WO2010079388A1 - Intelligent controllable lighting networks and schemata therefore - Google Patents

Intelligent controllable lighting networks and schemata therefore Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2010079388A1
WO2010079388A1 PCT/IB2009/052811 IB2009052811W WO2010079388A1 WO 2010079388 A1 WO2010079388 A1 WO 2010079388A1 IB 2009052811 W IB2009052811 W IB 2009052811W WO 2010079388 A1 WO2010079388 A1 WO 2010079388A1
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WO
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
schema
lighting
system
light source
user
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/IB2009/052811
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Damien Loveland
Louis Ketelaars
Ad Vermeulen
Ian Ashdown
Allan Brent York
Winfried Antonius Henricus Berkvens
Roel Peter Geert Cuppens
Bartel Marinus Van De Sluis
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Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.
U.S. Philips Corporation
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B37/00Circuit arrangements for electric light sources in general
    • H05B37/02Controlling
    • H05B37/0209Controlling the instant of the ignition or of the extinction
    • H05B37/0245Controlling the instant of the ignition or of the extinction by remote-control involving emission and detection units
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B37/00Circuit arrangements for electric light sources in general
    • H05B37/02Controlling
    • H05B37/0209Controlling the instant of the ignition or of the extinction
    • H05B37/0227Controlling the instant of the ignition or of the extinction by detection only of parameters other than ambient light, e.g. by sound detectors, by passive infra-red detectors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B20/00Energy efficient lighting technologies
    • Y02B20/40Control techniques providing energy savings
    • Y02B20/44Control techniques providing energy savings based on detection of the user
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B20/00Energy efficient lighting technologies
    • Y02B20/40Control techniques providing energy savings
    • Y02B20/48Smart controllers

Abstract

Systems, networks, devices and methods for developing, implementing, and sharing lighting schemata between controllable lighting networks are disclosed. A network (101, 601, 701, 801, 808) in accordance with the disclosure stores lighting schemata developed for the network in a remote data store (802). Other networks (301) access the remote data store to select existing schemata for implementation. Systems, networks, devices, and methods for sharing user preferences between controllable lighting networks are also disclosed. Networks according to the disclosure may access a shared remote data store (112) to determine a user?s preferences upon the detection, by sensors in the network, of the presence of the user. As such, individual lighting networks may make use of known user preferences or learned behaviors and environmental conditions to more efficiently adapt themselves to such behavior, preferences, or conditions.

Description

INTELLIGENT CONTROLLABLE LIGHTING NETWORKS AND SCHEMATA THEREFORE

Technical Field

[0001] The present invention is directed generally to lighting systems and networks. More particularly, various inventive methods, systems, and apparatus disclosed herein relate to developing and implementing schemata within controllable lighting networks and for sharing schemata between controllable lighting networks.

Background

[0002] Digital lighting technologies, i.e. illumination based on semiconductor light sources, such as Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), offer a viable alternative to traditional fluorescent, HID, and incandescent lamps. Functional advantages and benefits of LEDs include high energy conversion and optical efficiency, durability, lower operating costs, and many others. Recent advances in LED technology have provided efficient and robust full-spectrum lighting sources that enable a variety of lighting effects in many applications. Some of the fixtures embodying these sources feature a lighting module, including one or more LEDs capable of producing different colors, e.g. red, green, and blue, as well as a processor for independently controlling the output of the LEDs in order to generate a variety of colors and color-changing lighting effects, for example, as discussed in detail in U.S. Patent Nos. 6,016,038 and 6,211,626, incorporated herein by reference.

[0003] Providing personal lighting control to office workers has been shown to improve worker satisfaction while offering significant energy savings. Recent developments in digital lighting technologies such as LED-based lighting systems have made the precise control of digital or solid-state lighting a reality. Consequently, light-based systems are used today that are programmed to react to certain events or to implement a user's previously-entered preferences.

[0004] From a user's perspective, disclosed systems and techniques for implementing lighting control often offer little more than lamp dimming according to previously entered preferences. For example, in disclosed systems and techniques, a user's lighting preferences for a specific environment can be programmed by a building administrator. The system can then control the environment's lights to implement the user's preferred lighting arrangement. In this manner, an office worker who prefers to have his or her workspace brightly lit, or alternatively, dimly lit, can have the system programmed accordingly by an administrator. Similarly, administrators can schedule "on" and "off" time periods according to a user's work schedule to save energy.

[0005] As an additional example, one known system features direct-indirect fluorescent luminaires with integrated occupancy and daylight sensors that communicate with a central controller via an RS-485 hardwired network. The central controller then communicates via a local area network (LAN) with desktop computers. This system enables office workers to dim task (direct) and ambient (indirect) lighting over their workstations and turn task and ambient lighting on and off using personal lighting control software installed on their computers. The system also permits office managers to: assign control to individual luminaires, groups, areas, and the entire lighting network; enable and disable luminaire daylight sensors; enable and disable luminaire occupancy sensors; specify occupancy sensor delay times; independently specify task and ambient lamp control; enable and disable load shedding; generate detailed energy consumption reports; and schedule daily, weekly, monthly, and annual events. In this sense, this system and similar conventional products may be considered as extensions of building management systems that also manage HVAC and security subsystems.

[0006] Lighting systems have been disclosed that cause lighting controllers to execute a command or a set of commands, sometimes called a lighting script, upon the detection of the occurrence of an event or according to predetermined time sequences. For example, one disclosed system employs software that enables a lighting designer to create a lighting script by specifying changes in color and intensity of multiple luminaires over time and a memory that stores the lighting script for later execution. Lighting controllers for theatrical and entertainment venues enable a lighting designer to record and edit time sequences for hundreds or thousands of luminaires. Lighting systems have also been disclosed that include the ability to execute prerecorded lighting scripts in response to external events, such as, for example, switch closures, analog signals, and network commands. One disclosed system activates or adjusts lights upon the detection of the receipt of an e-mail, the receipt of a telephone call, or an alarm going off. Another disclosed system activates lights using voice or word recognition; yet another implements a light pattern upon detection of a person making gestures. Lighting controllers in such systems may include simple logic functions or conditions, such as a logic function that executes a lighting script only when two events or conditions occur at the same time. For example, a lighting script may be executed if a proximity switch is triggered and a photosensor indicates that it is after sunset. Such lighting scripts, however, do not change after they are recorded unless a lighting designer manually changes them.

[0007] Lighting systems also have been disclosed wherein a person can input his or her lighting preferences for a specific location, and a central controller can execute a lighting script to instruct LEDs or other light sources and implement the person's preferences. In one disclosed system, lighting systems may receive inputs indicating the presence of a person, the duration of the person's presence, or identifying the presence of a particular person or persons present in the location by, for example, the magnetic reading of name badges or a biometric evaluation. Disclosed systems may then implement different lighting scripts depending upon whether a person is present, how long the person is present, and which person is present. These systems may also select different lighting scripts depending on the number of persons in a room or the direction the people are facing. In one disclosed system, lighting devices and other energy sources are turned on or off depending on information in a person's electronic calendar.

[0008] Some disclosed lighting systems can receive information regarding a person's presence or the person's preferences from a device carried by a user. For example, in some disclosed systems, a card reader can detect the presence of a card carried by a user, which can then cause the system to turn a light on when, for example, the user enters a room and turn off the light when the user exits the room. In other disclosed lighting systems, user's preferences are stored on a mobile device or card. As the user travels, data can be transferred to devices and systems capable of conforming parameters under their control to the stored preferences (e.g., dim lights or change their color), either through automatic detection of the card or, in other systems, by inserting the card into a card reader.

[0009] However, in various disclosed systems, implementing user preferences or implementing lighting scripts upon the occurrence of an event, the preferences or scripts are either (1) specific to a particular location and not executable in a different location or (2) necessarily transported by a user in order to be implemented in different locations or in different networks. As such, there are no systems that permit a user's preferences or a lighting script to be implemented in a system other than those in which the user's preferences were programmed unless the user carries a device storing his or her preferences.

[0010] Furthermore, lighting systems have been disclosed that can monitor users' activities and sensed environmental parameters to learn the user's preferences for a specific environment. For example, some systems can monitor how a user has maintained or selected settings in a given environment for a period of time to create user preferences for that environment. In other known systems, devices may follow a lighting script unless a particular action is detected. Other systems can monitor how a user reacts to a given set of environmental circumstances and create a rule for future implementation in that environment. One disclosed lighting control system has both autonomous control and event-based control. This system is disclosed as implementing a fuzzy control system, wherein rules in a rule base determine system output based upon fuzzy inputs or the occurrence of events. However, there is currently no way for systems at remote locations to take advantage of preferences learned by other systems other than by a user carrying a device holding his or her preferences.

[0011] As such, there are deficiencies associated with the known systems. For example, known systems generally relate to stand-alone, self-contained systems for controlling lighting or other devices. For a user's preferences to be implemented in another environment, or for learned parameters to be implemented in another environment, a user must carry around a device storing his or her preferences. As such, one disadvantage of these disclosed systems is the inability to share learned parameters, including information learned by monitoring individual and system actions, with other systems. [0012] Thus, there is a need in the art for systems, methods, and apparatus that can incorporate, learn, and interpret system and user preferences, rules, or schemata, and share such preferences, rules, or schemata, between controllable lighting networks, systems, and users.

Summary

[0013] The present disclosure is directed to inventive methods and apparatus for learning and/or applying system, group, and/or user preferences, rules, or schemata within controllable lighting networks. Such systems and methods may be referred to as Interactive Modified Immersion (IMI) systems and/or networks. The present disclosure is also directed to inventive methods and apparatus for sharing such preferences and rules, or schemata, between controllable lighting networks and systems.

[0014] Generally, in one aspect, the present disclosure is directed to a lighting management system that includes a first memory and a network. The first memory stores personal preference data corresponding to a plurality of users, the personal preference data corresponding to each of the plurality of users including at least one personalized lighting parameter for each user. The network is at a location remote from the first memory, and includes at least one light source having a controllable output setting and a second memory storing a schema, where the schema includes at least one standard lighting parameter. The network also includes a sensor system, which detects an identity of a current user, and an executive module in communication with the at least one light source, the second memory, and the sensor system. The executive module includes a controller and receives the identity of the current user from the sensor system. The executive module communicates with the first memory to determine the personal preference data corresponding to the current user.

[0015] In one embodiment, the executive module modifies the schema to conform to the personalized lighting parameter of the current user, and the executive module translates the modified schema into instructions for controlling the output setting of the light source. In some versions of this embodiment, the executive module translates the modified schema into instructions by interpreting the modified schema in accordance with the output setting of the at least one light source. In some versions of this embodiment, the executive module stores the modified schema in the second memory. In another embodiment, the sensor system detects an absence of the current user, the executive module revises the modified schema to conform to the standard lighting parameter, and the executive module stores the revised schema in the second memory.

[0016] According to some embodiments, the sensor system detects an identity of an additional user. The executive module receives the identity of the additional user from the sensor system, communicates with the first memory to determine the personal preference data corresponding to the additional user, generates a shared personalized lighting parameter, revises the schema to conform to the shared personalized lighting parameter, and translates the revised schema into instructions for controlling the output setting of the light source. In some versions of this embodiment, the executive module generates the shared personalized lighting parameter by averaging the personalized lighting parameter of the current user and the personalized lighting parameter of the additional user. In other versions of this embodiment, the executive module generates the shared personalized lighting parameter by selecting one of the personalized lighting parameter of the current user and the personalized lighting parameter of the additional user.

[0017] The sensor system detects an identity of the current user by detecting a radio- frequency identification card carried by the current user, in one embodiment. In another embodiment, the sensor system detects an identity of the current user by detecting biometric data corresponding to the current user.

[0018] In some embodiments, the sensor system detects environmental data and behavioral data, and the executive modifies the schema in accordance with at least one of the environmental data and the behavioral data.

[0019] In other embodiments, the second memory stores a plurality of schemata. The executive selects one of the plurality of schemata depending upon the personal preference data of the current user, and the executive module translates the selected schema into instructions for controlling the output setting of the light source. In other embodiments, the sensor system detects light source output data indicating an operating error in the at least one light source, and the executive provides a correction signal to the light source to correct the operating error.

[0020] In accordance with some embodiments, the network includes a schematizer for generating the schema. In other embodiments, the at least one light source is a luminaire. In other embodiments, the at least one light source includes a plurality of light sources that communicate with each other using at least one of a wired communications link, a wireless communications link, a radio frequency communications link, and an optical communications link. In some embodiments, the at least one light source includes at least one illumination light source and at least one luminance light source. In other embodiments, the network also includes an agent module, and the executive module communicates with the second memory via communications with the agent module.

[0021] In another aspect, the present disclosure is directed to a lighting management system that includes a sensor system for observing system parameters, at least one light source, and an executive module. The at least one light source is in communication with the sensor system over a network and the at least one light source has controllable output settings. The executive module is in communication with the sensor system and the at least one light source over the network and in communication with a remote memory storing at least one schema over a communications link. The executive module includes a controller and receives the observed system parameters from the sensors and transmits a request for a schema to the remote memory, where the request includes information indicative of at least one of the observed system parameters. The executive module receives a schema from the remote database and converts the schema into instructions for controlling the output settings of the at least one light source.

[0022] In one embodiment, the at least one light source includes at least one luminaire. In another embodiment, the observed system parameters relate to one or more people. In this embodiment, the observed system parameters include at least one of: the presence of the one or more people, the identity of the one or more people, a location of the one or more people, a time of the presence of the one or more people, gestures of the one or more people, actions of the one or more people, faces of the one or more people, and a sound emitted by the one or more people. In another embodiment, the observed system parameters include at least one of: an output from the at least one light source, a level of ambient lighting, an amount of daylight, a motion, a temperature, a humidity level, weather, and a noise.

[0023] In accordance with one embodiment of this aspect, the executive module is located within one of the at least one light sources. In an additional embodiment, the executive module is distributed across a plurality of light sources. In versions of this embodiment, the plurality of light sources communicate with each other using at least one of a wired communications link, a wireless communications link, a radio frequency communications link, and an optical communications link.

[0024] In accordance with other embodiments, the executive module includes a controller, a memory, an interface for facilitating communication with at least one of the light source and the sensors, and an interface for facilitating communication with the remote memory over the communications link. In other embodiments, the communications link is one of a wireless communications link and a wired communications link.

[0025] In some embodiments of this system, the executive module converts the schema into instructions by interpreting the schema in accordance with the output setting of the at least one light source.

[0026] Another aspect of the present disclosure is a method for implementing a lighting management system. The method includes receiving, at an executive module that includes a controller, observed system parameters from a sensor system. The method also includes transmitting a request for a schema to a data store, the request including information indicative of at least one of the observed system parameters, where the data store is located at a location remote to the executive module. In addition, the method includes receiving, at the executive module, a schema from the data store, and converting, by the executive module, the schema into instructions for controlling output settings of at least one light source .

[0027] In some embodiments of this method, receiving observed system parameters includes receiving an identity of a current user. In this embodiment, the transmitted request includes information indicative of the identity of the current user, and the received schema includes lighting parameters according to preferences of the current user. In other embodiments, the method includes storing the received schema in a local memory. In other embodiments, the converting includes interpreting, by the executive module, the schema in accordance with the output settings of the at least one light source.

[0028] In another aspect, the present disclosure is directed to an executive module for use in a lighting management system. The executive module includes a sensor interface, a light source interface, a schematizer interface, a memory, and a controller. The sensor interface is for receiving observed system parameters from a sensor system. The light source interface is for transmitting control parameters to at least one light source. The schematizer interface is for transmitting a request for a schema to a remote schematizer, where the request includes information indicative of least one of the observed system parameters. The schematizer interface is also for receiving a schema from the remote schematizer. The memory stores the observed system parameters and the schema. The controller translates the schema into instructions for controlling output settings of at least one light source.

[0029] In one embodiment, the sensor interface is for receiving additional observed system parameters and the processor is further for modifying the schema to compensate for the additional observed system parameters. In another embodiment, the controller is further for interpreting the schema in accordance with the output settings of the at least one light source.

[0030] In yet another aspect, the present disclosure is directed to a lighting management system. The system includes a first memory and a network. The first memory stores personal preference data corresponding to a plurality of users, the personal preference data corresponding to each of the plurality of users including at least one personalized lighting parameter for each user. The network is at a location remote from the first memory and includes at least one light source having a controllable output setting. The network also includes a sensor system that detects an identity of a current user, and an executive module in communication with the at least one light source, a second memory, and the sensor system. The executive module includes a controller and the second memory that stores at least one standard lighting parameter. The executive module receives the identity of the current user from the sensor system, communicates with the first memory to determine the personal preference data corresponding to the current user, and modifies the standard lighting parameter to conform to the personalized lighting parameter of the current user. The executive module translates the personalized lighting parameter into instructions for controlling the output setting of the light source.

[0031] Another aspect of the present disclosure is a method for implementing a lighting management system. The method includes receiving, at an executive module that includes a controller, observed system parameters from a sensor system indicating an identity of a current user. The method also includes transmitting a request for personal lighting preference data corresponding to the current user to a data store, where the data store is located at a location remote to the executive module. The method also includes receiving, at the executive module, personal lighting preference data corresponding to the current user from the data store, and converting the received personal lighting preference data into instructions for controlling the output setting of at least one luminaire.

[0032] In another aspect, the present disclosure is directed to a lighting management system that includes a sensor system receiving environmental input, the environmental input including at least one user identifier. The lighting management system also includes at least one light source having a controllable output setting and a schema data store storing schemata, the schemata including one or more of a user-specific schema, a group schema, a system- specific schema, and a shared system schema. Each stored schema includes at least one rule for controlling the output setting of the light source. The lighting management system also includes a schematizer in communication with the sensor system and the schema data store, the schematizer determining which schemata in the schema data store are applicable in view of the environmental input and generating a set of applicable rules for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source. The lighting management system also includes an executive module in communication with the at least one light source and the schematizer. The executive module includes a controller, and the executive module receives the set of applicable rules from the schematizer and translates at least one rule in the set of applicable rules into instructions for controlling the output setting of the light source. [0033] In some embodiment, the schema data store is located at a location remote from the at least one light source. In accordance with some embodiments, the schematizer continually monitors the environmental input to determine which schemata in the schema data store are applicable. In some embodiments, the schematizer generates the set of applicable rules by averaging the output settings of the rules of the applicable schemata; in some embodiments, the schematizer generates the set of applicable rules by prioritizing the rules of the applicable schemata.

[0034] In accordance with some embodiments, the set of applicable rules constitutes a revised system-specific schema. In another embodiment, the at least one light source includes a plurality of light sources that communicate with each other using at least one of a wired communications link, a wireless communications link, a radio frequency communications link, and an optical communications link. In other embodiments, the executive module translates the at least one rule into instructions by interpreting the at least one rule in accordance with the output setting of the at least one light source.

[0035] In another aspect, the present disclosure is directed to a method for implementing a lighting management system. The method includes receiving environmental input, the environmental input including at least one user identifier, and accessing a schema data store to retrieve at least one applicable schema in view of the environmental input, the at least one applicable schema including rules for controlling an output setting of at least one light source. The method also includes arbitrating inconsistent rules in the at least one applicable schemata to determine a set of working rules for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source and translating the working rules into instructions for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source.

[0036] According to some embodiments, the schema data store is located at a location remote from the at least one light source. In some embodiments, the method further includes continually monitoring the environmental data to determine which schemata are applicable. In some embodiments, the arbitrating includes averaging the output settings of the rules of the applicable schemata to determine the set of working rules. In some embodiments, the arbitrating includes prioritizing the rules of the applicable schemata to determine the set of working rules.

[0037] According to some embodiments of this method, the set of working rules constitute a revised system schema. In another embodiment, the translating includes interpreting the working rules in accordance with the output setting of the at least one light source.

[0038] In yet another aspect, the present disclosure is directed to a method for implementing a lighting management system. The method includes receiving, at an executive module that includes a controller, sensed system parameters from a sensor system indicating an identity of a current user, and transmitting a request for a schema corresponding to the current user to a data store, where the data store is located at a location remote to the executive module. The method also includes receiving, at the executive module, the schema corresponding to the current user from the data store, and converting the received schema into instructions for controlling an output setting of at least one luminaire.

[0039] In some embodiments, the received schema is personalized for the current user. In some embodiments, the received schema is personalized for a group of users, and the group of users includes the current user. In other embodiments, the converting includes interpreting the received schema in accordance with the output setting of the at least one luminaire.

[0040] In yet another aspect, the present disclosure is directed to a lighting management system that includes a memory storing schemata, each schema including at least one rule. The system also includes a network at a location remote from the memory. The network includes at least one light source having a controllable output setting, a sensor system detecting an identity of a current user, and an executive module. The executive module is in communication with the at least one light source and the sensor system. The executive module receives the identity of the current user from the sensor system, communicates with the memory to receive a schema corresponding to the current user, and translates the received schema into instructions for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source.

[0041] In some embodiments, the received schema is personalized for the current user. In other embodiments, the received schema is personalized for a group of users, and the group of users includes the current user. In further embodiments, the executive module translates the received schema by interpreting the received schema in accordance with the output setting of the at least one light source.

[0042] It should be appreciated that all combinations of the foregoing concepts and additional concepts discussed in greater detail below (provided such concepts are not mutually inconsistent) are contemplated as being part of the inventive subject matter disclosed herein. In particular, all combinations of claimed subject matter appearing at the end of this disclosure are contemplated as being part of the inventive subject matter disclosed herein. It should also be appreciated that terminology explicitly employed herein that also may appear in any disclosure incorporated by reference should be accorded a meaning most consistent with the particular concepts disclosed herein.

Brief Description of the Drawings

[0043] In the drawings, like reference characters generally refer to the same parts throughout the different views. Also, the drawings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead generally being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention.

[0044] FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary Interactive Modified Immersion (IMI) system according to embodiments of the invention in which user preference data, rules, and/or schemata are stored in a remote database.

[0045] FIG. 2 illustrates a block diagram of a lighting network according to embodiments of the invention in which schemata are employed.

[0046] FIG. 3 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention where user rules or user preference data can be shared between lighting networks.

[0047] FIG. 4 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary personal identifier according to some embodiments of the invention.

[0048] FIG. 5 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary executive module according to some embodiments of the invention. [0049] FIG. 6 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary lighting network according to embodiments of the invention in which schemata are employed.

[0050] FIG. 7 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which schemata are employed and user rules or preferences data can be shared.

[0051] FIG. 8A illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which schemata and preference data can be shared.

[0052] FIG. 8B illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which schemata and preference data can be shared and an agent is used to communicate with remote resources.

[0053] FIG. 9A illustrates a block diagram of light sources for use in an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which an executive module is part of a light source.

[0054] FIG. 9B illustrates a block diagram of light sources for use in an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which an executive module is distributed amongst light sources.

[0055] FIG. 9C illustrates a block diagram of light sources for use in an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which each light source includes an executive module.

[0056] FIG. 9D illustrates a block diagram of light sources for use in an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which light sources communicate optically.

[0057] FIG. 9E illustrates a block diagram of light sources for use in an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which light sources communicate using a variety of protocols.

[0058] FIG. 10 illustrates a block diagram of a lighting network layout according to embodiments of the invention. [0059] FIG. 11 is a flow chart illustrating modification of a system schema in accordance with some embodiments of the invention.

[0060] FIG. 12 is a flow chart illustrating an implementation of user preferences or schemata from a remote database in accordance with some embodiments of the invention where preferences or schemata for more than one user are taken into account.

[0061] FIG. 13 is a flow chart illustrating an implementation of user preferences or schemata from a remote database in accordance with some embodiments of the invention.

Detailed Description

[0062] Reference is now made in detail to illustrative embodiments of the invention, examples of which are shown in the accompanying drawings.

[0063] Various implementations of the present technology and related inventive concepts are described below, including certain implementations relating to interactive lighting networks that are aware of their environments. Such networks are particularly suitable for intelligent lighting in bars, restaurants, stadiums, exhibition centers, museums, shops, shopping centers, night clubs, dance halls, public transport, waiting areas, transition spaces, airports, among other applications. It should be appreciated, however, that the present disclosure is not limited to any particular manner of implementation, and that the various embodiments discussed explicitly herein are primarily for purposes of illustration.

[0064] Technology disclosed herein relates to lighting networks, which may be operated independently from each other and have access to common data defining personal lighting preferences. Illumination and/or luminance generated by these networks is controlled by lighting schemata, which are one or more rules of operation of light sources and sensors specific to a user, a group of users, a system, or a set of systems. A system in accordance with the invention may intelligently learn preferences, rules, and schemata, and may share them between lighting networks.

[0065] Previous lighting control systems were generally stand-alone, self-contained systems. For a user's preferences to be implemented in another environment, or for learned parameters to be implemented in another environment, a user would have to carry a device storing his or her preferences. Previous systems and networks are also not able to efficiently share learned parameters, including information learned by monitoring individual and system actions, with other systems and networks.

[0066] Applicants recognized and appreciated that it would be beneficial to enable sharing of schemata, which are based on preference data, between lighting networks implementing lighting control systems and methods. Accordingly, aspects of the present invention are directed to the sharing of schemata or rules between lighting networks or regions of a lighting network. Individual lighting networks applying these aspects may then make use of previously- ascertained schemata or previously-ascertained rules to more efficiently adapt themselves to behavior, preferences, or conditions. Such systems and methods may be referred to as Interactive Modified Immersion (IMI) systems and/or networks. Individual IMI systems may also interpret schemata or rules according to the systems' configuration, components, and capabilities.

[0067] FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary IMI system 100 according to embodiments of the invention in which user preference data, rules, and/or schemata are stored in a preference data store 112. Referring to FIG. 1, in one embodiment, IMI system includes exemplary lighting network 101, which includes a lighting system 102, a sensor system 104, and an executive module 106. The term "network" as used herein refers to any interconnection of two or more devices (including controllers or processors) that facilitates the transport of information (e.g. for device control, data storage, data exchange, etc.) between any two or more devices and/or among multiple coupled devices. As should be readily appreciated, various implementations of networks suitable for interconnecting multiple devices may include any of a variety of network topologies and employ any of a variety of communication protocols. Additionally, in various networks according to the present disclosure, any one connection between two devices may represent a dedicated connection between the two systems, or alternatively a non-dedicated connection. In addition to carrying information intended for the two devices, such a non-dedicated connection may carry information not necessarily intended for either of the two devices (e.g., an open network connection). Furthermore, it should be readily appreciated that various networks of devices as discussed herein may employ one or more wireless, wire/cable, and/or fiber optic links to facilitate information transport throughout lighting network 101.

[0068] Lighting system 102 may be any system affecting the environment of a space including a system for providing one or more of: illumination, luminance, or a combination of illumination and luminance. In one embodiment, lighting system 102 may further include a system affecting the environment of a space including, but not limited to, a system for providing one or more of: fragrance, heating, ventilation, cooling, television, background music, and/or sound. Lighting system 102 may include one or more light sources such as one or more LEDs or luminaires, in communication over lighting network 101. In one embodiment, lighting system 102 includes at least one light source having a controllable output setting. For example, lighting system 102 may include a luminaire configured to vary its photometric output or a luminaire configured to render light distribution patterns. One or more of the light sources in the lighting system may also have one or more manual controls such as on/off switches or dimmers. Any adjustments to these manual controls by a user, and the context for any such adjustments, may be monitored by executive module 106 and used as input for learning patterns and preferences of the users within the coverage area of lighting network 101.

[0069] The term "light source" should be understood to refer to any one or more of a variety of radiation sources, including, but not limited to, LED-based sources (including one or more LEDs as defined above), incandescent sources (e.g., filament lamps, halogen lamps), fluorescent sources, phosphorescent sources, high-intensity discharge sources (e.g., sodium vapor, mercury vapor, and metal halide lamps), lasers, other types of electroluminescent sources, pyro-luminescent sources (e.g., flames), candle-luminescent sources (e.g., gas mantles, carbon arc radiation sources), photo-luminescent sources (e.g., gaseous discharge sources), cathode luminescent sources using electronic satiation, galvano-luminescent sources, crystallo- luminescent sources, kine-luminescent sources, thermo-luminescent sources, triboluminescent sources, sonoluminescent sources, radioluminescent sources, and luminescent polymers.

[0070] A given light source may be configured to generate electromagnetic radiation within the visible spectrum, outside the visible spectrum, or a combination of both. Hence, the terms "light" and "radiation" are used interchangeably herein. Additionally, a light source may include as an integral component one or more filters (e.g., color filters), lenses, or other optical components. Also, it should be understood that light sources may be configured for a variety of applications, including, but not limited to, indication, display, and/or illumination. An "illumination light source" is a light source that is particularly configured to generate radiation having a sufficient intensity to effectively illuminate an interior or exterior space. In this context, "sufficient intensity" refers to sufficient radiant power in the visible spectrum generated in the space or environment (the unit "lumens" often is employed to represent the total light output from a light source in all directions, in terms of radiant power or "luminous flux") to provide ambient illumination (i.e., light that may be perceived indirectly and that may be, for example, reflected off of one or more of a variety of intervening surfaces before being perceived in whole or in part).

[0071] The term "lighting fixture" or "luminaire" is used herein to refer to an implementation or arrangement of one or more lighting units in a particular form factor, assembly, or package. The term "lighting unit" is used herein to refer to an apparatus including one or more light sources of same or different types. A given lighting unit may have any one of a variety of mounting arrangements for the light source(s), enclosure/housing arrangements and shapes, and/or electrical and mechanical connection configurations. Additionally, a given lighting unit optionally may be associated with (e.g., include, be coupled to and/or packaged together with) various other components (e.g., control circuitry) relating to the operation of the light source(s). An "LED-based lighting unit" refers to a lighting unit that includes one or more LED-based light sources as discussed above, alone or in combination with other non LED-based light sources. A "multi-channel" lighting unit refers to an LED-based or non LED-based lighting unit that includes at least two light sources configured to respectively generate different spectrums of radiation, wherein each different source spectrum may be referred to as a "channel" of the multi-channel lighting unit.

[0072] There are many known intelligent light sources and luminaires that could be used as part of lighting system 102 within lighting network 101. In one embodiment, lighting system 102 includes luminaires comprising solid state light-emitting elements. Any such luminaire may have individually controllable illumination levels for one or more of its constituent wavelengths, so that a wide range of colors, brightness levels and color temperatures can be produced. For example, an LED luminaire could include red, green and blue LEDs. Other types of lighting could also be incorporated into the network, such as fluorescent or incandescent lighting. Some examples of such light sources are Lexel LED DLM system and COLORBLAST / iW Blast lighting fixtures available from Royal Philips Electronics, N.V.

[0073] As mentioned above, the term "light-emitting element" is used to define any device that emits radiation in any region or combination of regions of the electromagnetic spectrum for example, the visible region, infrared, and/or ultraviolet region, when activated by applying a potential difference across it or passing a current through it, for example. Therefore a light- emitting element can have monochromatic, quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic or broadband spectral emission characteristics. Examples of light-emitting elements include semiconductor, organic, or polymer/polymeric light-emitting diodes, blue or UV pumped phosphor coated light-emitting diodes, optically pumped nanocrystal light-emitting diodes, laser diodes or any other similar light-emitting devices as would be readily understood by a worker skilled in the art. Furthermore, the term light-emitting element is used to define the specific device that emits the radiation, for example a LED die, and can equally be used to define a combination of the specific device that emits the radiation together with a housing or package within which the specific device or devices are placed.

[0074] As used herein for purposes of the present disclosure, the term "LED" should be understood to include any electroluminescent diode or other type of carrier injection/junction- based system that is capable of generating radiation in response to an electric signal. Thus, the term LED includes, but is not limited to, various semiconductor-based structures that emit light in response to current, light emitting polymers, organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs), electroluminescent strips, and the like. In particular, the term LED refers to Light Emitting Diodes of all types (including semi-conductor and organic Light-Emitting Diodes) that may be configured to generate radiation in one or more of the infrared spectrum, ultraviolet spectrum, and various portions of the visible spectrum (generally including radiation wavelengths from approximately 400 nanometers to approximately 700 nanometers). Some examples of LEDs include, but are not limited to, various types of infrared LEDs, ultraviolet LEDs, red LEDs, blue LEDs, green LEDs, yellow LEDs, amber LEDs, orange LEDs, and white LEDs (discussed further below). It also should be appreciated that LEDs may be configured and/or controlled to generate radiation having various bandwidths (e.g., full widths at half maximum, or FWHM) for a given spectrum (e.g., narrow bandwidth, broad bandwidth), and a variety of dominant wavelengths within a given general color categorization.

[0075] For example, one implementation of an LED configured to generate essentially white light (e.g., a white LED) may include a number of dies which respectively emit different spectra of electroluminescence that, in combination, mix to form essentially white light. In another implementation, a white light LED may be associated with a phosphor material that converts electroluminescence having a first spectrum to a different second spectrum. In one example of this implementation, electroluminescence having a relatively short wavelength and narrow bandwidth spectrum "pumps" the phosphor material, which in turn radiates longer wavelength radiation having a somewhat broader spectrum.

[0076] It should also be understood that the term LED does not limit the physical and/or electrical package type of an LED. For example, as discussed above, an LED may refer to a single light-emitting device having multiple dies that are configured to respectively emit different spectra of radiation (e.g., that may or may not be individually controllable). Also, an LED may be associated with a phosphor that is considered as an integral part of the LED (e.g., some types of white LEDs). In general, the term LED may refer to packaged LEDs, non-packaged LEDs, surface mount LEDs, chip-on-board LEDs, T-package mount LEDs, radial package LEDs, power package LEDs, LEDs including some type of encasement and/or optical element (e.g., a diffusing lens), etc.

[0077] Lighting system 102 may be controlled using a communication protocol such as DALI, DMX, or Zigbee, or using another lighting or device control protocol. As discussed above, lighting network 101 may communicate over wireless and/or over wired connections. Wireless connections may be radio frequency (RF), for example Bluetooth, or they may be modulated optical signals superimposed on illumination light output of lighting system 102. Lighting system 102 may be designed for providing illumination of spaces, for providing architectural features with luminance, or a combination of the two.

[0078] In one embodiment, lighting system 102 is connected over lighting network 101 to sensor system 104. Sensor system 104 may sense one or more system parameters including, for example, parameters relating to people, behavioral parameters or data, environmental parameters or data, and feedback parameters or data for lighting system 102. Although not an exclusive list, sensor system 104 may sense one or any combination of the following parameters: the presence of one or more people, the identity of one or more people, a physical characteristic of one or more people, such as a blood vessel pattern in a person's body, a location of one or more people, a time of presence of one or more people, gestures of one or more people, actions of one or more people, faces of one or more people, sounds emitted by one or more people or from other sources, an output from at least one of the light sources, a level of ambient lighting, an amount of daylight, a motion, a temperature, a humidity level, weather, and a noise. Sensor system 104 may include, for example, one or more of the following: a thermometer; a hygrometer for measuring humidity; an anemometer for measuring air speed; a phonometer for measuring noise levels; a lux meter for measuring illumination values; a gas probe for measuring the concentration of certain chemicals, such as CO2 or CO concentration; a detector for detecting daylight; and an external weather sensor such as a rain detector.

[0079] In one embodiment, sensor system 104 may detect an identity of a user by detecting biometric data, such as fingerprint data or iris data corresponding to a user 108. In another embodiment, the sensor system may include a video camera that uses face recognition software to identify facial features of user 108. In yet another embodiment, the sensor system detects an identity of a user by detecting a personal identifier 110 carried by user 108. In one embodiment, the personal identifier is a radio-frequency identification (RFID) card, a badge or device adorned with a bar code, or a portable device. In some embodiments, the personal identifier is not a part of the network, but is detectable by the sensor system. In some embodiments, the personal identifier stores preference data, rules, and/or a schema for the user. Sensor system 104 may also detect the presence and number of persons who do not carry a personal identifier 110, or who have switched off the ability of their personal identifier to be detected by lighting network 101.

[0080] Executive module, or executive, 106 is connected over lighting network 101 to lighting system 102 and sensor system 104; and accordingly, executive module 106, sensor system 104, and lighting system 102 may be said to form part of lighting network 101. Executive module 106 may be implemented in numerous ways (e.g., such as with dedicated hardware) to perform various functions discussed herein. In one example, the executive module includes one or more microprocessors that may be programmed using software (e.g., microcode) to perform various functions discussed herein. In another example, the executive module includes a combination of dedicated hardware to perform some functions and a controller or processor (e.g., one or more programmed microprocessors and associated circuitry) to perform other functions. Examples of executive module 106 components that may be employed in various embodiments of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, conventional microprocessors, application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), and field- programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

[0081] Executive module 106 in some embodiments operates one or more of the light sources in lighting system 102 of lighting network 101 according to a schema in response to conditions detected by sensor system 104. For example, the executive module may apply a first rule or group of rules within the schema when no people are in the space covered by lighting network 101, and may apply second rule or group of rules within the schema when there are unidentifiable people within the coverage of lighting network 101. In another example, the executive module may apply a third rule or group of rules within a second schema to operate one or more of the light sources in lighting system 102 in response to a personal identifier 110 detected in range of lighting network 101. In yet another example, when sensor system 104 senses that one or more light sources in lighting system 102 are aging or not functioning properly, the executive module can send control signals to the improperly functioning light source to correct for the ineffectiveness of the failing light source.

[0082] Executive module 106 may adjust the operation of lighting system 102, in response to input from sensor system 104. An executive module can further receive an input from the sensor system that causes it to select or alter the schema and thereby provide user interactivity. In one embodiment discussed in more detail below, executive module 106 may implement and update schemata or rules that make up schemata.

[0083] A schema is a set of one or more rules of operation of light sources and sensors. As used herein, a rule may include an antecedent condition statement that, when satisfied, allows the inference of other consequent information. As such, executive module 106 can be thought of as an expert system that includes or constitutes an inference engine, which can infer information based upon sensed or determined conditions. The format for such rules may be:

IF <antecedent> THEN <consequent>

The antecedent conditions may be determined via input provided by the sensor system 104. Executive module 106 can examine existing facts or conditions to infer new facts or consequent information, e.g.,:

IF <rain detector detects .01 oz liquid precipitation > THEN <weather = rain>

The inference of the consequent information may satisfy another condition in accordance with user or system preferences, e.g.,:

IF <weather = rain> THEN <background color = red> IF <background color = red > THEN <highlight color = cyan>

Such rules may trigger executive module 106 to issue a command to lighting system 102 to set the background color as red, and the highlight color as cyan, when the sensor system 104 senses that it is raining.

[0084] Rules and/or schemata may be set for when multiple IMI users are present in lighting network 101. For example, one such rule may be:

IF <number of users > > 2 THEN <highlight color = average user highlight color> [0085] When more than one rule may apply and implementation of the applicable rules results in conflicting consequent information, executive module 106 may perform conflict resolution to determine which rule to implement. Certain rules may be assigned higher priority than other rules. For example, an IMI user may have his/her own schema, a group of IMI users may have a shared schema, and an IMI system may have its own schema. Priority may be assigned such that a schema shared between a group of IMI users takes priority over a user's individual schema, but is only implemented when multiple members of the group are present in lighting system 101.

[0086] As one of skill in the art will appreciate, rules can be structured as requiring multiple conditions or requiring the satisfaction of one or several condition options before inferring information, and likewise, rules can be structured as inferring multiple pieces of information upon the satisfaction of one or more conditions. For example, exemplary rules may set forth:

IF <number of group members > > 3 OR <group leader not present> THEN <highlight color = average user highlight color>

IF <number of group members > > 2 AND <background color =red> THEN <do nothing>

IF < number of users > > (<number of group members> + 5) > THEN <background color = red>AND<highlight color = average user highlight color>

[0087] Lighting rules and/or schemata may be modified by, for example, executive module 106 or a user interface. Lighting rules and/or schemata may be adaptable, and thus, modified by the executive module without further input from a user, lighting designer, or external processing device. The term "user interface" as used herein refers to an interface between a human user or operator and one or more devices that enables communication between the user and the device(s). Examples of user interfaces that may be employed in various implementations of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, switches, potentiometers, buttons, dials, sliders, a mouse, keyboard, keypad, various types of game controllers (e.g., joysticks), track balls, display screens, various types of graphical user interfaces (GUIs), touch screens, microphones and other types of sensors that may receive some form of human-generated stimulus and generate a signal in response thereto.

[0088] A lighting schema may cause the implementation of a lighting script upon the detection of a condition. One of skill in the art will appreciate that rules can be defined and modified in a multitude of other ways. [0089] One or more components of lighting system 102 may be preprogrammed with a set of default rules defining default behavior for one or more light sources. These default rules may be overridden or modified by rules denoted with a higher priority that are specified by the lighting designer. The default rules may also be modified or replaced by rules that the system developed by itself as it learns about its environment and users.

[0090] IMI system 100 itself may have its own schema, which it may develop or obtain from a schema data store or from another IMI system. The IMI system may be influenced by rules about rules, sometimes called metarules, determining whether certain classes of rules have limited priority or are disallowed in certain situations. For example, it is easier to say that "general rules are overridden by emergency situation rules" rather than individually identify each and every rule that must be overridden during a fire evacuation. One of skill in the art will appreciate that schemata may also be overridden or modified by schemata of higher priority and governed by metarules.

[0091] The collective rules of schemata can comprise a rule base that the executive module 106 can continually access to determine which rules are to be fired. In one embodiment, multiple executive modules may access the rule base as IMI users move within and between buildings.

[0092] When the system is able to rewrite rules and schemata according to past experience and the current situation, programs can be generated that can examine the current situation and generate new rules that are appropriate in terms of the user's preference and history. The artificial intelligence inherent in these programs makes them much more valuable than simple rule sets.

[0093] IMI system 100 is designed to synthesize new information from multiple and possibly disparate sensors in sensor system 104. For example, data from an occupancy sensor may be combined with data from an RFID sensor to determine that the person previously identified through a personal identifier 110 has entered a space with the occupancy sensor. An example of this is if there is only one person in the building, whose identity is detected upon entry. In different places within the building there may be occupancy sensors that do not detect identity, but the executive module 106 can check on the overall consistency of the signals from the sensors in sensor system 104 to deduce the identity of a sensed occupant. Another example is when there are two people in the building, both of whom identities have been detected by the system. If they are in different locations, signals from neighboring, non-identifying occupancy sensors can be strung together by the executive to keep track of the identity of the occupant and provide preferences accordingly. Yet another example would be if one person from a group leaves a common room, perhaps without a personal identifier 110. In this case the system can garner clues as to the person's identity from the speed he walks, the direction he goes and the wall switches he may adjust.

[0094] Lighting network 101 is in communication with a preference data store, or memory, 112, which in one embodiment is located at a location remote from lighting network 101. In one embodiment, preference data store 112 stores personal preference data corresponding to a plurality of users, the personal preference data corresponding to each of the plurality of users including at least one personalized lighting parameter for each user. Personal preference data stored in preference data store 112 may be encoded as one or more rules in an IMI user's personal schema, in a group's schema, and/or in an IMI system's schema. As such, preference data store 112 may be considered to be a rule database.

[0095] Preference data store 112 may be a database, register or other data storage element. Preference data store 112 may be in a server connected to the Internet, and may store multiple preferences and/or rules for multiple people. In one embodiment, lighting network 101 can access the preference data store but cannot control it. In one embodiment, user 108 has access to preference data store 112, and can change the user's preference data and/or rules including the user's personalized lighting parameters by, for example, a user interface.

[0096] For example, user 108 may access preference data store 112 over the Internet. Table 1 lists exemplary personal preference data including personalized lighting parameters that a user can enter and which may be stored in the preference data store. Exemplary personalized lighting parameters include, but are not limited to, a preferred lighting color, a preferred brightness level, or a preferred volume.

Figure imgf000029_0001

Table 1: Exemplary user preference data

[0097] In different embodiments, a user's preference data may range from a single parameter to a large number of parameters. For example, in some embodiments, the user's preference data may consist of a lighting level that relates to the preferred brightness of the lights, or, as shown in Table 1, may correlate a user, specified by an identifier (ID), with the user's preferred lighting intensity (level) and spectrum, or color, where a preferred color is encoded as a hexadecimal number, the first two digits corresponding to a level of red, the second two digits corresponding to a level of blue, and the third pair of numbers corresponding to a level of green. As shown in Table 1, preference data may include start and stop times for the implementation of preference parameters. Such preference data can be considered to be a set of rules for a user that control the system's response or outputs to a particular condition or system input. Executive module 106 can utilize the rules to determine how to respond to a particular situation. For example, when executive module 106 receives an indication from sensor system 104 that a user specified by ID 298 has entered lighting network 101, executive module 106 can access the rule specifying that user 298 prefers lighting of color FF9966 at a level 77 between the times of 06:00 to 17:00 and prefers lighting of color EEEEFF at a level 100 between the times of 17:00 to 21:00.

[0098] The term "spectrum" should be understood to refer to any one or more frequencies (or wavelengths) of radiation produced by one or more light sources. Accordingly, the term "spectrum" refers to frequencies (or wavelengths) not only in the visible range, but also frequencies (or wavelengths) in the infrared, ultraviolet, and other areas of the overall electromagnetic spectrum. Also, a given spectrum may have a relatively narrow bandwidth (e.g., a FWHM having essentially few frequency or wavelength components) or a relatively wide bandwidth (several frequency or wavelength components having various relative strengths). It should also be appreciated that a given spectrum may be the result of a mixing of two or more other spectra (e.g., mixing radiation respectively emitted from multiple light sources). [0099] For purposes of this disclosure, the term "color" is used interchangeably with the term "spectrum." However, the term "color" generally is used to refer primarily to a property of radiation that is perceivable by an observer (although this usage is not intended to limit the scope of this term). Accordingly, the terms "different colors" implicitly refer to multiple spectra having different wavelength components and/or bandwidths. It also should be appreciated that the term "color" may be used in connection with both white and non-white light.

[00100] The term "color temperature" generally is used herein in connection with white light, although this usage is not intended to limit the scope of this term. Color temperature essentially refers to a particular color content or shade (e.g., reddish, bluish) of white light. The color temperature of a given radiation sample conventionally is characterized according to the temperature in degrees Kelvin (K) of a black body radiator that radiates essentially the same spectrum as the radiation sample in question. Black body radiator color temperatures generally fall within a range of from approximately 700 degrees K (typically considered the first visible to the human eye) to over 10,000 degrees K; white light generally is perceived at color temperatures above 1500-2000 degrees K.

[00101] Lower color temperatures generally indicate white light having a more significant red component or a "warmer feel," while higher color temperatures generally indicate white light having a more significant blue component or a "cooler feel." By way of example, fire has a color temperature of approximately 1,800 degrees K, a conventional incandescent bulb has a color temperature of approximately 2848 degrees K, early morning daylight has a color temperature of approximately 3,000 degrees K, and overcast midday skies have a color temperature of approximately 10,000 degrees K. A color image viewed under white light having a color temperature of approximately 3,000 degree K has a relatively reddish tone, whereas the same color image viewed under white light having a color temperature of approximately 10,000 degrees K has a relatively bluish tone.

[00102] Appendix A lists exemplary personal preference data including personalized lighting parameters that a user can enter and that may be stored in preference data store 112 or in personal identifier 110 and which may be encoded as one or more rules in a user's personal schema. As shown in Appendix A, exemplary personal preference data may include personalized parameters for environmental control of devices other than light sources. For example, preference data can include preferences for devices that provide environmental effects such as, but not limited to: heating, ventilation, cooling, television, background music, and fragrance. Preference data can include one of more of the following non-exclusive list: preferred temperatures; percentages of daylight preferred; preferences regarding the opening or closing of windows; degrees to which internal temperature should track external temperature; preferred scents; preferred audio level of sound systems playing music in a public or private environment; preferred humidity; preferred genre of background music; preferred television channel or type of program for use in hotels, waiting rooms or bars; a list of preferred songs or audio clips; a list of preferred musicians, singers, or groups; preferred languages; a YouTube or other video playlist; a set of keywords that might relate to YouTube or similar video clips or song themes; a list of favorite video clips; a list of preferred radio presenters; a list of likes and dislikes; products interested in or not interested in.

[00103] Preferences and/or rules can be linked to a certain time of day, a certain type of venue, specific venues or general geographic locations. They can be linked to a certain type of weather or any other sensed parameter. For example, bright cheerful music could be preferred for rainy days whereas any selection might be acceptable for a sunny day.

[00104] As shown in Appendix A, user preference data may include data other than data relating to environmental control of an environment. This information would facilitate a user's experience in various places. For example, the type of room preferred could be stored such that guests arriving at a hotel will know that the receptionist has been informed by the network as the guest enters the hotel. Such preferences may include preferred exercise machines in a gym for automated scheduling; preferred or favorite food or meal; favorite drink, etc. User preference data may also include personal data, such as, but not limited to, age, gender, and weight. In one embodiment, data stored in data store 112 may be considered to fall into one or more of the following categories: registration data, which is objective data without specific emotional value; preferences, which are things that a user enjoys or preferred ways of expression; activities, which is data on actual activities; biometric/physical, which is data on state of body and mind; and capability data, which is data on the user's capabilities. [00105] A user's preference data, rules or personal schema may also be more abstract than that listed in Table 1 and Appendix A. For example, rather than a specific color or brightness, or combination of these, preferences, rules, or a schema may be selected as one or more of the following, for example: "Bright"; "Lively"; "Subtle"; "Soothing"; "Colorful"; "Random"; "Economy"; "Glitzy"; "Surprising"; "Whacky"; "Natural"; etc. It would be up to a lighting designer to define the specific color/brightness/timing responses and/or constraints that would be triggered by the detection of a user defining one of the above as a preference. It would simplify the data input required of a user defining his preferences, and would permit an administrator, or designer, at the illuminated space to interpret the preference, rule or schema rather than the illuminated space being specified (to a certain extent) by the preference owner. From time to time the preferences, rules, or schema may be changed so that the works and interpretations of different lighting administrators or designers can be exhibited.

[00106] Further, individual IMI systems may interpret schemata or rules according to the systems' configuration, components, and capabilities. For example, if a user's preferences indicate that the user's favorite colors are red and yellow, an IMI system comprised of white light sources may infer that the user prefers "warm" colors and adjust its color temperature accordingly.

[00107] Although Table 1 and Appendix A show exemplary user preference data stored in tables, user preference data may be stored in different formats to improve efficiency and facilitate programming and access to the preference data. In one embodiment, preference data is be split into multiple tables within a relational database.

[00108] Users setting their preferences may set a specific desk light to turn on occasionally. In one embodiment, a user may set the user's preferences in terms of zones, which could be personal physical zones (e.g., overhead, eye level, lower level, floor, front and behind zones), which may or may not be based on activity, and which may or may not be time dependent. In one embodiment, a user could define medium distance zones and far zones, which effect light sources located predefined distances away from a user 108 and/or the user's personal identifier 110. In one embodiment, a user may set up room zones, where the lighting is insensitive to the exact location of the user in the room. The preference zones are then mapped to the zones defined in a network and an algorithm is used to best provide the desired lighting according to the preferences. An algorithm can be used for a quick or real time way of solving the inverse problem of determining lighting settings to match a user preference, and where there are many solutions, finding an appropriate or optimal one, and if there is no appropriate solution, finding a solution that will suffice. If a solution cannot be found rapidly, then a solution may be gradually implemented. In one embodiment, IMI system 100 may choose to intentionally implement user preferences gradually. Upon determination of lighting settings that match a user preference, a corresponding rule for implementing the lighting settings upon the satisfaction of a condition can be encoded.

[00109] In one embodiment, when an individual is detected changing a preference within preference data store 112, via a manual control, for example, the preference and any corresponding schema or rule can be automatically updated in the database; intelligently updated, taking into account time, frequency and pattern of similar requests; stored subject to approval by the preference owner; or ignored. In some embodiments, many individuals may store preference data within the preference data store 112, and intelligent updates can draw from similar changes requested by other users, or perhaps a selection of other similar users. Because of its ability to sense large amounts of data, intelligently respond to the data, update and implement schemata, and incorporate user preference data, the IMI system 100 is aware of its environment.

[00110] FIG. 2 illustrates a block diagram of a lighting network 101 according to one embodiment of the invention in which schemata are employed. As shown in FIG. 2, in addition to lighting system 102, sensor system 104, and executive module 106, lighting network 101 may include a local data store 202 for storing user preferences or user schemata. These user preferences and/or schemata may be downloaded from any storage medium, such as preference data store 112, before being stored in local data store 202. In one embodiment, lighting network 101 may also include a schematizer 204, configured to deliver schemata or schema files stored in schema data store 206. In one embodiment, instead of or in addition to local data store 202, user preferences and/or user schemata are stored in a storage portion 208 within schema data store 206 accessed by schematizer 204. [00111] In one embodiment, a schema can be considered to be a list of constraints for what the lighting system 102 is able to do, how it should react to certain input from the sensor system 104 or upon the occurrence of an event, and adapt lighting system 102 to operate in its environment. For example, a schema may permit an executive module 106 to operate using a basic lighting script, but to deviate from the script when appropriate. In one embodiment, lighting schemata are sets of rules that can be modified to incorporate personal preferences when the presence and identity of the preference owner is detected. In general, the fewer constraints a schema provides, the more likely it is that the lighting system 102, sensor system 104, and executive module 106 can adapt to operate in its environment. Lighting network 101 may keep track of its past events including past sensor data and past output from lighting system 102 to determine appropriate responses to particular events or scenarios. Moreover, lighting network 101 may detect conditions using sensor system 104. The administrator of lighting network 101 may specify which schema lighting network 101 implements.

[00112] In one embodiment, a markup language such as XML or a similar language may be used for creating schemata. The language used to create schemata may incorporate SQL commands for accessing preference data store 112, which stores user preferences. One of skill in the art will appreciate that other programming languages could be used to create schemata, such as, but not limited to, Visual Basic, C++, etc.

[00113] In one embodiment, schematizer 204 determines which schema or schemata are currently active and organize a working set of rules for the executive module 106 to access and implement. The schematizer 204 may determine which schema or schemata are active by receiving an indication of which IMI users are within the space. Schematizer 204 may connect wirelessly to executive module 106 in order to upload its set of working rules into a memory in executive module 106. One of skill in the art will appreciate that schematizer 204 could also connect over a wired or other communications link to executive module 106. In one embodiment, schematizer 204 is a hardware module; in another embodimnet, schematizer 204 is an executable program. Alternatively or in addition to schematizer 204, lighting network 101 may include schema data store 206 for storing schemata. Schema data store 206 is in communication with schematizer 204, and schematizer 204 may store schemata it creates or modifies in schema data store 206. Executive module 106 may also, or alternately, download or receive schemata from another remote source, such as from another network or a server that can be accessed over the Internet, and store the schemata in schema data store 206. Schema data store 206 may also store schemata that have been modified to incorporate personal preferences of users. In addition, schema data store 206 may store multiple schemata, from which an executive module 106 can select a schema to implement. Executive module 106 may select a particular schema for implementation depending upon a personal preference of the user 108 or depending upon other system parameters observed by sensor system 104.

[00114] Executive module 106 may arbitrate the inputs received from the sensor system 104, arbitrate user preference data stored in local data store 202, select a schema from schema data store 206 or alternately be provided a set of working rules from schematizer; and translate the schema or set of working rules into control commands enabling the lighting system 102 to implement the schema and/or working rules.

[00115] Schematizer 204 allows a lighting designer, administrator, or other person to set device defaults, such as a default illumination for a luminaire, and the interactive behavior for lighting network 101. For example, a schema can define the limits within which a device (e.g., a luminaire) output can vary (e.g., in terms of chromaticity, intensity, or a sequence of different outputs). A schema may work together with a user's preferences and/or may be modified to implement a user's preferences. For example, while a schema may define the limits within which a device output can vary, the device output may be set, within the limits set by the schema, according to the preferences of user 108, when the user is within the coverage area of lighting network 101 and has been identified by, for example, detection of personal identifier 110, and the preferences of the user have been retrieved, e.g. from preference data store 112 or from the personal identifier 110. Schematizer 204 can be used to define constraints and/or permit tolerances within which executive module 106 and lighting system 102 can operate.

[00116] In some embodiments, schematizer 204 is a laptop, palmtop or other computer with a Bluetooth output or other suitable protocol. The schematizer may be connected temporarily or permanently to lighting network 101. In one embodiment, schematizer 204 may be located remotely from lighting network 101. In this embodiment, the schematizer is connected to lighting network 101 via the Internet or via a telecommunications network. In one embodiment, lighting network 101 may include one or more schematizers 202, and/or may also be in communication with one or more remote schematizers over the Internet or via a telecommunications network.

[00117] Schematizer 204 and/or schema data store 206 may store a plurality of schemata, which are uploaded to the lighting network 101 on demand, for example when user 108, who has previously stored preference data corresponding to a schema, is within the coverage area of lighting network 101 that is implementing that schema. As such, schematizer 204 and/or schema data store 206 may be considered to be rule databases.

[00118] In one embodiment, one or more of the schematizer 204, schema data store 206, and executive module 106 may be combined in the same component. In one embodiment, schematizer 204 and executive module 106 may reside in software, hardware, firmware, or a combination thereof in a personal computer. Schematizer 204 may be a pop-up utility program. In one embodiment, schematizer 204 is a web browser plug-in that identifies the presence of IMI system 100 and lighting network 101, determines that it can control lighting system 102, determines the appropriate communication protocol to communicate with lighting system 102 by querying a remote database, and dynamically generates code in a compatible programming language to display a control for lighting system 102. For example, many computers have sensors that can be programmed in JavaScript™ code, and after detecting luminaires within lighting system 102, schematizer 204 may generate JavaScript™ code to display a dimmer control for a user to control the luminaires within lighting system 102. As mentioned above, schematizer 204 may be located on a remote server connected to network 101 over the Internet, and a browser may be programmed to simply discover whatever environment control opportunities it has available through its current hardwired or wireless connection.

[00119] As such, in one embodiment, schematizer 204 is one or more physical hardware devices, in another embodiment, schematizer 204 is one or more software programs. In yet another embodiment, the schematizer can be considered to be a service that is available to the user having components that are distributed throughout the world-wide web. In addition to generating schemata, schematizer 204 may be used by user 108 to set the user's personal preferences.

[00120] In one embodiment, schematizer 204 receives a CAD file from lighting network 101 or lighting system 102, for example, illuminance and luminance systems, that includes data on layout and types of light sources within lighting network 101. In another embodiment, the layout of the light sources is created in the schematizer and a CAD file is sent to the building architect, lighting designer, and/or device installer. A lighting designer or other person may generate scenarios for operation of the light sources. For example, a lighting designer may generate a scenario outlining one or more of the dimming level, chromaticity settings, and beam angle for each light source in lighting network 101 that varies in time or is constant. Although a schema may be considered to be the combination of scenarios for the lighting system 102, a schema may be a scenario for a single light source within lighting system 102. Moreover, scenarios for one or more light sources within lighting system 102 may be governed by a schema, which may itself comprise multiple subsidiary schemata.

[00121] Differing schemata can be created for different conditions or predefined events. For example, a special schema may be created for the entry of a celebrity into a hotel lobby, or if the Dow Jones index declines below a specific threshold. In one embodiment, a schema can be denoted by and referred to using a meaningful word or words that preferably refer to the condition for which it is intended, e.g. "Celebrity" for a schema that is created for the entry of a celebrity or "Dow-Jones_down" for a schema for when the Dow Jones index declines. These schema names may be downloaded when the associated schemata are downloaded to the executive module 106 and stored in schema data store 206.

[00122] One feature of an IMI system is the conversion of signals from sensor system 104, such as sensors that monitor the Internet, into the words or signals that can be associated with the schema names. For example, sensor system 104 may include an Internet detection module that is equipped with an analysis option that can monitor the value of the Dow-Jones index and can send the meaningful word "Dow-Jones_down" to executive module 106. Upon receipt of the meaningful word, the executive module 106 starts running the "Dow-Jones_down" schema that is stored in the schema data store 206.

[00123] In a similar way the sensor that detects the personal identifier 110 may include a receiver (e.g. WLAN or RFID), an interpretation unit, and a unit that transfers a meaningful word to the executive module. Upon receipt of an RFID-signal from the personal identifier of a celebrity the sensor for detecting the personal identifier transfers the meaningful word "Celebrity" to the executive module and the executive module 106 starts running the schema "Celebrity" stored in schema data store 206. If another schema is applicable, executive module 106 may arbitrate between the schemata and/or the schematizer 204 may provide a set of working rules to the executive module 106 that takes both schemata into account.

[00124] In another embodiment, sensor system 104 may include a rain sensor and an extension that translates detected rain into the meaningful word "Rain." Upon receipt of the meaningful word "Rain", executive module 106 will run a schema that is named "Rain" from schema data store 206, which may, for example, cause certain light sources in lighting system 102 to turn on or off. In one embodiment, the executive module may also control other devices in lighting system 102 that provide, for example, audio effects in the network, and running schema "Rain" may cause these devices to emit sounds, such as simulated rain sounds, within network 101. As such, occupants within lighting network 101 that are located in a room that does not have a window can be made aware that it is raining outside and the occupants can experience a simulated rain experience.

[00125] FIG. 3 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention where user rules or user preference data can be shared between networks. Lighting network 101 and lighting network 301 may implement the same or different schemata. As shown in FIG. 3, lighting network 301 includes lighting system 302, sensor system 304, and executive module 306. In one embodiment, a lighting network may include a set of sub-networks, such as lighting networks 101, 301, in the same or different buildings. For example, a company having a geographically distributed set of offices may have each of the lighting networks connected for centralized control or monitoring. [00126] In some embodiments, both lighting network 101 and lighting network 301 have access to the data in preference data store 112, which may be a part of a remote data store for schemata. As such, as user 108 travels to a location served by lighting network 301, executive module 306 may access preference data store 112 to access lighting preferences, and/or the personal schemata, of user 108. In these embodiments, a user 108 can enter the user's preferences into preference data store 112, after which multiple networks may access preference data store 112 to obtain the user's preferences. For example, user 108 may set the user's preferences and/or personal schemata in preference data store 112, and can go into the coverage area of lighting network 101 where the user's preferences including the user's personalized lighting parameters will be taken into account. User 108 may then travel to the coverage area of lighting network 301, where the user's preferences and/or schema, including the user's personalized lighting parameters, will also be taken into account. As such, the user 108 will only need to enter preference data and/or lighting personalized lighting parameters once and may do so before entering the coverage area of a particular network. Thus, regardless of whether lighting network 101 and lighting network 301 are implementing different system schemata, the user's preferences and personal schema may be taken into account in each lighting network. In some embodiments, only selected networks will recognize the user or the user's personal identifier.

[00127] In addition to storing preferences in preference data store 112, in some embodiments a user may store lighting preferences and/or the user's personal schema in personal identifier 110. In these embodiments, each user interacting with a network effectively has his own mini data store. The collection of mini data stores is effectively equivalent to a remote, distributed database like data store 112. In this embodiment, lighting network 301 may obtain users' preference data including the user's personalized lighting parameters and/or the users' personal schema from personal identifier 110. In another embodiment, lighting network 301 may obtain users' preference data or schemata from a prior network visited by user 108, such as lighting network 101.

[00128] FIG. 4 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary personal identifier 110 according to some embodiments of the invention. In one embodiment, the personal identifier is a mobile electronic communications device, such as a cellular phone, a satellite phone, a BlackBerry®, an iPhone, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), a pager, a laptop, a smart phone or any other electronic device with processing power and the ability to communicate. As shown in FIG. 4, the personal identifier may include controller, or microprocessor, or processor, 402, location awareness circuit 404, interface 406, memory 408, preference data memory 410, and RFID tag 412. A user such as user 108 can input his or her personal device preferences, such as the user's lighting preferences, via interface 406, which may be a user interface.

[00129] Location awareness circuit 404 in personal identifier 110 may be a Global Positioning Service (GPS) circuit. Location awareness circuit 404 may operate using assisted GPS, triangulation from WiFi or other RF signals, or, location within personal identifier 110 may be calculated from signals from accelerometers, or a location of personal identifier 110 may be determined based on a combination of these methods.

[00130] In some embodiments, preference data and/or a user's schema are stored in memory 408 and loaded into preference data memory 410 when necessary, such as, for example, when user 108 enters a location having an IMI system 100. RFID tag 412 can be detected by sensor system 104 and/or may broadcast an identification signal unsolicited or in response to network 101. RFID tag 412 can communicate with preference data memory 410 to access preference data and/or a schema stored in the preference data memory and RFID tag 412 can transmit preference data to network 101. In some embodiments, personal identifier 110 is configured to transmit preference data to a network even when personal identifier 110 is turned off by a user. In one embodiment, preference data stored in preference data 410 and/or memory 408 cannot be changed by lighting network 101.

[00131] RFID tag 412, or alternately, personal identifier 110, may be managed by a security system that provides its data to the IMI system that consists of a centralized (or possibly distributed) data and event logging system that communicates with the building management system for HVAC control and loading shedding information (obtained from the local power utility company). The IMI system communicates with but does not directly control each light source in lighting system 102, which may each have their own sensors and dimming/switching controls. Decisions on how each device is controlled then becomes a shared responsibility as the device responds to sensor system 104 but may be overridden by the event logging system when load shedding is desirable. Similarly, the security system may override all other commands during emergency situations.

[00132] In some embodiments, a user may have preferences and/or a schema for use only in certain environments. For example, a user may not have any device preferences during the working day, or when shopping, but might have a preference, such as a lighting preference, when visiting a night club. For this user, the personal identifier 110 is programmed so that the preference data memory 410 holds no data when the location awareness circuit 404 detects that personal identifier 110 is located at work or in a shopping mall. When the location aware circuit 404 determines that the personal identifier 110 is in a night club, then preference data memory 410 linked to RFID tag 412 is populated with the person's lighting preference data. Similarly, when a user's preferences are stored in data store 112, data store 112 may include only preference data for when the user 108 is located at a particular environment.

[00133] In one embodiment, a user's preference data may be separated into different permission levels such that different networks may only access certain preference parameters. For example, lighting network 101 may be permitted to access only certain aspects of user 108's preference data; lighting network 301 may be permitted to access all of user 108's preference data. As another example, a user's lighting preference can comprise a color and a brightness. A wider permission level may be given to the brightness data, which would be appropriate for someone in a business, shopping or museum environment, for example. A narrower permission level may be applied to the color preference data, such that only night clubs, bars and restaurants have access to it. In querying the data store 112, the network identifies itself and its type and the data store 112 provides only the preference data that is allowed to be accessed by that network.

[00134] FIG. 5 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary executive module 106 according to some embodiments of the invention. In one embodiment, executive module 106 includes controller, or microprocessor, or processor, 502, memory 504, and interfaces 506A, 506B, and 506C. In one embodiment, memory 504 holds computer-readable instructions for controller 502 to process in order to control the output of one or more of the light sources in lighting system 102 according to a user preference, one or more schemata, a lighting script, or in response to a parameter detected by sensor system 104. For example, executive module 106 may control the output of the light sources according to the preference data, such as a user's personalized schema, that is stored in preference data store 112. In one embodiment, executive module 106 arbitrates between different inputs, e.g., different inputs from varying sensors in sensor system 104. In another embodiment, memory 504 may serve as temporary or long term storage for one or more of default parameters, learned behavior, user preferences, and one or more schemata. As shown in FIG. 5, executive module 106 has three interfaces: interface 506A and 506B, which are shown as wired interfaces; and interface and 506C, shown as a wireless interface.

[00135] Executive module 106 can be implemented via a personal or laptop computer, or it can be a standalone electronic module. In one embodiment, executive module 106 is distributed across several devices.

[00136] FIG. 6 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary lighting network 601 according to embodiments of the invention in which schemata are employed. As shown in FIG. 6, lighting system 102 may include one or more light sources 603 connected to a power line 605 for their source of power. In one embodiment, one or more of light sources 603 may be individually powered, such as through an individual solar panel or by a battery. Light sources 603 may also be connected to a network control line 607 and communicate via interface 506B with executive module 606. Light sources 603 comprise drivers for converting the power input into a format suitable for supplying current to the light emitting elements. Sensor system 104 may include one or more sensors 610, which are connected to the executive module 606 via a network control line 612 and interface 506A. Although sensor system 604 is shown as using a separate interface from lighting system 602, sensor system 604 and lighting system 602 may share an interface with executive module 606. Furthermore, although network control lines 607 and 612 to light sources 603 and sensors 610 are shown as hardwired, they may be wireless. FIG. 6 illustrates executive module 606 connecting to schematizer 204 over a wireless communications link via interface 506C. However, one of skill in the art will appreciate that other communications links, such as a wired communications link, could be used to communicate with schematizer 204.

[00137] FIG. 7 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary IMI system 700 according to embodiments of the invention in which schemata are employed and can be shared. As shown in FIG. 7, user and/or system schemata may be stored remotely in a server or data store 112, which may be connected to executive module 706 over Internet 702 via interface 704. Executive module 706 in network 701 may generally run a system schema, but upon detecting the presence of personal identifier 110 in its coverage area, uses the identity of the personal identifier 110 to access and retrieve a user's personal schema stored in data store 112. Depending on the particular network, or the schema where more than one schema is available to IMI system 701, the user's schema as downloaded from data store 112 may be used to differing extents.

[00138] As illustrated in FIG. 7, components of a sensor system 104 such as sensors 705 may share control line 607 with components of lighting system 102 such as light sources 603.

[00139] FIG. 8A illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary IMI system 800 according to embodiments of the invention in which schemata and preference data can be shared. As shown in FIG. 8A, schemata may be generated or stored in schematizer 204, which is connected to executive 706. In addition, schemata may be stored remotely in a remote schema store 802, which may be accessible to lighting network 801 over Internet 702 and which may be centrally accessible to one or more networks. Remote data schema store 802 may be considered to be rule database. In one embodiment, the remote schema store is a schematizer. In some embodiments, executive module 706 downloads a schema from remote schema store 802 for implementation in IMI system 800. Executive module 706 may download the schema from the remote schema store 802 at the direction of an administrator, a lighting designer, or an operator of network 801. The schema can then be downloaded into schema data store 206. Although shown as stored in separate data stores in FIG. 8, users' personal schemata and system schemata may be stored on the same server, separate servers or distributed servers. In one embodiment, a fee may be collected from the downloader of the schemata to compensate an owner or creator of the schema. Schemata can be written so that they are independent of or automatically adaptable to the size and number of devices within lighting system 102 and sensors within sensor system 104 in lighting network 801.

[00140] In one embodiment, a schema may be uploaded to remote schema store 802 after having gone through a learning process to adapt to a lighting network 801 within IMI system 800 located in a particular building and/or to the preferences of a building's occupants. By making such a schema available to other networks within similar buildings, with occupants doing a similar kind of work, it is considerably more likely that the initial parameters will be better suited to the occupants than an off-the-shelf schema or one that is simply set up by a building manager.

[00141] Further, IMI system 800 may find that the behavior of the occupants within a building has or is changing beyond what is typical. IMI system 800 may then search through the available schemata uploaded from other buildings and stored in remote schema store 802 that may have already gone through such a change, and switch to a new schema, or compromise its existing schema to obtain a set of working rules towards the new schema through data fusion. In one embodiment, privacy concerns are taken into account when schemata are shared, such that user preferences and/or schemata may not be shared, or may be shared only up to an extent determined by a permission level.

[00142] For example, with reference to FIG. 3, lighting networks 101 and 301 may be located within similar buildings and lighting systems 102, 302 may each include daylight control systems designed to minimize energy consumption throughout the year by changing the light output of light sources within lighting systems 102, 302 as the input to daylight sensors within sensor systems 104, 304 vary. Although typically many parameters must be taken into account in generating control signals for the lighting systems 102, 302 to implement such daylight control systems, using IMI techniques they will be able to learn the best lighting solution through trial and error. Moreover, they will be able to communicate with each other and with other networks within other buildings to see their solutions. In this embodiment, the schemata may be said to correspond to the buildings in which they were learned. [00143] FIG. 8B illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary IMI system 803 according to embodiments of the invention in which schemata and preference data can be shared and an agent is used to communicate with remote resources. As shown in FIG. 8B, lighting system 102 includes two types of lights: illumination light sources 804 and luminance light sources 806. Lighting system 102 may include one or more illumination light source 804 and one or more luminance light source 806. Executive module 106 can retrieve different schemata from schematizer 204 based on inputs from personal identifier 110 or sensor system 104, or based on input from preference data store 112 via Internet 702.

[00144] Network 808 includes agent 810. In one embodiment, agent 810 acts on behalf of a monitoring center having a central database of schemata, such as, for example, remote schema store 802. Agent 810 monitors network 808 and passes behavior or newly developed schemata to remote schema store 802. The agent can work autonomously, only sending information when there is something to send, or it can be triggered by a request from the schematizer 204 or remote schema store 802. The agent may be written to be installed in new networks as a piece of software or firmware, or may be written to be installed into existing networks, as a software or a firmware upgrade. One or more agents 810, when installed in multiple independent networks, may be controlled by a central monitoring center to download more appropriate and efficient lighting schemata from remote schema store 802 according to globally-obtained knowledge.

[00145] FIG. 9A illustrates a block diagram of light sources for use in an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which an executive module is part of a light source. Light sources 902A and 902B also include sensors for use in lighting network 101. As such, light sources 902A-B are part of lighting system 102 and also part of sensor system 104. Light source 902A and 902B each contain a sensor 904, and are in communication over a network line 906. In one embodiment, light source 902A includes an executive module 908. As a lighting network such as lighting network 101 grows, or as more complex light schemata are implemented, and/or as more users having personal preferences are in the coverage area of lighting network 101, additional memory might be needed or beneficial. Therefore, in one embodiment, light sources 902B each contain memory modules 910. Memory modules 910 may be of different sizes or capacity to optimize the manufacturing process and supply chain of light sources 902B.

[00146] FIG. 9B illustrates a block diagram of light sources for use in an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which an executive module is distributed amongst light sources. In FIG. 9B, exemplary light sources 902C, 902B include sensors 904 for use in network 101 and an executive module is distributed across several light sources. For example, in FIG. 9B light source 902C includes controller, or microprocessor 901, and light sources 902B include memory modules 910. This embodiment may, but need not, be used for systems in which a user's schema is stored within a personal identifier 110. Light source 902C may be considered to be part of lighting system 102 and also part of sensor system 104.

[00147] FIG. 9C illustrates a block diagram of light sources for use in an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which each light source includes an executive module. Light sources 914A-C are identical and may communicate wirelessly, such as via RF. Light sources 914 include executive modules 908 and sensors 904. Light sources 914 may be considered to be part of lighting system 102 and also part of sensor system 104. This embodiment may simplify the supply chain for light sources 902A as the light sources 902A shown in Fig. 9C may be identical. In one embodiment, one of the light sources 914, such as light source 914A, may be designated as having the master executive module, and may use the processing power and memories of the other light sources 914B and 914C in the network as and when needed. In a large network, where there are many zones to be controlled with different lighting effects, multiple master executive modules may be designated which are all subservient to a grandmaster that controls global lighting effects in the space. For example, different groups of people in a bar or restaurant, through the setting of their own personal preferences, may have very different colors of lighting. Due to situations caused by energy saving issues, the need to signal the entrance of a VIP or the approach of closing time, the global lighting level may be dimmed or brightened, while still retaining the color preferences of the individuals and groups. This embodiment may employ a fixed hierarchy of dedicated lighting controllers. Because light sources 914 include sensors 904, light sources 914 may be considered to be part of lighting system 102 and also part of sensor system 104. [00148] FIG. 9D illustrates a block diagram of light sources for use in an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which light sources communicate optically. Light sources 916 may be luminaires, where light emitted from one light source 916 is modulated with communication signals. This light is reflected off a surface 918 in the environment and detected by nearby light sources, which are configured to extract the communication signal from the overall detected light signal. Like light sources 914 and 902A-C, because light sources 916 include sensors 904, light sources 916 may be considered to be part of lighting system 102 and also part of sensor system 104.

[00149] FIG. 9E illustrates a block diagram of light sources for use in an exemplary IMI system according to embodiments of the invention in which light sources 920A-D, communicate using a variety of protocols. For example, light source 920A may communicate with light source 920B optically through reflection off of surface 918, light source 920B may communicate with light source 920C wirelessly, and light source 920C may communicate with light source 920D over a wired connection.

[00150] In one embodiment, light sources 902A, 902B, 914A-C, 916, and 920A-D will be hard wired to a power supply line; in another embodiment, light sources 902A, 902B, 914A-C, 916, and 920A-D are individually powered such as through individual solar panels or via a battery.

[00151] FIG. 10 illustrates a block diagram of a network layout according to embodiments of the invention. Network 1002 includes several regions 1004A-D having a plurality of light sources 1008, which are controlled by a distributed arrangement of controllers 1006A-E which may reside in light sources 1008. For example, region 1004A may represent an office, region 1004B may represent a corridor, region 1004C may represent a waiting room, and region 1004D may represent a reception area. In one embodiment, each region 1004A-D may constitute a separate network.

[00152] The term "controller" is used herein generally to describe various apparatus relating to the operation of one or more lights. A controller can be implemented in numerous ways (e.g., such as with dedicated hardware) to perform various functions discussed herein. A "processor" is one example of a controller which employs one or more microprocessors that may be programmed using software (e.g., microcode) to perform various functions discussed herein. A controller may be implemented with or without employing a processor, and also may be implemented as a combination of dedicated hardware to perform some functions and a processor (e.g., one or more programmed microprocessors and associated circuitry) to perform other functions. Examples of controller components that may be employed in various embodiments of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, conventional microprocessors, application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

[00153] In one network implementation, one or more devices (e.g., a light or light source in general, a lighting unit or fixture, a controller or processor associated with one or more light sources or lighting units, other non-lighting related devices, etc.) coupled to a network may serve as a controller for one or more other devices coupled to the network (e.g., in a master/slave relationship). In another implementation, a networked environment may include one or more dedicated controllers that are configured to control one or more of the devices coupled to the network. Generally, multiple devices coupled to the network each may have access to data that is present on the communications medium or media; however, a given device may be "addressable" in that it is configured to selectively exchange data with (i.e., receive data from and/or transmit data to) the network, based, for example, on one or more particular identifiers (e.g., "addresses") assigned to it.

[00154] The term "addressable" is used herein to refer to a device that is configured to receive information (e.g., data) intended for multiple devices, including itself, and to selectively respond to particular information intended for it. The term "addressable" often is used in connection with a networked environment, in which multiple devices are coupled together via some communications medium or media.

[00155] In various implementations, a processor or controller may be associated with one or more storage media (generically referred to herein as "memory," e.g., volatile and non-volatile computer memory such as RAM, PROM, EPROM, and EEPROM, floppy disks, compact disks, optical disks, magnetic tape, etc.). In some implementations, the storage media may be encoded with one or more programs that, when executed on one or more processors and/or controllers, perform at least some of the functions discussed herein. Various storage media may be fixed within a processor or controller or may be transportable, such that the one or more programs stored thereon can be loaded into a processor or controller so as to implement various aspects of the present invention discussed herein. The terms "program" or "computer program" are used herein in a generic sense to refer to any type of computer code (e.g., software or microcode) that can be employed to program one or more processors or controllers.

[00156] Each of regions 1004A-D includes light sources 1008, which in one embodiment may be light sources 902A, 902B, 914A-C, 916, and 920A-D. Although region 1004A is depicted as having twelve light sources 1008, 1004B is depicted as having four light sources 1008, 1004C is depicted as having eight light sources 1008, and 1004D is depicted as having six light sources 1008, a region may have only one light source. Light sources 1008 may communicate with each other via multiple control paths, including optical, wired, or wireless communication paths.

[00157] One or more of light sources 1008 may have a processor and/or a memory. In some embodiments, light sources 1008 having a processor such as controllers 1006A-D operate a schema for light sources 1008 in a given region. For example, controller 1006C may operate a schema for waiting room region 1004C. In one embodiment, one of the light sources having a processor may be designated as a "master" processor or controller, which monitors signals from the other processors to ensure proper system operation. The master processor may also operate a schema for a particular region 1004A-D. For example, controller 1006D may operate a schema for a region 1004D and may also act as the master processor for network 1002. If a master processor detects a problem in a processor within a light source, the master processor can designate a spare processor in the network to take over in running the schema for a region. If master controller 1006D detects a problem in a processor within a light source, e.g., controller 1006A, master controller 1006D can designate a spare processor in the network, e.g., controller 1006E to take over in running the schema for region 1004A. Memory modules 1012 may store information such as schemata and user preferences. In one embodiment, memory modules 1012 each store the same information. If a controller cannot retrieve information from one memory module, it may retrieve the same information from another memory module that it can communicate with. In another embodiment, one or more of memory modules 1012 stores differing information from the other memory modules.

[00158] In one embodiment, if one or more region 1004A-D or section of a region does not have a controller 1006, the devices in the region 1004A-D may receive instructions from and the sensors may transmit observed parameters to the processor of another region 1004A-D.

[00159] In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 10, memory modules 1012 are distributed across the network. In this embodiment, subsystems, or regions within the network may submit data to other subsystems or regions which use the information to modify localized databases. For example, a particular set of behaviors may be established in region 1004A, and the preferences stored locally in a memory module 1012 located within region 1004A. In region 1004D, there may be no or very little established behavior, but if the sensors there detect some kind of different behavior, the controller 1006D can poll the memory modules 1012 within the network, find the closest match and copy over the preferences or schema parameters to the local database/memory within region 1004D. In one embodiment, the controller 1006D may also poll remote data stores to find the closest match and copy over preferences or schema parameters. The principle of transferring or copying lighting behavior from one region of a network to another can also be done using a database central to the network.

[00160] In one embodiment, lighting system 102 is an existing device such as a Color Kinetics iPlayer or an illumivision Pharos. Such lighting systems rely on standard lighting network communication protocols such as DaIi, DMX, Zigbee. As such, lighting system 102 may enable such protocols or other open standards to be used and therefore allow lighting network 101 to communicate using existing lighting protocols.

[00161] FIG. 11 is a flow chart illustrating modification of a system schema in accordance with some embodiments of the invention. At 1102, an initial device output is set in a schema stored in schema data store 206. In one exemplary embodiment, the initial lighting level may be set to 10% for when the room is unoccupied. At 1104, the sensor system 102 in lighting network 101 detects the identity of user 108 in lighting network 101 such as by detecting the presence of personal identifier 110 or by detecting biometric data, and, at 1106, executive module 106 retrieves preferences associated with the user 108 (or the user's personal schema, if any) from data store 112. If the retrieved personal preferences indicate that a user would prefer the light source output to change, e.g., the user would prefer an 80% lighting level, at 1108, executive module 106 sets a new light source output, and for example, may sets the lighting level to 80%. In this manner, executive module 106 modifies the system schema to conform to the personal preferences, including personalized device parameters of the current user and translates the modified schema into instructions for controlling the output setting of one or more light sources in lighting system 102. When translating schemata into instructions, executive module 106 and/or its controller may interpret the instructions in accordance with the configuration of lighting network 101. For example, the executive 106 may interpret a "Soothing" schema in accordance with the capabilities of the lighting system 102. For example, rules in a schema may suggest that a light of a particular color be emitted, but lighting system 102 may not have the capability of outputting that color. In that situation, executive module 106 may instruct lighting system 102 to emit light of a similar color. The modified schema may be stored in schema data store 206. At 1110, when the sensor system 102 no longer detects the presence of the user 108 in lighting network 101, executive module 106 sets the light source output in lighting system 102 in the schema back at the initial lighting level of 10% at 1102 and stores the revised schema in schema data store 206.

[00162] FIG. 12 is a flow chart illustrating an implementation of user preferences or schemata from a remote database in accordance with some embodiments of the invention where preferences or schemata for more than one user are taken into account. At 1202, an initial device output is set. At 1204, sensor system 102 detects the presence of a user, such as by detecting the user's personal identifier 110, and, at 1206, executive module 106 retrieves preferences associated with the user from data store 112. If the retrieved personal preferences or user's personal schema indicate that the user would prefer the device output to change, at 1208, executive module 106 sets a new device output. At 1210, sensor system 104 detects an additional user 116 (see FIG. 3), by, for example, detecting personal identifier 114 in the presence of network 101. At 1212, executive module 106 retrieves preferences or a schema associated with the second personal identifier 114 from data store 112. In one embodiment, instead of or in addition to retrieving the preferences from data store 112, the executive module 106 polls users such as user 108 and user 116 to obtain the users' current preference data. Each user may input his or her current preferences into his or her personal identifier, which then provides this information to executive 106.

[00163] At 1214, the executive module 106 determines an average, or combination, level using the preferences from user 108 and additional user 116 having second personal identifier 114. Such a combination may be, but is not limited to, a mix of the two users' preferences, an average of the users' preferences, and a sequence of the users' preferences. The preference data for one of the users may include registration data indicating that one of the users has priority status over the other, in which case the combination of the two users' preferences may be the selection of the higher priority user's preference, or a weighted average of the user's preferences giving higher weight to preference levels of the user having higher priority, or a weighted average weighted according to the length of time the personal identifier, and the corresponding user, has been present in the space. At 1216, executive module 106 sets the new level of light output for the light sources of lighting system 102 as determined at 1214.

[00164] The transition from one output setting to another may be immediate or rapid, or it may be delayed or gradual, so as not to ease the users present in the environment into the new settings. The transition time could be varied over a few seconds or a few minutes and this transition time may be included in a user's preference data.

[00165] FIG. 13 is a flow chart illustrating an implementation of user preferences or schemata from a remote database in accordance with some embodiments of the invention. In FIG. 13, at 1302, executive module 106 receives data indicating the time of day either from sensor system 104 or from an internal timing mechanism within the executive module 106. At 1304, the sensor system 104 retrieves ambient sensor input, such as, but not limited to weather input, temperature input, and daylight level. At 1306, sensor system 104 detects one or more users by, for example, detecting personal identifiers 110, and, at 1308, executive module 106 retrieves preferences associated with the users, such as the users' group shared schema, from data store 112. At 1310, executive module 106 adds the retrieved preference data into local data store 202. At 1312, executive module 106 inserts the shared preferences, time, and other data retrieved from sensor system 104 into the system schema. At 1314, using the modified system schema, executive module 106 determines the control signals to be transmitted to lighting system 104 for implementation of the schema. At 1316, executive module 106 sets a new output for the light sources in lighting system 104.

[00166] In one embodiment, network 101 may provide the user with a tailored experience (for example, a tailored musical experience) as he visits various different places throughout the day. For example, a train station may have a video screen that can be controlled according to the preferences of the users in its vicinity. Someone who is looking for a job may have uploaded a short video clip introducing their skills and the type of work they are looking for, and optionally include a telephone number. This clip could automatically be played on the screen, for potential employers in the vicinity to see, facilitating a meeting between the two. People selling a car privately could do the same, or even if they are selling other items. Advertising could be linked to detected keywords.

[00167] While several inventive embodiments have been described and illustrated herein, those of ordinary skill in the art will readily envision a variety of embodiments for performing the function and/or obtaining the results and/or one or more of the advantages described herein.

[00168] For example, significant energy savings can be achieved in large office buildings by controlling the lighting and HVAC facilities for meeting rooms. That is, the light sources can be dimmed or turned off when the room is unoccupied, and the air conditioning can be decreased. An example schema for a meeting room might include one or more of the following rules: (1) if the meeting room is vacant, all device, including lights, should be off; (2) if there is one occupant in the room that is in motion, the room should be illuminated according to the occupant's preference data, but the occupants' preferences should be scaled to within a small range centered on white; (3) if there is one occupant in the room that is stationary and sitting at a table, the system should illuminate the occupant's desk area according to the occupant's preference data and illuminate the remainder of room at a reduced level, for example, a brightness that is 30% of a normal brightness; (4) if there are multiple occupants in the meeting room and all of the occupants are standing, the meeting room's light level should be set to an average of the occupants' preferences; (5) if there are multiple occupants in the meeting room and one occupant sits down at a table, the lights projecting onto the table where the occupant is sitting should be set to the occupant's preference and the other room lights should be dimmed by 5%; (6) if all occupants are seated at one or more tables, the table lights should be set to the occupants' preferences in their particular areas around the table or within the room as much as feasible and the room lights not directed at tables should be reduced to a 30% brightness level; (7) if all occupants are seated and one or more occupants becomes fidgety after a certain amount of time has passed since the occupant was seated, add a blue tinge to the lights; and (8) as an occupant starts to stand, brighten up the room according to the occupant's preferences, but scale the light output to within a small range centered on white. This schema may be shared with other networks having meeting rooms.

[00169] In one embodiment a building management system can control the lighting and HVAC facilities, but it may alternately have only knowledge of meeting schedules. The IMI system can assist by monitoring when occupants enter or leave the room, and inform the building management system how many people are in the room. Because each person typically generates 100 watts of heat, a gathering of twenty or more people can have a significant impact on the meeting room HVAC requirements.

[00170] Lighting requirements in meeting rooms often vary as a meeting activity changes. For example, participants might change between video presentations and whiteboard discussions. Devices such as video projectors may or may not be connected to the device management system, and it may be confusing for users to manually control the light sources if general lighting is required during a video presentation. An IMI system, however can determine who is in the meeting from their personal identifiers. Their collective lighting schemata and locations can then be used to determine their most likely lighting preferences for the specific meeting room, based on past history.

[00171] In another example, a network whose coverage area includes a foyer might generate and/or implement the following schema to react to identified and unidentified people. The foyer schema may include a default mode, where no occupants have been detected in the coverage area of the network. In the default mode, the space is illuminated at a low level with a slowly but continually changing color or brightness. Each time a person enters the foyer, a different color is introduced. The foyer schema may also include a mode for when a person is near the entrance to the foyer, but outside the foyer. In this mode, as the person approaches the entrance, the lighting level increases slightly or changes color, as a kind of invitation to enter. In one embodiment, either the doors to the foyer are transparent or there are windows near the door so that the occupant can see the change in lighting level or lighting color. The foyer schema may include a mode for when an occupant just entered the foyer and is looking around. In this mode, the brightness in one particular or randomly selected area is increased, or there is a color change in that area. As the occupant's focus shifts to the area, the system tracks the occupant's gaze. The brightness or color change is then further intensified. In one embodiment, the bright or colored area then starts to move around the room slowly, and the system may continue to track the occupant's gaze. If the occupant follows the bright or colored area, the intensified brightness or color may continue. If not, the bright or colored area may restart from the initial zone, trying to induce the occupant to follow the area with his or her gaze, maybe at a slower or faster speed. If the occupant looks elsewhere, the area where the occupant gazes may brighten or become colored and the process may be retried from this new starting point. In one embodiment, if the occupant starts to smile or verbally acknowledges the bright or colored area, the whole room may respond with a momentary intensification of color. In this mode the room is trying to show her what it can do, but only in so far as the occupant responds positively to it. In one mode, if the occupant points to a particular area within the foyer, for example if the occupant is pointing out the bright or colored area to a guest accompanying him or her, the area where the occupant is pointing will brighten or intensify in color, and the color used may be retrieved from the occupant's preferences or schema, if the occupant has enabled them, or retrieved from the guest's preferences or schema, if the guest has enabled preferences or a schema. In one embodiment, if the occupant turns around in admiration of the foyer, the occupant may be rewarded with a warm glow around her, according to a color selected from the occupant's preferences. If there are people in the foyer already, the lighting intensification, color, and movement may be minimized in the vicinity of these people so as not to disturb them. The lighting around those people already in the system may be determined by some implementation of a combination of their preferences limited by the gamut defined in the schema. Such a combination may be, but are not limited to, a mix of the occupants' preferences, an average of the occupants' preferences, a selected prioritized occupants' preference, a weighted average of the occupants' preferences based upon occupant priorities; and a sequence of different occupant's preferences.

[00172] In the foyer example, when an occupant has entered and heads to a location within the foyer, if at any point the occupant is not interested in looking around, for example the occupant simply sits down and read a newspaper, or goes straight to a location (e.g. washroom, bar, reception desk), the lighting system responds, by providing reading light according to her preference, going to a static illumination mode according to her preference, or by trying to determine the location she is going to walk to and providing extra illumination for it according to her preference. If there are two or three possible destinations, all are illuminated until the system makes a more accurate determination as to where the occupant is going. As the occupant walks towards a destination, a warmer glow may surround her. It may be related to the weather, or be opposite to the weather, the predominant color or complementary color of the clothing, or according to a level of seniority or priority of the occupant. In addition, the color or brightness of the light following the occupant may be determined by the occupant's preference data. The foyer may also have a mode for when the occupant has entered the foyer and has found an activity to do. In this mode, the local lighting adjusts to the occupant's activity and the occupant's lighting preference for that activity. The rest of the lighting gradually decreases in brightness to save energy, but it still gradually changes color, so that every time the occupant's gaze looks away from the activity it is slightly different. If the occupant then starts to look around more, the lighting may continue to change, either gradually or rapidly.

[00173] In yet another example, a schema may be created for a private office for a user. This schema may be implemented in a network having: a lighting system that includes, but is not limited to switchable and/or dimmable light sources; and a sensor system having one or more of occupancy sensors, motion sensors, personal identifier sensors such as RFID tag sensors, and personal identifier geolocation sensors such as RFID tag geolocation sensors. The network may further include one or more of the below software modules embodied on a computer-readable medium: timer or event scheduling module, a behavior learning capability module, and an energy use logging and reporting capabilities module. The network may communicate with a building management system.

[00174] For example, a user may work in a private office without any windows, use an RFID key fob to receive access to the private office building upon arrival at the office, and generally proceed directly from the front door of the building to the occupant's private office. During the day, the user may typically remain in the user's office, but occasionally leaves for scheduled meetings for extended time periods, leaving the private office vacant. The user may occasionally work late at night and on the weekends, and these may occur regularly, or at random times. The IMI system can receive notification from the security system that the user has entered the building, whereupon it can turn on the luminaires in the private office. If the user has arrived early and the building luminaires are off apart from security lighting, an IMI system can turn on only those luminaires needed to illuminate the route to the user's private office. The sensor system can also query the user's RFID tag on a regular basis to determine the user's location to within a pre-set distance, for example one meter. If the user is in a meeting somewhere in the building, the sensor system can detect this and the executive module can turn the user's office lights off following some preset delay, and turn them upon the user's return.

[00175] An IMI system may also control the intensity of the user's office lighting throughout the day to mimic the change in intensity of natural daylight. In addition, if the private office has solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires, the system may also control the color temperature and spectral content to cue the user's circadian rhythm. Studies of nightshift workers (and submarine sailors) have shown that changing the lighting in this manner reduces employee stress levels.

[00176] An IMI system also knows from the user's preferences that the user prefers reasonably high levels of ambient lighting, while the person in an adjacent office may prefer much lower levels of ambient lighting. If that person visits the user's office, the IMI system may choose to dim the user's office lighting as a compromise. As the primary resident of the private office, the user may be entitled to override this behavior. If the user overrides the dimming of the lights often enough, the IMI system will learn the user's preference without being expressly informed of this preference.

[00177] An IMI system may also access a pyroelectric or ultrasonic occupancy sensor in the user's office. If it determines that the user's personal identifier says the user is in the private office but there is no detected movement for an extended period of time, the IMI system may dim or turn off the lighting system on the assumption that the user has left the office but left the personal identifier on the user's desk or fallen asleep. Again, the user may override this behavior, and if overridden often enough, an IMI system will learn to extend the occupancy sensor delay time and eventually ignore it altogether.

[00178] An IMI system may also be connected to the user's personal schedule and other devices, so if it detects that the user is asleep as the time of an appointment is approaching, it will sound an alarm, play the user's favorite music and/or raise the brightness of the lights.

[00179] In one embodiment, the building manager has access to the user's daily activities, although these activities may be provided to the building manager anonymously for privacy reasons. This may provide the building manager with records of the user's monthly energy consumption. If the user is diligent in allowing an IMI system to conserve energy (such as being permitted to turn off the lights in the private office when it is unoccupied), the user may be credited a small but noticeable amount in his or her paycheck or offered some other incentive.

[00180] An IMI system may also query the building management system to determine the hourly electrical energy cost from the utility company and perform load shedding by dimming the luminaires when needed or desired.

[00181] Another exemplary schema may be created for a private office for a user. This schema may be implemented in a network having: a lighting system that includes, but is not limited to switchable and/or dimmable luminaires, a programmable desk lamp having an optical receiver, motorized blinks and/or electrochromic windows; and a sensor system having one or more of occupancy sensors, motion sensors, personal identifier sensors such as RFID tag sensors, and personal identifier geolocation sensors such as RFID tag geolocation sensors; luminaire or ceiling-mounted daylight photosensors, exterior photosensors, imaging sensors, and color temperature sensors. The network may further include one or more of the below software modules embodied on a computer-readable medium: timer or event scheduling module, a behavior learning capability module, an energy use logging and reporting capabilities module; and an image processing and analysis capability module. The network may communicate with a building management system and/or an office computer system.

[00182] In this embodiment, a user may have a private office with west-facing windows. The user may prefer the luminaires to be energized during the morning hours, but there may usually be enough daylight ingress in the afternoon to dim the luminaires or turn them off altogether. However, the sun can be a glare source during the late afternoon in the summer months, and so the user may sometimes closes the blinds and turns the lights on. The user may also prefer the luminaires to be dimmed when the user is working with his computer with a desk lamp for task lighting, but the user may need more light when the user holds meetings in the office.

[00183] An IMI system can monitor a luminaire- or ceiling-mounted daylight sensor within the room, or it can monitor a roof-mounted daylight sensor. In the first instance, an IMI system can operate the luminaires in a closed-loop feedback mode to maintain constant desktop illumination in the room. In the second instance, an IMI system can operate the luminaires in an open-loop mode to achieve the same goal, although it must assume that the blinds are open.

[00184] By itself, a ceiling-mounted photosensor can only determine the average amount of reflected light within its field of view. However, in one embodiment, an IMI system can determine from the time of day and calendar date where it is likely that the sun is a potential glare source and close the blinds if they are motorized or equivalently darken an electrochromic window.

[00185] In addition, in one embodiment, if the ceiling-mounted photosensor is an imaging device, an IMI system can process the images for various purposes, including: a) determining the current desktop illumination; b) detecting whether the room is occupied; c) determining the positions of the occupants within the room; and d) performing security functions when the room is unoccupied or after hours. An IMI system could potentially monitor a computer- mounted Webcam.

[00186] In another embodiment, if the user regularly closes the blinds on sunny days during the summer months, an IMI system can learn this behavior and perform the function automatically when appropriate. If this action is not desired, a simple "undo last event" command entered through a desktop computer or cellular telephone is enough to retrain IMI.

[00187] Although many daylight control systems can be easily confused by external events such as passing clouds on a sunny day or reflections from delivery vehicles (which is a real-life example), in one embodiment, an IMI system can compare a photosensor's output with those of other photosensors in the building or even other buildings in the vicinity to determine more appropriate responses.

[00188] The ability to monitor and share information from multiple sensors may be valuable for security in some embodiments. For example, in one embodiment, if the imaging device detects movement within the room at night, it may be an intruder or simple light from a passing car. However, if it subsequently detects movement outside the room, it is likely an intruder and so an alarm event is raised to the building management system.

[00189] In one embodiment, if an IMI system detects that the user is in the room according to the position of his personal identifier, it may query the office computer system for recent desktop computer activity to determine whether the overhead luminaires should be dimmed and the desk lamp turned on.

[00190] In some embodiments, it may be more economical to equip a desk lamp and other light sources with a photodetector that can receive commands generated by the overhead luminaires instead of connecting the desk lamp to the lighting network with its own IP address. The light output of fluorescent or SSL lamps with can be modulated with digital commands (similar to an infrared remote control) that cannot be visually perceived by users. [00191] In some embodiments, an IMI system may also consult or conversely not be notified by the user's meeting scheduler and change the room lighting in preparation for scheduled meetings, offering a subtle visual cue that the meeting is about to begin.

[00192] With multicolor SSL luminaires, an IMI system further has the opportunity to monitor the color temperature of the daylight entering the room and adjust the luminaire color temperature accordingly.

[00193] According to embodiments described herein, once the schema for the user's private office is established, the schema, adapted towards the user's preferences, may be shared with other networks. For example, the schema may be accessed by a network operated in the user's home office, or when the user is working from a satellite office other than his typical office.

[00194] Another exemplary schema may be created for a working space for a user that is not a private office, such as an open office cubicle. Such a working space may have, for example, overhead direct-indirect fluorescent lighting and under-cabinet task lighting.

[00195] An IMI system can offer the user working in such a working space independent control of the task and ambient lighting due to the overhead luminaires directly over his desk. The IMI system may also be aware of the lighting distribution throughout the office space where the working space is located, and so can ensure that dimming these luminaires does not negatively impact the task and ambient lighting of neighboring working spaces, or cubicles. For example, an IMI system can quickly learn worker preferences by recording worker responses to changes in the task and ambient lighting initiated by their co-workers. While it may not guarantee full satisfaction for everyone, it can quickly establish an optimal balance. In one embodiment, office workers may be polled upon the implementation of an environmental change by a co-worker; in another embodiment, office worker preferences are learned based upon workers' environmental manual modifications in response to co-worker changes.

[00196] In a schema according to this embodiment, an IMI system can monitor daylight ingress and save energy by dimming the overhead luminaires as appropriate. It may also operate motorized blinds or electrochromic windows in order to minimize visual glare. In some embodiments, an IMI system has access to multiple sensors, and so can build a better understanding of the distribution of both electric light and daylight throughout the space. Even if it cannot track individuals within the space in real time, it can examine the output from multiple photosensors and imaging sensors to distinguish between changes in light levels due to moving people and changing daylight conditions.

[00197] If however an IMI system can track individuals, it can respond to emergency situations requiring building evacuations by calculating the optimal egress routes without the danger of crowding exits and indicate them via flashing overhead luminaires. It can further ensure that everyone has evacuated the building, and locate people who have been unable to do so.

[00198] In the schema for a working space, an imaging sensor mounted in the ceiling or overhead luminaire can monitor the user's position and control the under-cabinet task lighting accordingly. Alternatively, a flush-mounted pyroelectric motion sensor located in the display monitor could be monitored by an IMI system to control both the computer power-saving mode and the task lighting in the cubicle.

[00199] According to embodiments described herein, this schema can be shared with other buildings, networks, and IMI systems. For example, an IMI system with a network whose coverage area includes working spaces may wish to utilize pre-established schema for operating in working spaces.

[00200] In some embodiment, lighting system includes SSL-based luminaires capable of free- space visible light communications. SSL-based luminaires do not need any low voltage wiring or conduits for communication cables, which may be helpful for embodiments where an IMI system is retrofitted into offices where installation of new communications wiring and conduit can be prohibitively expensive. A system utilizing SSL-based luminaires may also be inherently fault-tolerant. All luminaires within line of sight of one another are capable of communication with any other luminaire in the group. If one luminaire or its on-board processor fails for any reason, the rest of the network is unaffected. Moreover, luminaires that are not in line of sight of each other may still communicate via one or more luminaires that are within line of sight of both luminaires. Moreover, a system utilizing SSL-based luminaires can utilize visible light communications without regards to radio frequency interference or channel capacity limitations, as may occur with wireless communication techniques such as Zigbee or Bluetooth. In addition, no additional power electronics are required for SSL-based luminaires, as for example is required by some infrared LEDs or radio-frequency transceivers. The visible light modulators are an integral component of the LED drivers.

[00201] Another exemplary schema may be created for use in a hotel. For example, a hotel may implement schemata to use spotlights or wallwashers to indicate that a staff member is available to serve the next guest. A network in a hotel having sensor system that can identify guests, can direct guests via lighting cues to staff members who are already prepared to deal with their registration.

[00202] Lighting, and particularly color, can also be used to identify where tour group members should gather in a large hotel lobby or restaurant. Here, RFID-equipped hotel room key cards can serve to locate and direct patrons in a non-obtrusive manner.

[00203] In a similar manner, colored lighting can be used to assist two people from locating each other in a large lobby, by for example changing intensity or color when they are in close proximity. In a similar manner, an IMI system can direct a newly arrived guest to their room by tracking their RFID-equipped hotel room key and increasing the light level next to their door in a long corridor, or to flash a luminaire if they make a wrong turn when for example exiting the elevator.

[00204] The lighting management system may be perceived by the customers as a system that is responding to and assisting them, instead of or in addition to a system that is being controlled by the hotel.

[00205] In a hotel swimming pool or exercise room, guests may find themselves alone in the late evening or early morning. In this situation, an IMI system could use a camera to track the person position in the swimming pool and follow them with colored lights (such as LEDs embedded in the pool rim) or vary the intensity of color accent lighting in the exercise room based on their level of physical activity. [00206] In hotel rooms, an IMI system can slowly increase the lighting level in the morning ten minutes or so before the alarm goes off, providing the body with a natural lighting cue that simulates sunrise. Similarly, the bathroom lights can be turned on automatically if the guest gets out of bed during the night. In hotel grounds and gardens at night, an IMI system can direct guests along the pathways by tracking the guests' position and controlling the landscape lighting accordingly.

[00207] According to embodiments described herein, once the schema for the hotel is created, the schema may be shared with other networks and IMI systems, such as, for example, other hotels, motels, condominium buildings, and apartment complexes, that have similar amenities and lighting systems to the hotel for which the schema was established.

[00208] Another exemplary schema may be created for use in a shopping mall or for individual stores within the shopping mall. Shoppers having personal identifiers indicating membership in a rewards program may be notified via changing storefront colors if there are sales of interest or special events as they approach the store. To other shoppers, the changing colors may represent a pleasant windows display, but for members the changes can serve as a notification.

[00209] The store entrance lighting may also change color momentarily as a rewards program member enters the store (but only if they have enabled this functionality), thereby acknowledging their presence and welcoming them. This may also serve as an inducement to other customers to consider rewards program membership, particularly if they are shopping with friends.

[00210] In its most general sense, the IMI environment disclosed herein is an association of systems that may be combined to perform IMI-related functions, and the network as such does not need to be fixed. For example, computers hosting sensors in a sensor system, e.g., ambient light and occupancy sensors, may not even be aware that they are being used for IMI purposes. If they are, the computers can influence its operation without the IMI system being programmed to monitor and control them. From IMI's perspective, the computers are simply data sources. [00211] While several inventive embodiments have been described and illustrated herein, those of ordinary skill in the art will readily envision a variety of other means and/or structures for performing the function and/or obtaining the results and/or one or more of the advantages described herein, and each of such variations and/or modifications is deemed to be within the scope of the inventive embodiments described herein. More generally, those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that all parameters, dimensions, materials, and configurations described herein are meant to be exemplary and that the actual parameters, dimensions, materials, and/or configurations will depend upon the specific application or applications for which the inventive teachings is/are used. Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific inventive embodiments described herein. It is, therefore, to be understood that the foregoing embodiments are presented by way of example only and that, within the scope of the appended claims and equivalents thereto, inventive embodiments may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described and claimed. Inventive embodiments of the present disclosure are directed to each individual feature, system, article, material, kit, and/or method described herein. In addition, any combination of two or more such features, systems, articles, materials, kits, and/or methods, if such features, systems, articles, materials, kits, and/or methods are not mutually inconsistent, is included within the inventive scope of the present disclosure.

[00212] All definitions, as defined and used herein, should be understood to control over dictionary definitions, definitions in documents incorporated by reference, and/or ordinary meanings of the defined terms.

[00213] The indefinite articles "a" and "an," as used herein in the specification and in the claims, unless clearly indicated to the contrary, should be understood to mean "at least one."

[00214] The phrase "and/or," as used herein in the specification and in the claims, should be understood to mean "either or both" of the elements so conjoined, i.e., elements that are conjunctively present in some cases and disjunctively present in other cases. Multiple elements listed with "and/or" should be construed in the same fashion, i.e., "one or more" of the elements so conjoined. Other elements may optionally be present other than the elements specifically identified by the "and/or" clause, whether related or unrelated to those elements specifically identified. Thus, as a non-limiting example, a reference to "A and/or B", when used in conjunction with open-ended language such as "comprising" can refer, in one embodiment, to A only (optionally including elements other than B); in another embodiment, to B only (optionally including elements other than A); in yet another embodiment, to both A and B (optionally including other elements); etc.

[00215] As used herein in the specification and in the claims, "or" should be understood to have the same meaning as "and/or" as defined above. For example, when separating items in a list, "or" or "and/or" shall be interpreted as being inclusive, i.e., the inclusion of at least one, but also including more than one, of a number or list of elements, and, optionally, additional unlisted items. Only terms clearly indicated to the contrary, such as "only one of" or "exactly one of," or, when used in the claims, "consisting of," will refer to the inclusion of exactly one element of a number or list of elements. In general, the term "or" as used herein shall only be interpreted as indicating exclusive alternatives (i.e. "one or the other but not both") when preceded by terms of exclusivity, such as "either," "one of," "only one of," or "exactly one of." "Consisting essentially of," when used in the claims, shall have its ordinary meaning as used in the field of patent law.

[00216] As used herein in the specification and in the claims, the phrase "at least one," in reference to a list of one or more elements, should be understood to mean at least one element selected from any one or more of the elements in the list of elements, but not necessarily including at least one of each and every element specifically listed within the list of elements and not excluding any combinations of elements in the list of elements. This definition also allows that elements may optionally be present other than the elements specifically identified within the list of elements to which the phrase "at least one" refers, whether related or unrelated to those elements specifically identified. Thus, as a non-limiting example, "at least one of A and B" (or, equivalently, "at least one of A or B," or, equivalently "at least one of A and/or B") can refer, in one embodiment, to at least one, optionally including more than one, A, with no B present (and optionally including elements other than B); in another embodiment, to at least one, optionally including more than one, B, with no A present (and optionally including elements other than A); in yet another embodiment, to at least one, optionally including more than one, A, and at least one, optionally including more than one, B (and optionally including other elements); etc.

[00217] It should also be understood that, unless clearly indicated to the contrary, in any methods claimed herein that include more than one step or act, the order of the steps or acts of the method is not necessarily limited to the order in which the steps or acts of the method are recited.

[00218] In the claims, as well as in the specification above, all transitional phrases such as "comprising," "including," "carrying," "having," "containing," "involving," "holding," "composed of," and the like are to be understood to be open-ended, i.e., to mean including but not limited to. Only the transitional phrases "consisting of" and "consisting essentially of" shall be closed or semi-closed transitional phrases, respectively, as set forth in the United States Patent Office Manual of Patent Examining Procedures, Section 2111.03.

Appendix A: Exemplary Registration and Preference data

Figure imgf000068_0001

Figure imgf000069_0001
Figure imgf000070_0001
Figure imgf000071_0001

Claims

CLAIMSWhat is claimed is:
1. A lighting management system, comprising: a first memory (112) storing personal preference data corresponding to a plurality of users, the personal preference data corresponding to each of the plurality of users including at least one personalized lighting parameter for each user; and a network (101, 301, 601, 701, 801, 808) at a location remote from the first memory, the network comprising: at least one light source (102) having a controllable output setting, a second memory storing a schema (206, 802), the schema including at least one standard lighting parameter, a sensor system (104) detecting an identity of a current user (108), and an executive module (106, 706) in communication with the at least one light source, the second memory, and the sensor system, wherein the executive module includes a controller (502), and wherein the executive module receives the identity of the current user from the sensor system and communicates with the first memory to determine the personal preference data corresponding to the current user.
2. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the executive module modifies the schema to conform to the personalized lighting parameter of the current user, and wherein the executive module translates the modified schema into instructions for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source.
3. The lighting management system of claim 2, wherein the executive module translates the modified schema into instructions by interpreting the modified schema in accordance with the output setting of the at least one light source.
4. The lighting management system of claim 2, wherein the executive module stores the modified schema in the second memory.
5. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the sensor system detects an absence of the current user, the executive module revises the modified schema to conform to the standard lighting parameter, and the executive module stores the revised schema in the second memory.
6. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the sensor system detects an identity of an additional user (116), and the executive module receives the identity of the additional user from the sensor system, communicates with the first memory to determine the personal preference data corresponding to the additional user, generates a shared personalized lighting parameter, revises the schema to conform to the shared personalized lighting parameter, and translates the revised schema into instructions for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source.
7. The lighting management system of claim 6, wherein the executive module generates the shared personalized lighting parameter by averaging the personalized lighting parameter of the current user and the personalized lighting parameter of the additional user.
8. The lighting management system of claim 6, wherein the executive module generates the shared personalized lighting parameter by selecting one of the personalized lighting parameter of the current user and the personalized lighting parameter of the additional user.
9. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the sensor system detects an identity of the current user by detecting a radio-frequency identification card (110) carried by the current user.
10. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the sensor system detects an identity of the current user by detecting biometric data corresponding to the current user.
11. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the sensor system detects environmental data and behavioral data, and wherein the executive module modifies the schema in accordance with at least one of the environmental data and the behavioral data.
12. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the second memory stores a plurality of schemata, wherein the executive module selects one of the plurality of schemata depending upon the personal preference data of the current user, and wherein the executive module translates the selected schema into instructions for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source.
13. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the sensor system detects light source output data indicating an operating error in the at least one light source, and wherein the executive module provides a correction signal to the at least one light source to correct the operating error.
14. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the network further comprises a schematizer (204) for generating the schema.
15. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the at least one light source includes a plurality of light sources (902A-C, 914A-C, 916, 920A-D, 1008) communicating with each other using at least one of a wired communications link, a wireless communications link, a radio frequency communications link, and an optical communications link.
16. The lighting management system of claim 1, wherein the network further comprises an agent module (810), and wherein the executive module communicates with the second memory via communications with the agent module.
17. A lighting management system, comprising: a sensor system (104) for observing system parameters; at least one light source (102), in communication with the sensor system over a network (101, 301, 601, 701, 801, 808), the at least one light source having controllable output settings; an executive module (106, 706), in communication with the sensor system and the at least one light source over the network and in communication with a remote memory (802) storing at least one schema over a communications link (702), wherein the executive module includes a controller (502), receives the observed system parameters from the sensors, transmits a request for a schema to the remote memory, the request including information indicative of at least one of the observed system parameters, receives a schema from the remote database, and converts the schema into instructions for controlling the output settings of the at least one light source.
18. The lighting management system of claim 17, wherein the at least one light source includes at least one luminaire.
19. The lighting management system of claim 17, wherein the observed system parameters relate to one or more people and include at least one of: the presence of the one or more people, the identity of the one or more people, a location of the one or more people, a time of the presence of the one or more people, gestures of the one or more people, actions of the one or more people, faces of the one or more people, and a sound emitted by the one or more people.
20. The lighting management system of claim 17, wherein the observed system parameters include at least one of: an output from the at least one light source, a level of ambient lighting, an amount of daylight, a motion, a temperature, a humidity level, weather, and a noise.
21. The lighting management system of claim 17, wherein the executive module is located within the at least one light source or distributed across a plurality of light sources (902) communicating with each other using at least one of a wired communications link, a wireless communications link, a radio frequency communications link, and an optical communications link.
22. The lighting management system of claim 17, wherein the executive module includes a memory (504), a first interface for facilitating communication with at least one of the at least one light source and the sensors (506A, 506B), and a second interface for facilitating communication with the remote memory over the communications link (506C).
23. The lighting management system of claim 17, wherein the executive module converts the schema into instructions by interpreting the schema in accordance with the output setting of the at least one light source.
24. A method for implementing a lighting management system, comprising: receiving, at an executive module (106, 706) that includes a controller (502), observed system parameters from a sensor system (104); transmitting a request for a schema to a data store (802), the request including information indicative of at least one of the observed system parameters, wherein the data store is located at a location remote to the executive module; receiving, at the executive module, a schema from the data store; and converting, by the executive module, the schema into instructions for controlling output settings of at least one light source (102).
25. The method of claim 24, wherein the receiving observed system parameters includes receiving an identity of a current user, wherein the transmitted request includes information indicative of the identity of the current user, and wherein the received schema includes lighting parameters according to preferences of the current user.
26. The method of claim 24, further comprising storing the received schema in a local memory.
27. The method of claim 24, wherein the converting includes interpreting, by the executive module, the schema in accordance with the output settings of the at least one light source.
28. An executive module for use in a lighting management system, comprising: a sensor interface (506A) for receiving observed system parameters from a sensor system; a light source interface (506B) for transmitting control parameters to at least one light source (102); a schematizer interface (506C) for transmitting a request for a schema to a remote schematizer (204), the request including information indicative of at least one of the observed system parameters, the schematizer interface further for receiving a schema from the remote schematizer; a memory (504, 506B) for storing the observed system parameters and the schema; and a controller (502) for translating the schema into instructions for controlling output settings of at least one light source and for interpreting the schema in accordance with the output settings of the at least one light source.
29. The executive module of claim 28, wherein the sensor interface is for receiving additional observed system parameters and the processor is further for modifying the schema to compensate for the additional observed system parameters.
30. A lighting management system, comprising: a first memory (112) storing personal preference data corresponding to a plurality of users, the personal preference data corresponding to each of the plurality of users including at least one personalized lighting parameter for each user; and a network (101, 301, 601, 701, 801, 808) at a location remote from the first memory, wherein the network comprises: at least one light source (102) having a controllable output setting, a sensor system (104) detecting an identity of a current user, and an executive module (106, 706) in communication with the at least one light source, a second memory (504), and the sensor system, wherein the executive module includes a controller (502) and the second memory storing at least one standard lighting parameter, and wherein the executive module receives the identity of the current user from the sensor system, communicates with the first memory to determine the personal preference data corresponding to the current user, and modifies the standard lighting parameter to conform to the personalized lighting parameter of the current user, and wherein the executive module translates the personalized lighting parameter into instructions for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source.
31. A lighting management system, comprising: a sensor system (104) receiving environmental input, the environmental input including at least one user identifier; at least one light source (102) having a controllable output setting; a schema data store (802) storing schemata, the schemata including one or more of a user-specific schema, a group schema, a system-specific schema, and a shared system schema, each stored schema including at least one rule for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source; a schematizer (204) in communication with the sensor system and the schema data store, the schematizer determining which schemata in the schema data store are applicable in view of the environmental input and generating a set of applicable rules for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source; an executive module (106, 706) in communication with the at least one light source and the schematizer, wherein the executive module includes a controller (502), and wherein the executive module receives the set of applicable rules from the schematizer and translates at least one rule in the set of applicable rules into instructions for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source.
32. The lighting management system of claim 31, wherein the schema data store is located at a location remote from the at least one light source.
33. The lighting management system of claim 31, wherein the schematizer continually monitors the environmental input to determine which schemata in the schema data store are applicable.
34. The lighting management system of claim 31, wherein the schematizer generates the set of applicable rules by averaging the output settings of or by prioritizing the rules of the applicable schemata.
35. The lighting management system of claim 31, wherein the set of applicable rules constitutes a revised system-specific schema.
36. The lighting management system of claim 31, wherein the at least one light source includes a plurality of light sources (902A-C, 914A-C, 916, 920A-D, 1008) that communicate with each other using at least one of a wired communications link, a wireless communications link, a radio frequency communications link, and an optical communications link.
37. The lighting management system of claim 31, wherein the executive module translates the at least one rule into instructions by interpreting the at least one rule in accordance with the output setting of the at least one light source.
38. A method for implementing a lighting management system, comprising: receiving environmental input, the environmental input including at least one user identifier; accessing a schema data store (802) to retrieve at least one applicable schema in view of the environmental input, the at least one applicable schema including rules for controlling an output setting of at least one light source (102); arbitrating inconsistent rules in the at least one applicable schemata to determine a set of working rules for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source; translating the working rules into instructions for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source.
39. The method of claim 38, wherein the schema data store is located at a location remote from the at least one light source.
40. The method of claim 38, further comprising continually monitoring the environmental data to determine which schemata are applicable.
41. The method of claim 38, wherein the arbitrating includes (i) averaging the output settings of the rules of the applicable schemata or (ii) prioritizing the rules of the applicable schemata.
42. The method of claim 38, wherein the set of working rules constitute a revised system schema.
43. A method for implementing a lighting management system, comprising: receiving, at an executive module (106, 706) that includes a controller (502), sensed system parameters from a sensor system (104) indicating an identity of a current user; transmitting a request for a schema corresponding to the current user (108) to a data store (802), wherein the data store is located at a location remote to the executive module; receiving, at the executive module, the schema corresponding to the current user from the data store; and converting the received schema into instructions for controlling an output setting of at least one luminaire (102).
44. The method of claim 43, wherein the received schema is personalized for the current user or for a group of users, wherein the group of users includes the current user.
45. The method of claim 43, wherein the converting includes interpreting the received schema in accordance with the output setting of the at least one luminaire.
46. A lighting management system, comprising: a memory (802) storing schemata, each schema including at least one rule; and a network (101, 301, 601, 701, 801, 808) at a location remote from the memory, wherein the network comprises: at least one light source (102) having a controllable output setting, a sensor system (104) detecting an identity of a current user, and an executive module (106, 706) in communication with the at least one light source and the sensor system and wherein the executive module receives the identity of the current user from the sensor system, communicates with the memory to receive a schema corresponding to the current user, and wherein the executive module translates the received schema into instructions for controlling the output setting of the at least one light source.
47. The system of claim 46, wherein the received schema is personalized for the current user or for a group of users, wherein the group of users includes the current user.
48. The system of claim 46, wherein the executive module translates the received schema by interpreting the received schema in accordance with the output setting of the at least one light source.
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