WO2011026307A1 - 垃圾无害化处理和发电系统及方法 - Google Patents

垃圾无害化处理和发电系统及方法 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2011026307A1
WO2011026307A1 PCT/CN2010/000861 CN2010000861W WO2011026307A1 WO 2011026307 A1 WO2011026307 A1 WO 2011026307A1 CN 2010000861 W CN2010000861 W CN 2010000861W WO 2011026307 A1 WO2011026307 A1 WO 2011026307A1
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WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
steam
garbage
incinerator
outlet
power generation
Prior art date
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PCT/CN2010/000861
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
王兴道
王延政
Original Assignee
Wang Xingdao
Wang Yanzheng
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Wang Xingdao, Wang Yanzheng filed Critical Wang Xingdao
Publication of WO2011026307A1 publication Critical patent/WO2011026307A1/zh

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B3/00Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/46Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension
    • C10J3/466Entrained flow processes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/72Other features
    • C10J3/721Multistage gasification, e.g. plural parallel or serial gasification stages
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/08Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating
    • F23G5/12Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating using gaseous or liquid fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/24Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having a vertical, substantially cylindrical, combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/44Details; Accessories
    • F23G5/46Recuperation of heat
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0913Carbonaceous raw material
    • C10J2300/093Coal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/16Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant
    • C10J2300/1603Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant with gas treatment
    • C10J2300/1606Combustion processes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/10Drying by heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/80Shredding
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2202/00Combustion
    • F23G2202/20Combustion to temperatures melting waste
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/12Heat utilisation in combustion or incineration of waste

Definitions

  • the present invention relates to a garbage disposal system, and more particularly to an organic waste innocuous power generation treatment system and a power generation method.
  • the research on urban organic waste incineration in all countries in the world belongs to low-temperature incineration. It is ignited by natural gas and fuel. In order to keep the temperature of the furnace stable, it is incinerated with a certain amount of coal. The organic waste contains a large amount of water, preheating and catching fire. At this stage, a large amount of heat energy is required to enable the stable operation of the incinerator, and the calorific value of the garbage itself has to rely on natural gas or fuel oil or artificial gas as an auxiliary heat source due to low calorific value and poor stability, resulting in expensive operation. Formed a common phenomenon of excessive cost of municipal waste treatment.
  • Dioxins are produced at temperatures between 350 ° C and 800 ° C, and harmful gases such as dioxins at 350 ° C above 800 ° C will be effectively suppressed and greatly reduced.
  • Fluidized bed incinerator waste needs pretreatment 5 wake up below, furnace temperature is low, garbage disposal can not be enlarged, Japan and other countries have stopped using it 20 years ago. There are still problems of low furnace temperature, dioxin and polycyclic substances polluting the environment.
  • the invention provides an organic garbage harmless power generation treatment system, which can carry out harmless power generation treatment under the premise of not sorting urban organic waste, thereby greatly reducing the problem of pollution environment.
  • the treatment process uses the high-temperature incineration method to treat the solid matter and waste gas of the garbage, and the high temperature generates sensible heat to recover the heat energy in the form of high-temperature steam for power generation.
  • the garbage disposal system of the present invention can treat medical waste, toxic waste, organic sludge, etc. Urban organic waste.
  • the technical solution of the present invention is a garbage innocuous treatment and power generation system, including a garbage disposal device, a powder coal gasification device, an incineration device, a power generation device, and a dust removal device, characterized in that :
  • the garbage disposal device includes a hoist, a garbage crusher, a dryer, and a garbage feeder;
  • the coal gasification includes a powder coal gasification furnace and a gas distribution tank, and a gas outlet of the powder coal gasification furnace is connected to an inlet of the gas distribution tank;
  • the incineration device is an incinerator
  • the power generating device includes at least one boiler, a steam collecting steam drum and a steam generator, the steam generated by the boiler is in communication with the steam collecting steam collector, and the steam collecting steam drum is in communication with a steam system of the steam generator;
  • the dust removing device includes at least one dust remover and a chimney, and an outlet of the dust remover is in communication with the chimney; a waste solids outlet of the dryer in the garbage disposal device is in communication with the incinerator furnace; an outlet of the gas distribution tank is connected to at least two powder coal gasification burners on the incinerator; the incineration The flue gas outlet on the furnace is in communication with the furnace of the boiler; the flue gas outlet of the boiler is in communication with the precipitator in the dedusting device.
  • An anti-reverse sealed garbage feeder is disposed between the waste solid matter outlet of the dryer in the garbage disposal device and the incinerator, and the steam outlet at the upper portion of the tunnel drying device and the garbage on the incinerator
  • the steam is connected to the furnace mouth, and a steam induced draft fan is arranged between the steam outlet and the steam inlet port.
  • the powder coal gasification device is further provided with a fixed bed gasification furnace, a dust removal explosion-proof device and a coal mill, and an outlet of the fixed-bed gasification furnace is connected with an inlet of the dust-removing explosion-proof device through a pipeline, and the dust-removing explosion-proof device
  • the outlet is connected to the powder coal gasifier process burner at the top of the powder coal gasifier through a pipeline, and the outlet of the coal mill is connected to the top of the powder coal gasifier.
  • the incinerator is a three-stage upright fluidized incinerator, and the three-stage upright fluidized incinerator has a water jacket, a furnace and a solid waste residue removing device, wherein the upper and middle portions of the furnace are circular vertical tubes, and the lower portion is a reducer, the reducer is an inverted cone, the bottom of the three-stage upright fluidization incinerator is the solid waste residue removal device, the top of the water jacket is provided with a steam outlet, and the steam outlet passes through the tube The road is in communication with the steam collector.
  • the tapered tube has a taper angle a of 10. ⁇ 30° between.
  • the three-stage upright fluidized incinerator is distributed with 12 burners, divided into 3 groups of 4 each.
  • the dust collector is a dry dust collector and an electrostatic precipitator.
  • the dry dust collector is connected in series with the electrostatic precipitator, and an air blower is disposed between the electrostatic precipitator and the chimney.
  • a method for garbage innocuous treatment and power generation is carried out as follows: 1.
  • the unsorted garbage is lifted by the grab hoist to the strong crusher for crushing. After the crushing, the garbage enters the tunnel drying device for drying.
  • the evaporated garbage steam passes through the garbage steam outlet by the garbage steam induced draft fan.
  • the gas entering the three-stage vertical fluidized incinerator is pyrolyzed by gas incineration, and the solid waste after drying in the tunnel drying device is sealed by anti-reverse
  • the feeder is sent to a three-stage vertical fluidized incinerator for incineration;
  • the gas of the three-stage vertical fluidized incinerator is supplied by the powder coal gasifier, and the gas enters the powder coal gasification burner through the gas distribution box, and the waste residue after the waste combustion cracking is discharged through the solid waste slag discharge device;
  • the high-temperature flue gas generated in the incinerator is discharged to the high-temperature and high-pressure boiler.
  • the water jacket in the incinerator generates steam and steam generated by the high-temperature and high-pressure boiler into the steam collecting steam package, and supplies the steam system of the steam generator to generate electricity;
  • the flue gas and dust generated in the high-pressure high-temperature boiler are discharged to the dry dust collector and the electrostatic precipitator to remove dust.
  • the dust-removed gas is discharged from the chimney to the atmosphere.
  • the outlet of the fixed bed gasification furnace in the powder coal gasification device is connected to the inlet of the dust removal explosion-proof device through a pipeline, and the outlet of the dust explosion-proof device passes through the pipeline and the powder at the top of the powder coal gasification furnace Coal gasifier process burner connection, the gas produced by the fixed bed gasification furnace is supplied to the coal gasification furnace gasification heat source through the powder coal gasification furnace process burner, and the coal powder after grinding by the coal mill is supplied to the coal gasification furnace.
  • the heat supply value of the garbage is high or low, and the supply is balanced.
  • the process demand for heating or power generation cannot be guaranteed.
  • the technical solution of the invention has the remarkable feature that the urban organic waste harmless power generation treatment system is characterized in that the urban garbage does not need to be pre-sorted and does not need pretreatment, and the whole system includes moisture evaporation waste pre-combustion, the solid residue treatment is completely automated, and the intermediate process No one is the operating factor, the heat source is provided by the combined powder coal gasification combustion system. Whether the water content of the garbage is large and the supply is balanced, it is not affected. The operation of the power generation process.
  • waste gas, waste water and waste slag can be treated as harmless to 98% or more. And the realization of low processing costs, power generation economic benefits are obvious, and the environmental protection effect is fully up to standard.
  • the object of the present invention is to provide an urban organic waste harmless power generation treatment system, urban organic waste, after the garbage collection pit is filtered, by a grab type hoist, a strong crushing device, a tunnel type drying device, and a sealed type of material.
  • the device sent to the incinerator, solid organic waste and tunnel drying device to generate harmful steam, discharged in a three-stage vertical fluidized incinerator after 1 30 (TC high temperature treatment, dioxins are greatly reduced, can be solid
  • the organic waste is reduced to 95%, all flue gas is cracked at a high temperature of 1 300 °C, and the heat source for treating organic waste is provided by a combined powder coal gasification combustion system, and the generated high-temperature flue gas is recovered as high-temperature steam through a multi-stage waste heat boiler. It is used in power generation system.
  • the solid waste can be used as building landfill material.
  • the cooled flue gas is discharged to the atmosphere through a multi-stage dry dust removal device.
  • the three-stage vertical fluidized incinerator incineration process solves the technical problem of low-temperature operation of traditional waste incinerators and high-temperature and high-efficiency operation.
  • the structure is simple, easy to maintain, reliable operation, reducing the cost.
  • the power generation operation load can be greatly adjusted.
  • Figure 1 is a plan view of the garbage innocuous treatment and power generation system of the present invention
  • Blower 1 3, solid waste slag removal device; 14, gas distribution box; 15, vaporization furnace coal gas outlet; 16, powder coal gasifier process burner; 17, pulverized coal gasification furnace; 18, coal mill; 19, fixed bed gas Furnace dust removal and explosion-proof device; 20, fixed bed gasifier hot gas pipeline; 21, fixed bed gasifier; 22, fixed bed gasifier oblique bridge coal machine; 23, high temperature and high pressure boiler; 24, high temperature and high pressure boiler; 25, boiler dust collector; 26, boiler dust collector; 27, boiler high pressure steam outlet; 28, incinerator steam outlet; 29, high pressure steam collector; 30, steam generator steam system; 31, dry dust removal 32; static electricity Dust collector; 33, induced draft fan; 34, exhaust pipe.
  • Figure 2 is a structural view of a three-stage upright fluidized incinerator of the present invention
  • the system of the present invention includes a garbage disposal device, a powder coal gasification device, an incineration device, a power generation device, and a dust removal device.
  • the garbage disposal device includes a hoist 2, a garbage crusher 3, a dryer 4, and a garbage feeder 8.
  • the dryer 4 is a tunnel type drying device.
  • the garbage solids outlet of the tunnel drying device 4 and the incinerator 11 are provided with anti-reverse sealing garbage feeding
  • the steam outlet 5 at the upper portion of the tunnel drying device 4 communicates with the steam inlet port 7 of the incinerator, and a steam induced draft fan 6 is disposed between the steam outlet 5 and the steam inlet port 7.
  • the powder coal gasification device comprises a powder coal gasification furnace 17 and a gas distribution tank 14 , wherein the gas outlet 15 of the powder coal gasification furnace 17 is in communication with the inlet of the gas distribution tank 14; the powder coal gasification device further comprises a fixed bed
  • the gasification furnace 21, the dust explosion-proof device 19 and the coal mill 18, the outlet of the fixed-bed gasification furnace 21 and the inlet of the dust-removing explosion-proof device 19 are connected by a pipeline, and the outlet of the dust-proof explosion-proof device 19 passes through the pipeline Connected to the powder coal gasifier process burner 16 at the top of the powder coal gasifier 17, the outlet of the coal mill 18 is connected to the top of the powder coal gasifier 17.
  • the incinerator 11 is a three-stage upright fluidized incinerator, and the three-stage upright fluidized incinerator 11 has a water jacket 11-1, a furnace 11-4 and a solid waste removal device 13, the furnace 11- 4, the upper part and the middle part are circular vertical tubes, the lower part is a tapered tube 11-3, the reduced length tube 11-3 is an inverted cone, and the bottom of the incinerator 11 is the solid waste residue removing device 13, the water jacket A steam outlet 28 is provided at the top of 11-1, and the steam outlet 28 is in communication with the steam header 29 via a line.
  • the tapered tube 11-3 has a taper angle ⁇ of 10° to 30°. Between this embodiment, 18° is selected.
  • the three-stage upright fluidized incinerator 11 is divided into 12 burners 10, which are divided into three groups, and each group has four relative settings.
  • the power generating device includes two boilers 23, 24, a steam collecting steam box 29 and a steam generator 30, and the steam generated by the boilers 23, 24 communicates with the steam collecting steam box 29 through a steam outlet 27.
  • the steam collecting steam drum 29 is in communication with the steam system 30 of the steam generator.
  • the flue gas outlet 9 of the incinerator 11 is in communication with the boiler 23.
  • the boilers 23, 24 are connected in series.
  • the dust collector is a dry dust collector 31 and an electrostatic precipitator 32.
  • the dry dust collector 31 is connected in series with the electrostatic precipitator 32, and the electrostatic precipitator 32 and the chimney
  • An induced draft fan 33 is provided between the 34s.
  • the flue gas outlets of the boilers 23, 24 are in communication with the dry scrubber 31 in the dedusting device.
  • the unsorted garbage is filtered by the garbage collection pit 1 and then lifted to the strong crusher 3 for crushing. After the crushing, the garbage enters the tunnel drying device 4 for drying.
  • the waste steam evaporated in the drying device 4 enters the three-stage vertical fluidized incinerator 1 through the waste steam outlet 5 through the garbage steam outlet 5, and enters the gas in the three-stage vertical fluidized incinerator 11
  • the high-temperature cracking is carried out by gas incineration, and the solid waste which has been dried in the tunnel drying device 4 is sent to the three-stage vertical fluidized incinerator 11 for incineration by the anti-reverse sealed feeder 8;
  • the gas of the three-stage vertical fluidized incinerator 11 is supplied by the powder coal gasification furnace 17, and the coal gas enters 12 burners 10 through the gas distribution tank 14 , and the waste residue after the waste combustion cracking is discharged through the solid waste residue removing device 13;
  • the high-temperature flue gas generated in the incinerator is discharged to the high-temperature high-pressure boilers 23, 24, and the water jacket 11-1 in the incinerator 11 generates steam and steam generated by the high-temperature high-pressure boilers 23, 24 into the steam collecting steam drum 29, and is supplied.
  • the steam generator 30 of the steam generator performs power generation;
  • the flue gas and dust generated in the high-pressure high-temperature boilers 23 and 24 are discharged to the dry dust collector 31 and the electrostatic precipitator 32 for dust removal, and the dust-removed gas is discharged from the induced draft fan 33 to the chimney 34 and discharged to the atmosphere.
  • the solid waste is discharged to the incinerator at the bottom of the incinerator after the reduction of the three-stage vertical fluidized incinerator to 5%.
  • the discharged ash is harmless solids and can be applied to the road construction materials.
  • the dust moving with the flue gas is discharged through the dust extractors 25 and 26 at the bottom of the boiler, and the discharged dust is directly used as clinker in the cement because it is subjected to high temperature calcination above 100 °C.

Description

垃圾无害化处理和发电系统及方法 技术领域
本发明涉及垃圾处理系统, 具体地说, 涉及一种有机垃圾无害化 发电处理系统及发电方法。
背景技术
目前我国 20万人口的城市大约 680余座, 每年产垃圾近 6亿吨, 而且随着国家工业化的发展, 产生的垃圾数量仍会增加, 每年因垃圾 填埋的消耗土地达 70余万亩。 城市垃圾的产生已危害到了人类的生 存,在我国,人均可耕地面积相对较少,垃圾的处理在大中型城市中, 只有公益化焚烧处理并用以发电的形式回收热能才是唯一合理的技 术途径。
世界各国对城市有机垃圾焚烧处理的研究, 均属于低温焚烧, 用 天然气, 燃油引燃, 为保持炉温稳定在垃圾中掺入定量的煤一同焚烧 由于有机垃圾含水量较大, 预热及着火这一阶段需耗大量的热能, 才 能使焚烧炉的稳定运行, 而垃圾本身的热值由于热值低且稳定性差, 不得不依靠天然气或燃油、人工煤气做辅助热源, 导致了运行费用昂 贵, 形成了城市垃圾处理成本过高的普遍现象。
由于垃圾中水分含量高, 辅助热源费用高, 运行中炉温低, 排出 的烟气中二噁英等有害气体及 POM 气体超量排放, 加重了环境的污 染。 二噁英的产生温度在 350°C ~ 800°C之间, 氐于 350°C高于 800°C 二噁英等有害气体将会得到有效抑制, 大大减少。
美国联邦法律规定: "垃圾焚烧过程中的烟气必须在 1000°C以上 的高温中停留 1 秒以上才能排放处理"。 该法律规定是针对二噁英 ( DXN )等多环物(POM )有害气体排放处理的强制性规定。 而我国虽 目前尚未有这一规定, 但对二噁英的危害却是世界所共知的。 目前垃圾焚烧发电处理机械炉排炉,较为成熟通用,但是炉温低、 投资大, 不能有效杜绝二噁英的产生。
流化床焚烧炉, 垃圾需预处理 5醒以下, 炉温低, 垃圾处理不能 大型化, 日本等国家已在 20年前停止采用。 仍存在着炉温低, 二噁 英、 多环物污染环境的问题。
发明内容
本发明提供了一种有机垃圾无害化发电处理系统, 可把城市有机 垃圾在不予分拣的前提情况下进行无害化发电处理,大大减少污染环 境的问题。 处理过程利用高温焚烧的方式处理垃圾的固形物和废气, 高温产生显热以高温蒸汽的形式回收热能用于发电,本发明的垃圾处 理系统可以处理包括医疗垃圾、有毒垃圾、有机污泥在内的城市有机 垃圾。
为了达到解决上述技术问题的目的, 本发明的技术方案是, 一种 垃圾无害化处理和发电系统, 包括垃圾处理装置、 粉煤气化装置、 焚 烧装置、 发电装置, 以及除尘装置, 其特征在于:
所述垃圾处理装置包括提升机、垃圾破碎机、 烘干机和垃圾喂料 机;
所述粉煤气化包括粉煤气化炉和燃气分配箱, 所述粉煤气化炉的 煤气出口与所述燃气分配箱的进口连通;
所述焚烧装置为焚烧炉;
所述发电装置包括至少一个锅炉, 蒸汽集汽包和蒸汽发电机, 所 述锅炉产生的蒸汽与所述蒸汽集汽包连通,所述蒸汽集汽包与所述蒸 汽发电机的蒸汽系统连通;
所述除尘装置包括至少一个除尘器和烟筒, 所述除尘器的出口与 所述烟筒连通; 所述垃圾处理装置中的烘干机的垃圾固体物出口与所述焚烧炉 炉膛连通;所述燃气分配箱的出口与所述焚烧炉上的至少二个粉煤气 化燃烧器连接; 所述焚烧炉上的烟气出口与所述锅炉的炉膛连通; 所 述锅炉的烟气出口与所述除尘装置中的除尘器连通。
所述垃圾处理装置中的烘干机的垃圾固体物出口与所述焚烧炉 之间设有防逆式密封垃圾喂料机,隧道式烘干装置上部的蒸汽出口与 所述焚烧炉上的垃圾蒸汽入炉口连通,所述蒸汽出口与所述蒸汽入炉 口之间设有蒸汽引风机。
所述粉煤气化装置还设有固定床气化炉、 除尘防爆装置和磨煤 机,所述固定床气化炉的出口与所述除尘防爆装置的进口通过管路连 接,所述除尘防爆装置的出口通过管路与所述粉煤气化炉顶部的粉煤 气化炉工艺烧嘴连接, 所述磨煤机的出口与所述粉煤气化炉顶部连 接。
所述焚烧炉为三段式直立流化焚烧炉, 所述三段式直立流化焚烧 炉具有水夹套、 炉膛和固体废渣排除装置, 所述炉膛上部和中部为圓 形竖管, 下部为渐缩管, 所述渐缩管为倒锥体, 所述三段式直立流化 焚烧炉底部为所述固体废渣排除装置, 所述水夹套顶部设有蒸汽出 口, 所述蒸汽出口通过管路与所述蒸汽集汽包连通。
所述渐缩管锥形角度 a为 10。 ~ 30° 之间。
所述三段式直立流化焚烧炉共分布设有 12个燃烧器,分为 3组, 每组 4个。
所述除尘器为干式除尘器和静电除尘器, 所述干式除尘器与所 述静电除尘器串联连接, 所述静电除尘器与所述烟筒之间设有引风 机。
一种垃圾无害化处理和发电的方法, 所述方法按下述步骤进行: ①、 未经分拣的垃圾, 由抓斗式提升机提升到强力破碎机进行破 碎,破碎后垃圾进入到隧道式烘干装置中烘干, 蒸发的垃圾蒸汽经垃 圾蒸汽出口由垃圾蒸汽引风机的作用下进入三段式直立流化焚烧炉, 进入三段式直立流化焚烧炉中的气体由煤气焚烧进行高温裂解,在隧 道式烘干装置烘干后的固形垃圾,经防逆式密封喂料机送入三段式直 立流化焚烧炉中焚烧;
②、 三段式直立流化焚烧炉的煤气由粉煤气化炉提供, 煤气经燃 气分配箱进入粉煤气化燃烧器,垃圾燃烧裂解后的废渣经固体废渣排 除装置排出;
③、 焚烧炉中产生的高温烟气排向高温高压锅炉, 焚烧炉中的水 夹套产生蒸汽和高温高压锅炉产生的蒸汽进入蒸汽集汽包,供给蒸汽 发电机的蒸汽系统进行发电;
④、 高压高温锅炉中产生的烟气和粉尘排到干式除尘器和静电除 尘器除尘, 除尘后的气体由烟筒排到大气。
所述粉煤气化装置中的所述固定床气化炉的出口与所述除尘防 爆装置的进口通过管路连接,所述除尘防爆装置的出口通过管路与所 述粉煤气化炉顶部的粉煤气化炉工艺烧嘴连接,由固定床气化炉产生 的煤气通过粉煤气化炉工艺烧嘴供给粉煤气化炉气化热源,经磨煤机 磨后的煤粉, 供给所述粉煤气化炉。
传统的垃圾无害化处理热利用过程中, 因垃圾的含水量热值的高 低, 供量是否平衡, 不能保证供热或发电的工艺需求。 本发明的技术 方案,城市有机垃圾无害化发电处理系统的显著特征在于城市垃圾不 需要预分拣、 不需要预处理, 整个系统包括水分蒸发垃圾预燃, 固渣 处理完全自动化处理, 中间过程无人为操作因素, 热源以组合式粉煤 气化燃烧系统提供, 对垃圾的是否含水量大, 供量是否均衡, 均不影 响发电工艺的运行。 经实验表明, 废气、 废水、 废渣能 ^:到 98%以上 的无害化处理。 并实现了处理费用低, 发电经济效益明显, 环保效果 完全达标。
本发明的目的提供一种城市有机垃圾无害化发电处理系统, 城市 有机垃圾, 在垃圾集坑滤水后, 经抓斗式提升机、 强力破碎装置、 隧 道式烘干装置、 密封式哚料装置, 送入焚烧炉, 固体有机垃圾和隧道 式烘干装置产生有害蒸汽, 在三段式直立流化焚烧炉经 1 30(TC的高 温处理后排放, 二噁英大大减少, 可使固形的有机垃圾减量至 95%, 所有烟气经 1 300 °C的高温裂解处理, 处理有机垃圾的热源由组合式 粉煤气化燃烧系统提供,产生的高温烟气经多级废热锅炉回收为高温 蒸汽用于发电系统。 固形的垃圾减量后可作为建筑填埋材料利用。冷 却后的烟气经多级干式除尘装置, 达环保标准后排向大气。
本发明具有以下优点和积极效果:
1、 利用组合式粉煤气化燃烧系统为运行热源, 既保证了发电工 艺的运行需求, 又保证了有机垃圾的无害化处理所需的高温炉温, 易 启动, 较传统垃圾焚烧炉节约 50%的运行费用。
2、 三段式直立流化焚烧炉焚烧工艺, 解决了传统垃圾焚烧炉低 温运行, 不能高温高效运行的技术难题。
3、 结构简单, 易于维护, 运行可靠, 降低了造价。
4、 可规模化嫁接现有发电厂, 减少重复投资。
5、 可大幅度调节发电运行负荷。
6、 运用组合式粉煤气化燃烧装置 "嫁接" 城市有机垃圾无害化 发电处理系统目前国际上尚无先例。
7、 烟气排放易达到环保标准要求。
附图说明 下面结合附图和实施例对本发明进行详细说明。
图 1是本发明垃圾无害化处理和发电系统方案图;
1、 垃圾集坑; 2、 抓斗式提升机; 3、 强力破碎机; 4、 隧道式供 干装置; 5、 隧道式煤干装置蒸汽出口; 6、 垃圾蒸汽引风机; 7、 蒸 汽入炉口; 8、 防逆式密封垃圾喂料机; 9、 三段式直立流化焚烧炉烟 气出口; 10、 粉煤气化燃烧器; 11、 三段式直立流化焚烧炉; 12、 鼓 风机; 1 3、 固体废渣排除装置; 14、 燃气分配箱; 15、 汽化炉煤汽出 口; 16、 粉煤气化炉工艺烧嘴; 17、 粉煤汽化炉; 18、 磨煤机; 19、 固定床气化炉除尘防爆装置; 20、 固定床气化炉热煤气管道; 21、 固 定床气化炉; 22、 固定床气化炉斜桥上煤机; 23、 高温高压锅炉; 24、 高温高压锅炉; 25、 锅炉排尘器; 26、 锅炉排尘器; 27、 锅炉高压蒸 汽出口; 28、 焚烧炉蒸汽出口; 29、 高压蒸汽集汽包; 30、 蒸汽发电 机的蒸汽系统; 31、 干式除尘器; 32、 静电除尘器; 33、 引风机; 34、 排烟烟筒。
图 2是本发明的三段式直立流化焚烧炉结构图;
8、 防逆式密封垃圾喂料机; 10、 粉煤气化燃烧器; 11、 三段式直 立流化焚烧炉; 11-1、 水夹套; 11-2、 安全阀; 11-3、 渐缩管; α、 渐缩管锥形角度; 11-4、 炉膛; 1 3、 固体废渣排除装置; 28、 焚烧炉 蒸汽出口。
具体实施方式
参见图 1和图 2, 本发明的系统包括垃圾处理装置、 粉煤气化装 置、 焚烧装置、 发电装置, 以及除尘装置。
所述垃圾处理装置包括提升机 2、 垃圾破碎机 3、 烘干机 4和垃 圾喂料机 8。 所述烘干机 4为隧道式烘干装置。 所述隧道式烘干装置 4的垃圾固体物出口与所述焚烧炉 11之间设有防逆式密封垃圾喂料 机 8 , 隧道式烘干装置 4上部的蒸汽出口 5与所述焚烧炉上的蒸汽入 炉口 7连通,所述蒸汽出口 5与所述蒸汽入炉口 7之间设有蒸汽引风 机 6。
所述粉煤气化装置包括粉煤气化炉 17和燃气分配箱 14 , 所述粉 煤气化炉 17的煤气出口 15与所述燃气分配箱 14的进口连通; 所述 粉煤气化装置还包括固定床气化炉 21、除尘防爆装置 19和磨煤机 18 , 所述固定床气化炉 21的出口与所述除尘防爆装置 19的进口通过管路 连接,所述除尘防爆装置 19的出口通过管路与所述粉煤气化炉 17顶 部的粉煤气化炉工艺烧嘴 16连接,所述磨煤机 18的出口与所述粉煤 气化炉 17顶部连接。
所述焚烧炉 11 为三段式直立流化焚烧炉, 所述三段式直立流化 焚烧炉 11具有水夹套 11-1、 炉膛 11- 4和固体废渣排除装置 13, 所 述炉膛 11-4上部和中部为圆形竖管, 下部为渐缩管 11-3 , 所述渐缩 管 11-3为倒锥体, 焚烧炉 11底部为所述固体废渣排除装置 13 , 所 述水夹套 11-1顶部设有蒸汽出口 28, 所述蒸汽出口 28通过管路与 所述蒸汽集汽包 29连通。 所述渐缩管 11-3锥形角度 α为 10° ~ 30 。 之间, 本实施例选择为 18° 。 所述三段式直立流化焚烧炉 11共分 布设有 12个燃烧器 10, 分为 3组, 每组 4个相对设置。
所述发电装置包括二个锅炉 23、 24 , 蒸汽集汽包 29和蒸汽发电 机的蒸汽系统 30, 所述锅炉 23、 24产生的蒸汽通过蒸汽出口 27与 所述蒸汽集汽包 29连通,所述蒸汽集汽包 29与所述蒸汽发电机的蒸 汽系统 30连通。 焚烧炉 11的烟气出口 9与锅炉 23连通。 锅炉 23、 24串联连接。
所述除尘器为干式除尘器 31和静电除尘器 32 , 所述干式除尘器 31与所述静电除尘器 32 串联连接, 所述静电除尘器 32与所述烟筒 34之间设有引风机 33。 所述锅炉 23、 24的烟气出口与所述除尘装置 中的干式除尘器 31连通。
采用上述系统进行垃圾无害化处理和发电的方法,所述方法按下 述步骤进行:
①、 未经分拣的垃圾, 经垃圾集坑 1滤水后, 由抓斗式提升机 2 提升到强力破碎机 3进行破碎, 破碎后垃圾进入到隧道式烘干装置 4 中烘干,隧道式烘干装置 4中内蒸发的垃圾蒸汽经垃圾蒸汽出口 5由 垃圾蒸汽引风机 6的作用下进入三段式直立流化焚烧炉 1 1, 进入三 段式直立流化焚烧炉 11 中的气体由煤气焚烧进行高温裂解, 在隧道 式烘干装置 4烘干后的固形垃圾,经防逆式密封喂料机 8送入三段式 直立流化焚烧炉 11中焚烧;
②、 三段式直立流化焚烧炉 11的煤气由粉煤气化炉 17提供, 煤 气经燃气分配箱 14进入 12个燃烧器 10, 垃圾燃烧裂解后的废渣经 固体废渣排除装置 13排出;
③、 焚烧炉中产生的高温烟气排向高温高压锅炉 23、 24 , 焚烧炉 11 中的水夹套 11-1产生蒸汽和高温高压锅炉 23、 24产生的蒸汽进 入蒸汽集汽包 29, 供给蒸汽发电机的蒸汽系统 30进行发电;
④、 高压高温锅炉 23、 24 中产生的烟气和粉尘排到干式除尘器 31和静电除尘器 32除尘, 除尘后的气体由引风机 33排至烟筒 34再 排到大气。
固形物的垃圾在三段式直立流化焚烧炉减量至 5%后经焚烧炉底 部的排渣装置排除焚烧炉,排出的灰渣为无害化固形物可作用于筑路 材料。 随烟气运动的粉尘经锅炉底部的排尘器 25、 26排出, 排出粉 尘因经过 100 (TC以上的高温煅烧, 可直接作为水泥中做熟料使用。

Claims

1、 一种垃圾无害化处理和发电系统, 包括垃圾处理装置、 粉煤 气化装置、 焚烧装置、 发电装置, 以及除尘装置, 其特征在于: 所述垃圾处理装置包括提升机、垃圾破碎机、 烘干机和垃圾喂料 机;
所述粉煤气化装置包括粉煤气化炉和燃气分配箱, 所述粉煤气化 炉的煤气出口与所述燃气分配箱的进口连通;
所述焚烧装置为焚烧炉;
所述发电装置包括至少一个锅炉, 蒸汽集汽包和蒸汽发电机, 所 速锅炉产生的蒸汽与所述蒸汽集汽包连通,所述蒸汽集汽包与所述蒸 汽发电机的蒸汽系统连通;
所述除尘装置包括至少一个除尘器和烟筒, 所述除尘器的出口与 所述烟筒连通;
所述垃圾处理装置中的烘干机的垃圾固体物出口与所述焚烧炉 炉膛连通;所述燃气分配箱的出口与所述焚烧炉上的至少二个粉煤气 化燃烧器连接; 所述焚烧炉上的烟气出口与所述锅炉的炉膛连通; 所 述锅炉的烟气出口与所述除尘装置中的除尘器连通。
2、 根据权利要求 1 所述的一种垃圾无害化处理和发电系统, 其 特征在于:所述垃圾处理装置中的烘干机的垃圾固体物出口与所述焚 烧炉之间设有防逆式密封垃圾喂料机,隧道式烘干装置上部的蒸汽出 口与所述焚烧炉上的蒸汽入炉口连通,所述蒸汽出口与所述蒸汽入炉 口之间设有蒸汽引风机。
3、 根据权利要求 1 所述的一种垃圾无害化处理和发电系统, 其 特征在于: 所述粉煤气化装置还设有固定床气化炉、 除尘防爆装置和 磨煤机,所述固定床气化炉的出口与所述除尘防爆装置的进口通过管 路连接,所述除尘防爆装置的出口通过管路与所述粉煤气化炉顶部的 粉煤气化炉工艺烧嘴连接,所述磨煤机的出口与所述粉煤气化炉^部 连接。
4、 根据权利要求 1 所述的一种垃圾无害化处理和发电系统, 其 特征在于: 所述焚烧炉为三段式直立流化焚烧炉, 所述三段式直立流 化焚烧炉具有水夹套、 炉膛和固体废渣排除装置, 所述炉膛上部和中 部为圆形竖管, 下部为渐缩管, 所述渐缩管为倒锥体, 所述三段式直 立流化焚烧炉底部为所述固体废渣排除装置,所述水夹套顶部设有蒸 汽出口, 所述蒸汽出口通过管路与所述蒸汽集汽包连通。
5、 根据权利要求 4所述的一种垃圾无害化处理和发电系统, 其 特征在于: 所述渐缩管锥形角度 cc为 10。 ~ 30° 之间。
6、 根据权利要求 5所述的一种垃圾无害化处理和发电系统, 其 特征在于: 所述三段式直立流化焚烧炉共分布设有 12个燃烧器, 分 为 3组, 每组 4个。
7、 根据权利要求 1所述的一种垃圾无害化处理和发电系统, 其 特征在于: 所述除尘器为干式除尘器和静电除尘器, 所述干式除尘器 与所述静电除尘器串联连接,所述静电除尘器与所述烟筒之间设有引 风机。
8、 一种垃圾无害化处理和发电的方法, 其特征在于, 所述方法 按下述步骤进行:
①、 未经分拣的垃圾, 由抓斗式提升机提升到强力破碎机进行破 碎,破碎后垃圾进入到隧道式烘干装置中烘干, 蒸发的垃圾蒸汽经垃 圾蒸汽出口由垃圾蒸汽引风机的作用下进入三段式直立流化焚烧炉, 进入三段式直立流化焚烧炉中的气体由煤气焚烧进行高温裂解,在隧 道式烘干装置烘干后的固形垃圾,经防逆式密封喂料机送入三段式直 立流化焚烧炉中焚烧;
②、 三段式直立流化焚烧炉的煤气由粉煤气化炉提供, 煤气经燃 气分配箱进入燃烧器,垃圾燃烧裂解后的废渣经固体废渣排除装置排 出;
③、 焚烧炉中产生的高温烟气排向高温高压锅炉, 焚烧炉中的水 夹套产生蒸汽和高温高压锅炉产生的蒸汽进入蒸汽集汽包 ,供给蒸汽 发电机的蒸汽系统进行发电;
④、 高压高温锅炉中产生的烟气和粉尘排到干式除尘器和静电除 尘器除尘, 除尘后的气体由烟筒排到大气。
9、 根据权利要求 8 所述的方法, 其特征在于: 所述粉煤气化装 置中的所述固定床气化炉的出口与所述除尘防爆装置的进口通过管 路连接,所述除尘防爆装置的出口通过管路与所述粉煤气化炉顶部的 粉煤气化炉工艺烧嘴连接,由固定床气化炉产生的煤气通过粉煤气化 炉工艺烧嘴供给粉煤气化炉气化热源, 经磨煤机磨后的煤粉,供给所 述粉煤气化炉。
PCT/CN2010/000861 2009-09-07 2010-06-13 垃圾无害化处理和发电系统及方法 WO2011026307A1 (zh)

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