解区的热解后的煤粉一起在催化气化区 41中与来自残渣气化区的气体物流发生反应,反应如上文反应式 ( 1 ) - ( 4 ) 所示, 生成气体产物。 主要有 CH4、 C0、 112和 C02, 以及少量的 H2S 和 NH3等。 这些气体产物向上运动到部分热解区 40中去热解煤。催化气化区 41的温度为 650-750 。 未充分反应 的煤残渣则向下进入到残渣气化区 42 , 在通入的过热蒸汽 46和 氧气 47的作用下, 发生上述反应式(5 ) - ( 8 )所示的反应, 生 成包含合成气在内的气体产物和固体灰渣, 这些气体产物向上运 动到催化气化区 41 中进行反应, 而灰渣则通过一级排渣设备 50 和二级排渣设备 51 排出气化炉。 该实施例中的气化炉操作在 3. 5MPa压力下。 实施例二: Referring to Figure 1, the gasifier in Figure 1 consists of three zones from top to bottom, respectively The pyrolysis zone 40, the catalytic gasification zone 41, and the residue gasification zone 42. The raw coal enters a portion of the pyrolysis zone 40 through a line 43, and the temperature of the partial pyrolysis zone 40 is 450 to 650. The gas stream from the catalytic gasification zone 41 heats the raw coal powder in a portion of the pyrolysis zone 40 to cause a portion thereof to occur. Pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis, obtaining methane-containing gas products, tar and pyrolysis of coal powder. The gaseous products and tar exit the gasifier from the outlet line 48 and enter the subsequent separation equipment. The pyrolyzed coal powder moves downward into the catalytic gasification zone 41. A further portion of the coal and catalyst enters the catalytic gasification zone from line 44 in the form of a mixture together with the pyrolyzed coal powder from the partial pyrolysis zone in the catalytic gasification zone 41 and from the residue gasification zone. The gas stream reacts and the reaction is as shown in the above reaction formulas (1) - (4) to form a gaseous product. There are mainly CH 4 , C0, 11 2 and C0 2 , and a small amount of H 2 S and NH 3 and the like. These gaseous products move upward into a portion of the pyrolysis zone 40 to pyrolyze the coal. The temperature of the catalytic gasification zone 41 is 650-750. The coal residue which is not sufficiently reacted enters the residue gasification zone 42 downward, and the reaction represented by the above reaction formulas (5) to (8) occurs under the action of the superheated steam 46 and the oxygen gas 47 which are introduced, and the synthesis includes synthesis. The gas product and the solid ash, which are gas, move up to the catalytic gasification zone 41 for reaction, and the ash is discharged to the gasifier through the primary slagging device 50 and the secondary slagging device 51. 5MPa压力。 Under the pressure of 3. 5MPa. Embodiment 2:

参见图 4, 气化炉的出口气体(主要有 CH4、 C0、 H2和 C02,以 及少量的 H2S和 3等)经旋风分萬器等温粉尘过滤进行气固分离, 固相粉尘返回气化炉进行气化反应, 气相经气液冷却分离单元进 行气液分离, 得到低温焦油。 粗合成气经过净化、 分离装置, 脱 除二氧化碳及硫化氢等酸性气体, 得到甲烷。 净化系统分离出的 H2S进一步加工得到硫磺。 剩余 112和 CO送入多联产子方法用于制 备曱烷、 曱醇、 二曱醚等。 多联产子方法产生的蒸汽用于发电。 实施例三: Referring to Figure 4, the gas of the gasifier's outlet gas (mainly CH 4 , C0, H 2 and C0 2 , and a small amount of H 2 S and 3 ) is subjected to cyclone separation and isothermal dust filtration for gas-solid separation, solid phase dust. Returning to the gasification furnace for gasification reaction, the gas phase is separated by gas-liquid cooling separation unit to obtain low temperature tar. The crude syngas is subjected to a purification and separation device to remove acid gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide to obtain methane. The H 2 S separated by the purification system is further processed to obtain sulfur. The remaining 11 2 and CO are fed into the polygeneration sub-method Preparation of decane, decyl alcohol, dioxane, etc. The steam produced by the polygeneration sub-method is used to generate electricity. Embodiment 3:

参见图 2 , 多区煤气化子方法生产的粗合成气经过净化分离 甲烷后的合成气(主要是 H2和 CO )和制氢子方法的氢气及藻类吸 碳子方法经残渣发酵产生的副产品氢气混合,送入多联产子方法, 一部分直接曱烷化制备曱烷, 副产物水返回多区煤气化子方法; 另一部分合成甲醇, 生产的甲醇的一部分用于生产二曱醚, 另一 部分可直接销售。 多区煤气化子方法和多联产子方法生成的二氧 化碳送入藻类吸碳子方法生产生物柴油, 同时联产氧气。 藻类残 渣用于发酵生产副产品氢气、 甲烷或乙醇中的一种或多种; 副产 品氢气返回多联产子方法。 发酵后的藻类残渣及系统中产生的废 水还可用于生物电化学制氢。 制氢子方法例如采用电解水制氢, 产生的氧气与藻类吸碳子方法产生的氧气混合, 送入多区煤气化 子方法用作气化剂。 实施例四: Referring to Figure 2, the synthesis gas produced by the multi-zone coal gasification process is purified by separation of methane (mainly H 2 and CO) and the hydrogen and algae carbon uptake method of the hydrogen production process. The hydrogen is mixed and sent to the polygeneration process. A part of the direct decane is used to prepare the decane, and the by-product water is returned to the multi-zone coal gasification process; another part of the methanol is synthesized, and a part of the produced methanol is used to produce the diterpene ether, and the other part. Can be sold directly. The multi-zone coal gasification method and the carbon dioxide generated by the poly-generation method are fed into the algae carbon-absorbing sub-process to produce biodiesel, and co-production of oxygen. The algae residue is used to ferment one or more of the by-products hydrogen, methane or ethanol; the by-product hydrogen is returned to the polygeneration sub-method. The algae residue after fermentation and the wastewater generated in the system can also be used for bioelectrochemical hydrogen production. The hydrogen production method uses, for example, hydrogen production from electrolyzed water, and the generated oxygen is mixed with oxygen generated by the algae carbon absorption method, and sent to a multi-zone coal gasification method as a gasifying agent. Embodiment 4:

参见图 3, 多区煤气化子方法生产的粗合成气经过净化分离 后的氢气和制氢子方法的氢气及藻类吸碳子方法经残渣发酵产生 的副产品氢气混合, 返回多区煤气化子系统的气化炉用于补氢。 剩余 H2与 CO和 /或 C02送入多联产子方法, 通过配氢化学固碳方 式即化学反应, 一部分直接曱烷化制备甲烷, 副产物水返回多区 煤气化子方法; 另一部分合成甲醇, 生产的曱醇的一部分用于生 产二曱醚, 另一部分可直接销售。 多区煤气化子方法和多联产子 方法生成的二氧化碳送入藻类吸碳子方法生产生物柴油, 同时联 产氧气。 藻类残渣用于发酵生产副产品氢气、 曱烷或乙醇中的一 种或多种; 副产品氢气返回多联产子方法。 发酵后的藻类残渣及 系统中产生的废水还可用于生物电化学制氢。 制氢子方法还可采 用例如电解水制氢, 产生的氧气与藻类吸碳子方法产生的氧气混 合, 送入多区煤气化子方法用作气化剂。 实施例五: Referring to FIG. 3, the crude syngas produced by the multi-zone coal gasification method is subjected to purification and separation of hydrogen and hydrogen production method, and the hydrogen and algae carbon absorption sub-products are mixed with hydrogen produced by the residue fermentation, and returned to the multi-zone coal gasification subsystem. The gasifier is used to replenish hydrogen. The remaining H 2 and CO and/or C0 2 are fed into the polygeneration sub-method, and the hydrogen is chemically carbon-fixed, that is, the chemical reaction, a part of the direct dealkylation is used to prepare methane, and the by-product water is returned to the multi-zone coal gasification method; Methanol is synthesized, part of the sterol produced is used to produce diterpene ether, and the other part can be sold directly. The multi-zone coal gasification method and the carbon dioxide generated by the poly-generation method are fed into the algae carbon-absorbing sub-process to produce biodiesel, and co-production of oxygen. Algae residue used in fermentation to produce one of the by-products hydrogen, decane or ethanol One or more; by-product hydrogen return to the polygeneration sub-method. The algae residue after fermentation and the wastewater generated in the system can also be used for bioelectrochemical hydrogen production. The hydrogen production process can also use, for example, electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen, the oxygen produced is mixed with the oxygen produced by the algae carbon uptake process, and fed to a multi-zone coal gasification process for use as a gasification agent. Embodiment 5:

系统中分离出的二氧化碳气体, 经过滤去除固体颗粒, 收集 至气体储罐后由气泵导入光生物反应器, 与光生物反应器相连的 通气装置可以选取喷嘴式、 曝气头式或其它各种类型。 在一定的 温度范围 (10 ~ 40 、 光照强度下 ( 300 ~ 40000 LUX ) , 光生 物反应器内培养的棵藻吸收二氧化碳, 进行光合作用, 在可见光 照射下, 将二氧化碳转变为葡萄糖, 进而转化为蛋白质、 脂肪、 维生素等营养物质, 同时释放出大量氧气。 棵藻经过培养转化为 生物质, 生物质经过生物提炼技术生产生物柴油、 虾青素、 类胡 萝卜素、 藻胆蛋白中的一种或多种。 本发明的优点如下:  The carbon dioxide gas separated in the system is filtered to remove solid particles, collected into a gas storage tank and then introduced into the photobioreactor by a gas pump. The aeration device connected to the photobioreactor can be selected from a nozzle type, an aeration head type or the like. Types of. Under a certain temperature range (10 ~ 40, light intensity (300 ~ 40000 LUX), the algae cultured in the photobioreactor absorbs carbon dioxide, carries out photosynthesis, converts carbon dioxide into glucose under visible light irradiation, and then converts it into Nutrients such as proteins, fats, and vitamins, and release a large amount of oxygen. The algae are cultured and converted into biomass, and the biomass is bio-refined to produce one of biodiesel, astaxanthin, carotenoids, and phycobiliproteins. Various advantages of the present invention are as follows:

( 1 )保留了催化气化特色和优势, 得到较高含量的甲烷, 克 服了单独催化气化的难点, 如反应时间较长、 排出的灰渣碳含量 较高等;  (1) retaining the characteristics and advantages of catalytic gasification, obtaining a higher content of methane, and overcome the difficulties of separate catalytic gasification, such as longer reaction time and higher carbon content of discharged ash;

( 2 )多区耦合气化, 本发明的气化炉的部分热解区利用催化 气化产气的余温加热刚进入的粉煤, 进行部分热解, 产生甲烷气 体等产品, 在没有增加能耗的条件下增加了曱烷和焦油; 催化气 化区发生催化气化主反应; 残渣气化区通过通入气化剂来气化剩 余残渣, 通过对残渣的燃烧、 气化提供了催化气化需要的热量, 同时提供氢气和 C0, 有利于催化气化反应; ( 3 ) 与两步法制备甲烷相比, 该装置集多个反应器于一体, 实现物流耦合、 热量耦合, 自供反应热降低过热蒸汽的能耗, 解 决了残渣含碳的问题; 延长了平均停留时间, 增大了气体产能, 提高了碳转化率。 (2) Multi-zone coupled gasification, the partial pyrolysis zone of the gasification furnace of the present invention uses the residual temperature of the catalytic gasification gas to heat the newly entered pulverized coal, partially pyrolyzes, and produces methane gas and the like, without increasing The decane and tar are added under the condition of energy consumption; the main reaction of catalytic gasification occurs in the catalytic gasification zone; the residual gasification zone passes through the gasification agent to gasify the remaining residue, and provides catalysis by burning and gasification of the residue. The heat required for gasification, while providing hydrogen and C0, is beneficial to the catalytic gasification reaction; (3) Compared with the two-step method for preparing methane, the device integrates multiple reactors to realize logistics coupling and heat coupling. The self-supply heat reduces the energy consumption of superheated steam, and solves the problem of carbon residue in the residue; The residence time increases the gas production capacity and increases the carbon conversion rate.

( 4 )从整个过程看, 利用该多区气化炉气化制备富含曱烷气 体, 热效率较高, 固相加工深度较高, 气体产物中曱烷含量较高, 设备精简, 易操作。  (4) From the whole process, the gasification of the multi-zone gasifier is used to prepare a gas rich in decane gas, which has high thermal efficiency, high solid phase processing depth, high decane content in the gas product, and simple and easy operation.

( 5 ) 二氧化碳的近零排放。 一方面通过藻类吸碳技术, 捕 获、 吸收二氧化碳, 另一方面通过配氢化学固碳技术, 将一氧化 碳或二氧化碳全部转化成能源产品, 从而实现二氧化碳近零排 放。  (5) Near zero emissions of carbon dioxide. On the one hand, it captures and absorbs carbon dioxide through algae carbon absorption technology, and on the other hand, it converts carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide into energy products through hydrogenation chemical carbon sequestration technology, thereby achieving near zero emission of carbon dioxide.

( 6 )煤炭资源的全价开发和资源的最优化利用。 将煤转化为 曱烷、 氢气、 曱醇、 乙二醇、 低碳醇和 /或二曱醚; 通过复合能 源制氢技术, 节省空分工段; 利用生物提炼技术得到生物柴油, 资源利用效率可达 80%以上。  (6) Full price development of coal resources and optimal use of resources. Convert coal into decane, hydrogen, decyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, lower alcohol and/or diterpene ether; save energy by using composite energy hydrogen production technology; use biorefinery technology to obtain biodiesel, resource utilization efficiency More than 80%.

Claims

权利要求 Rights request
1. 一种煤的综合利用方法, 包括: 1. A comprehensive utilization method of coal, comprising:
多区煤气化子方法和多联产子方法, 其中所述多区煤气化子 方法包括下列步骤:  A multi-zone coal gasification process and a multi-generation sub-process, wherein the multi-zone coal gasification process comprises the following steps:
a.将煤粉加入到含部分热解区、 催化气化区和残渣气化区的 气化炉的部分热解区, 在那里该煤粉与来自催化气化区的气体物 流接触以部分热解所述煤粉, 生成含曱烷的气体物流和部分热解 的煤粉,  a. adding pulverized coal to a partial pyrolysis zone of a gasification furnace comprising a partial pyrolysis zone, a catalytic gasification zone and a residue gasification zone, where the pulverized coal is in contact with a gas stream from the catalytic gasification zone for partial heat Solving the coal powder to form a gas stream containing decane and partially pyrolyzed coal powder,
b.将所述部分热解的煤粉送入催化气化区并在催化剂存在下 与来自残渣气化区的气体物流接触, 生成的气体物流进入部分热 解区和未充分反应的煤残渣进入残渣气化区, 和  b. feeding the partially pyrolyzed coal powder to a catalytic gasification zone and contacting the gas stream from the residue gasification zone in the presence of a catalyst, the resulting gas stream entering a partial pyrolysis zone and an insufficiently reacted coal residue entering Residue gasification zone, and
c.将所述煤残渣在残渣气化区与气化剂接触, 生成的气体物 流进入催化气化区和生成的灰渣排出气化炉。  c. contacting the coal residue with the gasifying agent in the residue gasification zone, and the generated gas stream enters the catalytic gasification zone and the generated ash is discharged to the gasification furnace.
2. 根据权利要求 1的方法, 其中至少一部分煤从气化炉的部 分热解区和 /或催化气化区的任意一处或几处进入气化炉。  2. The method of claim 1 wherein at least a portion of the coal enters the gasifier from any one or more of a portion of the gasification zone and/or the catalytic gasification zone of the gasifier.
3. 根据权利要求 1的方法, 其中一部分煤从所述残渣气化区 进入所述气化炉。  3. The method of claim 1 wherein a portion of the coal enters the gasifier from the residue gasification zone.
4. 根据权利要求 1 的方法, 其中所述催化剂选自: (1 )碱 金属或碱土金属的氧化物、 碳酸盐、 氢氧化物、 醋酸盐、 硝酸盐、 卤化物或它们的混合物;或者 (2 ) 过渡金属的氧化物; 或者以上 ( 1 ) 和 (2 ) 的混合物。  4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the catalyst is selected from the group consisting of: (1) an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxide, carbonate, hydroxide, acetate, nitrate, halide or a mixture thereof; Or (2) an oxide of a transition metal; or a mixture of (1) and (2) above.
5. 权利要求 1的方法, 其中部分热解区的温度在 450-650 范围内, 催化气化区温度在 eso sox范围内, 残渣气化区温度 在 800-1200 范围内, 气化炉内的压力在 0. 1 - 4MPa范围内。  5. The method of claim 1, wherein the temperature of the partial pyrolysis zone is in the range of 450-650, the temperature of the catalytic gasification zone is in the range of eso sox, and the temperature of the residue gasification zone is in the range of 800-1200, in the gasifier The pressure is in the range of 0.1 to 4 MPa.
6. 根据权利要求 1 的方法, 所述气化剂从气化炉底部通入, 其含有氧气以及饱和蒸汽或过热蒸汽。 6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the gasifying agent is introduced from the bottom of the gasifier, It contains oxygen as well as saturated steam or superheated steam.
7. 根据权利要求 6的方法, 其中通入的过热蒸汽与进入气化 炉的煤的重量比为 0. 5-5, 通入的氧气与进入气化炉的煤的重量 比为 0. 1-1. 0。  0. 1 The weight ratio of the oxygen entering the gas to the gasifier is 0.1. -1. 0.
8. 根据权利要求 1-7任一项所述的方法, 其中所述多联产子 方法是用 ^^曱烷的气体物流分离出曱烷后的合成气生产曱醇、 曱 烷、 乙二醇、 低碳醇、 二曱醚中的至少一种的方法。  The method according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the polygeneration method is to produce decyl alcohol, decane, and ethylene by syngas after separating decane from a gas stream of decane. A method of at least one of an alcohol, a lower alcohol, and a diterpene ether.
9. 根据权利要求 8所述的方法, 还包括藻类吸碳子方法。  9. The method of claim 8 further comprising an algae carbonaceous sub-method.
10. 根据权利要求 9 的方法, 其中所述藻类吸碳子方法吸收 所述煤的综合利用方法最终剩余的二氧化碳。  10. The method according to claim 9, wherein said algae carbon uptake method absorbs the remaining carbon dioxide remaining by the integrated utilization method of said coal.
11. 根据权利要求 9或 10的方法, 其中所述藻类吸碳子方法 使用棵藻、 绿藻、 轮藻、 金藻、 甲藻、 红藻、 硅藻、 衣藻、 黄藻、 褐藻、 蓝藻或它们的混合物。  The method according to claim 9 or 10, wherein the algae carbon uptake method uses algae, green algae, Chara, algae, dinoflagellate, red algae, diatom, Chlamydomonas, yellow algae, brown algae, cyanobacteria Or a mixture of them.
12. 根据权利要求 11的方法, 其中所属藻类吸碳子方法生产 生物柴油、 氧气、 氢气、 曱烷、 乙醇、 虾青素、 胡萝卜素、 藻胆 蛋白中的至少一种。  12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the algae carbonaceous sub-process produces at least one of biodiesel, oxygen, hydrogen, decane, ethanol, astaxanthin, carotenes, phycobiliproteins.
13. 根据权利要求 8的方法, 还包括复合能源制氢子方法。  13. The method of claim 8 further comprising a composite energy hydrogen generation process.
14. 根据权利要求 9的方法, 还包括复合能源制氢子方法。  14. The method of claim 9 further comprising a composite energy hydrogen generation process.
15. 根据权利要求 13或 14 的方法, 其中复合能源制氢子方 法选自水电解制氢子方法、 生物制氢子方法、 生物电化学制氢子 方法或光电化学制氢子方法。  The method according to claim 13 or 14, wherein the hydrogen generation method of the composite energy source is selected from the group consisting of a water electrolysis hydrogen generation method, a biological hydrogen production sub-method, a bioelectrochemical hydrogen production sub-method, or a photoelectrochemical hydrogen production sub-method.
16. 根据权利要求 8 所述的方法, 还包括回收多区煤气化子 方法和多联产子方法中的催化剂、 水或蒸汽, 回收所述含甲烷的 气体物流中固体物料并循环之, 以及利用所述方法中的余热或余 压发电或产生蒸汽。  16. The method of claim 8 further comprising recovering the catalyst, water or steam in the multi-zone coal gasification process and the poly-generation process, recovering the solid material in the methane-containing gas stream, and recycling, and The waste heat or residual pressure in the process is used to generate electricity or generate steam.
17. 根据权利要求 15的方法, 其中所述复合能源制氢子方法 中所需的能量选自太阳能、 风能、 水能、 地热能、 潮汐能、 核电、 低谷电能、 火电或根据权利要求 16产生的电能。 17. The method according to claim 15, wherein said composite energy hydrogen generation method The energy required in the solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, nuclear power, trough power, thermal power or electrical energy generated according to claim 16.
18. 根据权利要求 4的方法, 其中所述过渡金属选自铁、 钴、 镍、 钼或它们的混合物。  18. The method according to claim 4, wherein the transition metal is selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum or a mixture thereof.
19. 权利要求 4 的方法, 其中通过向气化炉中加入所述过渡 金属的可分解性盐或氢氧化物来原位生成所述过渡金属的氧化 物》  19. The method of claim 4, wherein the oxide of the transition metal is generated in situ by adding a decomposable salt or hydroxide of the transition metal to a gasifier.
20. 一种煤的综合利用系统, 包括:  20. A comprehensive utilization system for coal, comprising:
煤气化制备含甲烷的气体的气化炉和多联产子系统, 其中所 述煤气化制备含曱烷的气体的气化炉从上到下依次包括:  A gasification furnace and a polygeneration subsystem for producing a methane-containing gas by gasification, wherein the gasification furnace for preparing a gas containing decane by gasification includes, in order from top to bottom:
a.部分热解区, 用于将煤粉与来自催化气化区的气体物流接 触, 生成的含甲烷的气体物流离开气化炉和生成的部分热解的煤 粉送入催化气化区;  a partial pyrolysis zone for contacting the pulverized coal with a gas stream from the catalytic gasification zone, and the generated methane-containing gas stream exits the gasification furnace and the generated partially pyrolyzed coal powder is sent to the catalytic gasification zone;
b.催化气化区, 用于将来自部分热解区的部分热解的煤粉与 来自残渣气化区的气体物流接触, 生成的气体物流进入所述部分 热解区和未充分反应的煤残渣送入残渣气化区; 和  b. a catalytic gasification zone for contacting a portion of the pyrolyzed coal powder from the partial pyrolysis zone with a gas stream from the residue gasification zone, the resulting gas stream entering the partial pyrolysis zone and the less fully reacted coal The residue is sent to the residue gasification zone; and
c.残渣气化区, 用于将来自所述催化气化区的煤残渣与气化 剂接触, 生成的气体物流进入催化气化区, 生成的灰渣排出气化 炉。  c. a residue gasification zone for contacting the coal residue from the catalytic gasification zone with a gasifying agent, and the generated gas stream enters the catalytic gasification zone, and the generated ash is discharged to the gasification furnace.
21. 权利要求 20的系统, 进一步包括用于将至少一部分煤从 气化炉的部分热解区和 /或催化气化区的任意一处或几处加入气 化炉的设备。  21. The system of claim 20, further comprising means for adding at least a portion of the coal to the gasifier from any one or more of the partial pyrolysis zone and/or the catalytic gasification zone of the gasifier.
22. 权利要求 20或 21 的系统, 还包括用于将催化剂混入煤 粉的设备和用于将催化剂直接加入气化炉的设备。  22. The system of claim 20 or 21, further comprising an apparatus for mixing the catalyst into the pulverized coal and an apparatus for directly introducing the catalyst to the gasifier.
23. 权利要求 20或 21 的系统, 还包括用于将部分热解的煤 粉从热解区输送到催化气化区的设备和用于将煤残渣从催化气化 区输送到残渣气化区的设备。 23. The system of claim 20 or 21, further comprising means for transporting partially pyrolyzed pulverized coal from the pyrolysis zone to the catalytic gasification zone and for gasifying the coal residue from the catalyst Equipment that is transported to the residue gasification zone.
24. 根据权利要求 20的系统, 其中所述多联产子系统生产曱 醇、 曱烷、 乙二醇、 低碳醇、 二曱醚中的至少一种。  24. The system of claim 20, wherein the polygeneration subsystem produces at least one of decyl alcohol, decane, ethylene glycol, lower alcohols, dioxins.
25. 根据权利要求 24所述的系统, 还包括藻类吸碳子系统。  25. The system of claim 24, further comprising an algae carburizing subsystem.
26. 根据权利要求 25的系统, 其中所述藻类吸碳子系统吸收 所述煤的综合利用系统剩余的二氧化碳。  26. The system of claim 25, wherein the algae carburizing subsystem absorbs carbon dioxide remaining in the integrated utilization system of the coal.
27. 根据权利要求 24或 25 的系统, 还包括复合能源制氢子 系统。  27. A system according to claim 24 or 25, further comprising a composite energy hydrogen generation subsystem.
28. 根据权利要求 27所述的系统, 其中复合能源制氢子系统 选自水电解制氢子系统、 生物制氢子系统、 生物电化学制氢子系 统或光电化学制氢子系统。  28. The system of claim 27, wherein the composite energy hydrogen production subsystem is selected from the group consisting of a water electrolysis hydrogen production subsystem, a biohydrogen production subsystem, a bioelectrochemical hydrogen production subsystem, or a photoelectrochemical hydrogen production subsystem.
29. 根据权利要求 24所述的系统, 还包括回收煤气化制备含 曱烷的气体的气化炉中的催化剂、 水或蒸汽的设备, 回收所述含 曱烷的气体物流中 体物料并循环之的设备, 以及利用所述系统 中的余热或余压发电或产生蒸汽的设备。  29. The system according to claim 24, further comprising an apparatus for recovering catalyst, water or steam in a gasification furnace for gasification to produce a gas containing decane, recovering the body material in the decane-containing gas stream and recycling Equipment, and equipment that uses the residual heat or residual pressure in the system to generate electricity or generate steam.
30. 根据权利要求 20的系统, 其中所述气化炉的各区之间用 多孔分布板隔开。  30. The system of claim 20, wherein the zones of the gasifier are separated by a porous distribution plate.
31. 根据权利要求 20的系统, 其中所述气化炉内还包括用于 使煤向下运动的溢流管。  31. The system of claim 20, wherein the gasifier further includes an overflow tube for moving the coal downward.
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