WO2009066044A2 - Cryogenic refrigeration method and device - Google Patents

Cryogenic refrigeration method and device Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2009066044A2
WO2009066044A2 PCT/FR2008/051919 FR2008051919W WO2009066044A2 WO 2009066044 A2 WO2009066044 A2 WO 2009066044A2 FR 2008051919 W FR2008051919 W FR 2008051919W WO 2009066044 A2 WO2009066044 A2 WO 2009066044A2
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WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
fluid
expansion
portion
compressor
compressors
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Application number
PCT/FR2008/051919
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French (fr)
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WO2009066044A3 (en
WO2009066044A4 (en
Inventor
Fabien Durand
Alain Ravex
Original Assignee
L'air Liquide Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude
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Family has litigation
Priority to FR0759243A priority Critical patent/FR2924205B1/en
Priority to FR0759243 priority
Application filed by L'air Liquide Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude filed Critical L'air Liquide Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude
Publication of WO2009066044A2 publication Critical patent/WO2009066044A2/en
Publication of WO2009066044A3 publication Critical patent/WO2009066044A3/en
Publication of WO2009066044A4 publication Critical patent/WO2009066044A4/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=39691274&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=WO2009066044(A2) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B9/00Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point
    • F25B9/14Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point characterised by the cycle used, e.g. Stirling cycle
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B1/00Compression machines, plant, or systems with non-reversible cycle
    • F25B1/10Compression machines, plant, or systems with non-reversible cycle with multi-stage compression
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B9/00Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point
    • F25B9/06Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point using expanders
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B9/00Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point
    • F25B9/10Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point with several cooling stages
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/003Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production
    • F25J1/0047Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using an "external" refrigerant stream in a closed vapor compression cycle
    • F25J1/005Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using an "external" refrigerant stream in a closed vapor compression cycle by expansion of a gaseous refrigerant stream with extraction of work
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
    • F25J1/0062Light or noble gases, mixtures thereof
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
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    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
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    • F25J1/0065Helium
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
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    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
    • F25J1/007Primary atmospheric gases, mixtures thereof
    • F25J1/0072Nitrogen
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
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    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
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    • F25J1/0075Oxygen
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    • F25J1/0077Argon
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
    • F25J1/008Hydrocarbons
    • F25J1/0082Methane
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
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    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
    • F25J1/0095Oxides of carbon, e.g. CO2
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
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    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
    • F25J1/0097Others, e.g. F-, Cl-, HF-, HClF-, HCl-hydrocarbons etc. or mixtures thereof
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/02Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures requiring the use of refrigeration, e.g. of helium or hydrogen Details and kind of the refrigeration system used; Integration with other units or processes; Controlling aspects of the process
    • F25J1/0243Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used; Details of the refrigerant compression system used
    • F25J1/0257Construction and layout of liquefaction equipments, e.g. valves, machines
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/02Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures requiring the use of refrigeration, e.g. of helium or hydrogen Details and kind of the refrigeration system used; Integration with other units or processes; Controlling aspects of the process
    • F25J1/0243Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used; Details of the refrigerant compression system used
    • F25J1/0279Compression of refrigerant or internal recycle fluid, e.g. kind of compressor, accumulator, suction drum etc.
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/02Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures requiring the use of refrigeration, e.g. of helium or hydrogen Details and kind of the refrigeration system used; Integration with other units or processes; Controlling aspects of the process
    • F25J1/0243Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used; Details of the refrigerant compression system used
    • F25J1/0279Compression of refrigerant or internal recycle fluid, e.g. kind of compressor, accumulator, suction drum etc.
    • F25J1/0281Compression of refrigerant or internal recycle fluid, e.g. kind of compressor, accumulator, suction drum etc. characterised by the type of prime driver, e.g. hot gas expander
    • F25J1/0284Electrical motor as the prime mechanical driver
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/02Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures requiring the use of refrigeration, e.g. of helium or hydrogen Details and kind of the refrigeration system used; Integration with other units or processes; Controlling aspects of the process
    • F25J1/0243Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used; Details of the refrigerant compression system used
    • F25J1/0279Compression of refrigerant or internal recycle fluid, e.g. kind of compressor, accumulator, suction drum etc.
    • F25J1/0285Combination of different types of drivers mechanically coupled to the same refrigerant compressor, possibly split on multiple compressor casings
    • F25J1/0287Combination of different types of drivers mechanically coupled to the same refrigerant compressor, possibly split on multiple compressor casings including an electrical motor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/02Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures requiring the use of refrigeration, e.g. of helium or hydrogen Details and kind of the refrigeration system used; Integration with other units or processes; Controlling aspects of the process
    • F25J1/0243Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used; Details of the refrigerant compression system used
    • F25J1/0279Compression of refrigerant or internal recycle fluid, e.g. kind of compressor, accumulator, suction drum etc.
    • F25J1/0285Combination of different types of drivers mechanically coupled to the same refrigerant compressor, possibly split on multiple compressor casings
    • F25J1/0288Combination of different types of drivers mechanically coupled to the same refrigerant compressor, possibly split on multiple compressor casings using work extraction by mechanical coupling of compression and expansion of the refrigerant, so-called companders
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2309/00Gas cycle refrigeration machines
    • F25B2309/14Compression machines, plant or systems characterised by the cycle used
    • F25B2309/1401Ericsson or Ericcson cycles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2230/00Processes or apparatus involving steps for increasing the pressure of gaseous process streams
    • F25J2230/20Integrated compressor and process expander; Gear box arrangement; Multiple compressors on a common shaft
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2230/00Processes or apparatus involving steps for increasing the pressure of gaseous process streams
    • F25J2230/22Compressor driver arrangement, e.g. power supply by motor, gas or steam turbine
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    • F25J2240/00Processes or apparatus involving steps for expanding of process streams
    • F25J2240/02Expansion of a process fluid in a work-extracting turbine (i.e. isentropic expansion), e.g. of the feed stream
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    • F25J2270/00Refrigeration techniques used
    • F25J2270/14External refrigeration with work-producing gas expansion loop
    • F25J2270/16External refrigeration with work-producing gas expansion loop with mutliple gas expansion loops of the same refrigerant
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2270/00Refrigeration techniques used
    • F25J2270/90External refrigeration, e.g. conventional closed-loop mechanical refrigeration unit using Freon or NH3, unspecified external refrigeration
    • F25J2270/912Liquefaction cycle of a low-boiling (feed) gas in a cryocooler, i.e. in a closed-loop refrigerator

Abstract

The invention relates to a cryogenic refrigeration device intended to transfer heat from a cold source (15) to a hot source (1) via a working fluid flowing through a closed working circuit (200) including the following portions in series, namely: a portion for the substantially isothermal compression of the fluid, a portion for the substantially isobaric cooling of the fluid, a portion for the substantially isothermal expansion of the fluid, and a portion for the substantially isobaric heating of the fluid. The compression portion of the working circuit (200) includes at least two compressors (7, 5, 3) disposed in series and the expansion portion of the working circuit (200) includes at least one expansion turbine (9, 11, 13), said compressors (7, 5, 3) and expansion turbine(s) (9, 11, 13) being driven by at least one high-speed motor (70) including an output shaft. One end of the output shaft supports and rotates, by means of direct coupling, a first compressor (7, 5, 3), while the other end of the output shaft supports and rotates, by means of direct coupling, a second compressor (7, 5, 3) or an expansion turbine (9, 11, 13).

Description

 Cryogenic refrigeration device and method

The present invention relates to a cryogenic refrigeration device and method.

The invention more particularly relates to a cryogenic refrigeration device for transferring heat from a cold source to a hot source via a working fluid circulating in a closed working circuit, the working circuit comprising in series: a portion of compression, a cooling portion, a detent portion and a warming portion.

The cold source may be, for example, liquid nitrogen to be cooled and the hot source of water or air.

Refrigerators known to cool superconducting elements generally use a reverse Brayton cycle. These known refrigerators use a screw-lubricated compressor, a countercurrent plate heat exchanger and an expansion turbine.

These known refrigerators have many disadvantages among:

a low energy efficiency of the cycle and consequently of the refrigerator,

- The use of oil to cool and lubricate the compressor, this requires a de-oiling operation of the working gas after compression, the use of rotating joints between the electric motor and the compressor, - the low compressor isothermal efficiency of compressor , the frequency of maintenance operations.

US-3,494,145 discloses a refrigeration system using geared couplings requiring oil bearings. This type of device uses rotating joints such as mechanical seals between the working gas and the gear housing and oil bearings. This architecture increases the risk of leakage of the working gas and the possible pollution of the working gas by the oil. This system also relates to a low speed type motor. US-4,984,432 discloses a refrigeration system using liquid ring type compressors or turbines operating with a low speed motor using conventional bearings such as ball bearings. This technology concerns volumetric compressors and turbines. An object of the present invention is to overcome all or part of the disadvantages of the prior art noted above.

To this end, the invention proposes a cryogenic refrigeration device for transferring heat from a cold source to a hot source via a working fluid circulating in a closed working circuit, the working circuit comprising in series: a substantially isothermal compression portion of the fluid, a substantially isobaric cooling portion of the fluid, a substantially isothermal expansion portion of the fluid and a substantially isobaric heating portion of the fluid, the compression portion of the work circuit comprising at least two compressors arranged in a series and at least one compressed fluid cooling exchanger disposed at the outlet of each compressor, the expansion portion of the working circuit comprising at least one expansion turbine and at least one expanded fluid heating exchanger, the compressors and the or the expansion turbines being driven by at least one engine said to high fast sse comprising an output shaft whose one end carries and rotates by direct coupling a first compressor and the other end carries and rotates by direct coupling a second compressor or an expansion turbine.

The embodiments make it possible to obtain a system without oil pollution and without contact. Indeed, the combination of centrifugal compressors, centripetal turbines and bearings according to the invention reduces or eliminates any contact with the fixed parts and the rotating parts. This avoids any risk of leakage. The entire system is indeed hermetic and has no rotating joints vis-à-vis the atmosphere (such as mechanical seals or "dry face seal"). Furthermore, embodiments of the invention may include one or more of the following features:

the compressors are of the centrifugal compression type,

the expansion turbine or turbines are of the centripetal expansion type, the output shafts of the motors are mounted on bearings of the magnetic type or of the dynamic gas type, said bearings being used to support the compressors and the turbines,

the cooling portion and the heating portion comprise a common heat exchanger in which the working fluid transits in countercurrent depending on whether it is cooled or heated,

the working circuit comprises a volume forming a storage buffer capacity for the working fluid,

the working fluid is in the gaseous phase and consists of a pure gas or a mixture of pure gases among: helium, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide, methane, or any other fluid having a gaseous phase at the temperature of the cold source.

The invention further provides a cryogenic refrigeration method for transferring heat from a cold source to a hot source via a working fluid circulating in a closed work circuit, the work circuit comprising in series: a portion of compression comprising at least two compressors arranged in series, a cooling portion of the fluid, an expansion portion comprising at least one expansion turbine, and a heating portion, the process comprising a work cycle comprising a first substantially isothermal compression step fluid in the compression portion by cooling the compressed fluid at the output of the compressors, a second substantially isobaric cooling step of the fluid in the cooling portion, a third step of substantially isothermal expansion of the fluid in the expansion portion by heating the fluid relaxed at the turbine outlet, and a fourth e step of substantially isobaric heating of the fluid having exchanged thermally with the cold source, the working cycle of the fluid (temperature T, entropy S) being of the inverse Ericsson type.

Furthermore, embodiments of the invention may include one or more of the following features:

during the first substantially isothermal compression step, the compressed fluid is cooled at the outlet of each compressor to maintain the inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of each compressor substantially equal and preferably in a range of about 10 K,

during the third substantially isothermal expansion step, the expanded fluid is cooled at the outlet of each turbine in order to maintain the temperatures of the fluid at the inlet and at the outlet of each turbine substantially equal and preferably in a range of approximately 5 K,

the compressors and the expansion turbine or turbines are driven by at least one so-called high speed motor comprising an output shaft whose one end carries and rotates, by direct coupling, a first compressor and whose other end carries and rotates by direct coupling a second compressor or an expansion turbine and in that the method comprises a step of transferring part of the mechanical work of the turbine (s) to the compressor (s) via the output shaft (s) ,

at the end of the second cooling step, the working fluid is brought to a low temperature of the order of 60 K and in that the work circuit comprises a number of compressors approximately three times larger than the number of relaxation turbines,

the working fluid is used to cool or keep superconducting elements cold at a temperature of the order of 65 K, the temperature drop of the fluid constituting the cold source is substantially identical to the increase in temperature of the gas in the exchangers.

The invention may have one or more of the following advantages:

the cycle of the working fluid (inverse Ericsson type) makes it possible to obtain a greater yield than the known systems without creating or increasing other disadvantages, the work of relaxation in the turbines can be advantageously valorized, it is possible to avoid the use of oil for lubrication or cooling, this makes it possible to eliminate the de-oiling plant downstream of the compressor, as well as the operations of treatment and recycling of waste oils, - The system requires a small number of moving parts which increases its simplicity and reliability. It is possible thanks to the invention to overcome the need for a compressor of a mechanical power transmission of the speed multiplier type, universal joints, ... - maintenance operations are reduced or virtually nonexistent,

- The system avoids rotating joints and use a totally hermetic system with respect to the outside. This prevents any loss or pollution of the working cycle gas, - the size of the refrigerator can be reduced compared to known systems.

Other particularities and advantages will appear on reading the following description, made with reference to the figures in which:

FIG. 1 represents a schematic view illustrating the structure and operation of a first exemplary embodiment of a refrigeration device according to the invention,

FIG. 2 schematically represents a detail of FIG. 1 illustrating an arrangement of a drive motor of a compressor-compressor or turbine-compressor unit; FIG. 3 schematically represents an example of a work cycle; of the working fluid of the refrigerator of FIG.

FIG. 4 represents a schematic view illustrating the structure and operation of a second exemplary embodiment of a refrigerator according to the invention; FIG. 5 schematically represents a second example of a working cycle of the working fluid of the refrigerator according to Figure 3.

Referring to the embodiment of Figure 1, the refrigerator according to the invention is provided for transferring heat from a cold source 15 at a cryogenic temperature to a hot source at room temperature 1 for example.

The cold source 15 may be, for example, liquid nitrogen to be cooled and the hot source 1 of water or air. To achieve this heat transfer, the The refrigerator illustrated in FIG. 1 uses a working gas circuit 200 comprising the components listed below.

The circuit 200 comprises a plurality of compressors 3, 5, 7 centrifugals arranged in series and operating at ambient temperature. The circuit 200 comprises a plurality of heat exchangers 2, 4, 6 operating at ambient temperature respectively disposed at the output of the compressors 3, 5, 7. The working gas temperatures at the inlet and at the outlet of each compression stage (c ') that is to say at the inlet and the outlet of each compressor 3, 5, 7), are maintained by the heat exchanges at a substantially identical level (see zone A in FIG. 3 which represents a working cycle of the gas: temperature in K depending on the entropy S in J / kg). In Figure 3, the rising parts of the zone A sawtooth each corresponding to a compression stage while the falling parts of this zone A each correspond to a cooling exchanger. This arrangement makes it possible to approach an isothermal compression.

The inlet and outlet temperatures of each compression stage are substantially the same.

The exchangers 2, 4, 6 may be distinct or consist of separate portions of the same exchanger in heat exchange with the hot source 1. The refrigerator comprises several motors (70 see Figure 2) said high speed. By high speed motor is usually meant engines whose rotational speed allows direct coupling with a centrifugal compression stage or a centripetal expansion stage. High speed motors 70 preferably use magnetic or dynamic gas bearings 171 (FIG. Figure 2). A high speed motor typically rotates at a rotational speed of 10,000 rpm or several tens of thousands of revolutions per minute. A low-speed motor runs rather with a speed of a few thousand revolutions per minute.

Downstream of the compression portion comprising the compressors in series, the refrigerator comprises a heat exchanger 8 preferably of plate type against the current separating the elements at room temperature (in the upper part of the circuit 200 shown in FIG. cryogenic temperature elements (in the lower part of the circuit 200). The fluid is cool (corresponding to area D of Figure 3). The cooling of the gas from the ambient temperature to the cryogenic temperature is carried out by countercurrent exchange with the same gas working gas at cryogenic temperature which returns from the expansion portion after heat exchange with the cold source 15. Downstream of this cooling portion constituted by the plate heat exchanger 8, the circuit comprises one or more turbines 9, 11, 13 of expansion, preferably centripetal type, arranged in series. The turbines 9, 11, 13 operate at cryogenic temperature, the inlet and outlet temperatures of each expansion stage (turbine inlet and outlet) are maintained substantially identical by one or more cryogenic heat exchangers 10, 12, 14 disposed at the exit of the turbine or turbines. This corresponds to the zone C of FIG. 3, the downward portions of the zone C each corresponding to a relaxation stage whereas the rising portions of this zone correspond to the heating in the exchangers 10, 12, 14. This arrangement makes it possible to bring closer to an isothermal trigger. The inlet and outlet temperatures of each flash stage are substantially the same. In addition and in order to increase the efficiency of the refrigerator, the increase of the temperature of the working gas in the exchanger or exchangers (10, 12, 14) may be substantially identical (in absolute value) to the decrease in the temperature of the refrigerator. fluid to be cooled (15) (cold source).

These heat exchangers 10, 12, 14 may be distinct or consist of separate portions of the same exchanger in heat exchange with the cold source 15.

Downstream of the expansion portion and of the heat exchange with the cold source 15, the working fluid thermally exchanges again with the plate heat exchanger 8 (zone B of FIG. 3). The fluid thermally exchanges in the exchanger 8 against the current relative to its passage after the compression portion. After reheating the fluid returns to the compression portion and can start a cycle again. The circuit may further comprise a working gas capacity at room temperature (not shown for the sake of simplification) to limit the pressure in the circuits, during the stopping of the refrigerator for example. The refrigerator preferably uses as a working fluid a gas phase fluid circulating in a closed circuit. This consists for example of a pure gas or a mixture of pure gas. The gases best suited to this technology include: helium, neon, nitrogen, oxygen and argon. Carbon monoxide and methane can also be used.

The refrigerator is designed and controlled so as to obtain a working cycle of the fluid approaching the reverse Ericsson cycle. That is: isothermal compression, isobaric cooling, isothermal expansion and isobaric heating. According to an advantageous feature the refrigerator uses for the drive at least compressors 3, 5, 7 (that is to say, for driving the wheels of the compressors) several motors 70 said to high speeds.

As shown diagrammatically in FIG. 2, each high-speed motor 70 receives on one end of its output shaft a compressor wheel 31 and, on the other end of its shaft, another compressor wheel or a turbine wheel 9. This arrangement provides many benefits. This configuration allows in the refrigerator a direct coupling between the motor 70 and the compressor wheels 3, 5, 7 or between the motor 70 and the wheels of the turbines 9, 11, 13. This makes it possible to overcome a multiplier or speed reducer (which limits the number of moving parts required). This configuration also allows a valuation of the mechanical work of the turbine or turbines 9, 11, 13 and therefore an increase in the overall energy efficiency of the refrigerator. According to this configuration, the refrigerator has an oil-free operation, which ensures the purity of the working gas and eliminates the need for a de-oiling operation.

The number of high speed engines is mainly a function of the desired energy efficiency for the refrigerator. The higher this efficiency, the higher the number of high speed motors. The ratio between the number of compression stage (compressors) and the number of expansion stages (turbines) is a function of the target cold temperature. For example, for a refrigerator whose cold source is 273 K, the number of compression stage will be substantially equal to the number of stage of relaxation. For a refrigerator with a cold source of 65 K, the number of compression stages is approximately 3 times greater than the number of stages of expansion.

FIG. 4 illustrates another embodiment that can for example be used to cool or maintain superconducting cables at a cryogenic temperature of about 65 K. At this temperature level, the number of compression stages (compressors) should be about three times larger than the number of stages of relaxation (turbines). This can be done according to several possible configurations. For example three compressors and a turbine or six compressors and two turbines, ... The choice of the number of organs will depend on the desired energy efficiency. Thus, a solution using three compressors and a turbine will have a lower energy efficiency than a solution using six compressors and two turbines.

In the example of FIG. 4 the refrigerator comprises six compressors 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106 and two turbines 116, 111 and four high speed motors 107, 112, 114, 109. The first two compressors 101, 102 (that is, the compressor wheels) are respectively mounted at both ends of a first high speed motor 107. The two following compressors 103, 104 are respectively mounted at both ends of a second high speed motor 112. The next compressor 105 and the turbine 116 (ie the turbine wheel) are respectively mounted at both ends of a third high-speed motor 114. Finally, the last turbine 111 and the sixth compressor 106 are respectively mounted at both ends of a fourth motor 109. The flow of the working gas during a cycle in the closed-loop circuit can be described as follows.

In a first step, the gas is progressively compressed by passing successively through the four series compressors 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106. At the end of each compression stage (at the outlet of each compressor) the Work gas is cooled in a respective heat exchanger 108 (by heat exchange with air or water for example) to approach isothermal compression. After this portion of compression the The gas is isobarically cooled through a countercurrent plate heat exchanger 103. After this cooling portion, the cooling gas is progressively expanded in the two series centripetal turbines 116, 111. After each expansion stage the working gas is heated by heat exchange in an exchanger 110 (for example by heat exchange with the cold source), so as to achieve a substantially isothermal expansion. At the end of this isothermal expansion, the working gas is reheated in the exchanger 113 and can then start a new cycle again by compression.

FIG. 5 represents the cycle (temperature T and entropy S) of the working fluid of the refrigerator of FIG. 5. As previously for FIG. 3, there are six sawtooths corresponding to the six successive compressions and coolings in zone A of compression. . In zone C of relaxation we recognize two sawtooth corresponding to two successive relaxation and warming. The invention improves cryogenic refrigerators in terms of energy efficiency, reliability and size. The invention makes it possible to reduce the maintenance operations and to eliminate the use of oils.

Of course, one or both ends of the output shafts of the motor (s) can directly drive more than one road (ie several compressors or several turbines).

Claims

A cryogenic refrigeration device for transferring heat from a cold source (15) to a hot source (1) via a working fluid circulating in a closed work circuit (200), the work circuit (200) comprising in series: a substantially isothermal compression portion of the fluid, a substantially isobaric cooling portion of the fluid, a substantially isothermal expansion portion of the fluid and a substantially isobaric heating portion of the fluid, the compression portion of the fluid circuit (200). work comprising at least two compressors (7, 5, 3, 101,
102, 103, 104, 105, 106) arranged in series and at least one exchanger (6, 4, 2, 108) for cooling the compressed fluid arranged at the outlet of each compressor (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106), the expansion portion of the working circuit (200) comprising at least one expansion turbine (9, 11, 13, 116, 111) and at least one exchanger (10, 12, 14, 110) for heating the expanded fluid, characterized in that the compressors (7, 5, 3, 101, 102,
103, 104, 105, 106) and the expansion turbine or turbines (9, 11, 13) are driven by at least one high speed engine (70, 107, 112, 114, 109) comprising an output shaft of which one end carries and rotates by direct coupling a first compressor (7, 5, 3, 101, 102,
103, 104, 105, 106) and whose other end carries and drives in rotation by direct coupling a second compressor (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106) or a turbine (9, 11, 13, 116, 111), and in that the compressors (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106) are of the centrifugal compression type, and in that the expansion turbines (9, 11, 13, 116, 111) are of centripetal expansion type, and in that the output shafts (71) of the motors (70, 107, 112, 114, 109) are mounted on bearings Magnetic bearings (171) of the magnetic type or dynamic gas type, said bearings (171) being used to support the compressors (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106) and the turbines (9, 1). 1, 13, 16, 11).
2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the cooling portion and the heating portion comprise a heat exchanger heat exchanger (8, 113) in which the working fluid transits countercurrently as it is cooled or heated.
3. Device according to any one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the working circuit comprises a volume forming a buffer storage capacity of the working fluid.
4. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the working fluid is in the gas phase and consists of a pure gas or a mixture of pure gases among: helium, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide, methane, or any other fluid having a gaseous phase at the temperature of the cold source.
5. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the number of compression stages is greater than the number of expansion stages.
6. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that it comprises at least one motor (70, 107, 112, 114, 109) of which at least one of the ends of the output shaft rotates by direct coupling at least two wheels (compressor wheels and / or turbine wheels).
7. Device according to claim 6, characterized in that it comprises at least one motor, one end of its output shaft drives in rotation by direct coupling two compressor wheels, the other end of the output shaft driving in rotation. by direct coupling a turbine wheel.
A cryogenic refrigeration process for transferring heat from a cold source (15) to a hot source (1) via a working fluid flowing in a closed work circuit (200), the work circuit (200). comprising in series: a compression portion comprising at least two compressors (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106) arranged in series, a cooling portion of the fluid, an expansion portion comprising at least a turbine (9, 11, 13, 116, 111) for expansion, and a heating portion, the method comprising a work cycle comprising a first step of substantially isothermal compression of the fluid in the compression portion by cooling the compressed fluid into exit compressors (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106), a second substantially isobaric cooling step of the fluid in the cooling portion, a third step of substantially isothermal expansion of the fluid in the expansion portion by heating the expanded fluid at the outlet of the turbine, and a fourth step of substantially isobaric heating of the fluid having exchanged thermally with the cold source (15), the working cycle of the fluid (temperature T, entropy S) being of the Ericsson inverse type, during the first substantially isothermal compression step, the compressed fluid is cooled at the outlet of each compressor (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106) to maintain the inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of each compressor substantially equal and preferably in a range of about 10 K, during the third substantially isothermal expansion step the expanded fluid being cooled at the outlet of each tur bine (9, 11, 13, 116, 111) for maintaining the inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of each turbine (9, 11, 13, 116, 111) substantially equal and preferably in a range of about 5 K characterized in that the compressors (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106) and the at least one expansion turbine (9, 11, 13, 116, 111) are driven by at least one motor (70, 107, 112, 114, 109) said at high speed comprising an output shaft whose one end carries and drives in rotation by direct coupling a first compressor (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103 , 104, 105, 106) and whose other end carries and rotates by direct coupling a second compressor (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106) or a turbine (9, 11 , 13, 116, 111) and that the method comprises a step of transferring part of the mechanical work of the turbine or turbines (9, 11,
13, 116, 111) to the at least one compressor (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106) via the at least one output shaft (71), and that the shafts (71) output of the motors (70, 107, 112, 114, 109) are mounted on bearings (171) of the magnetic type or dynamic gas type, said bearings (171) being used to sustain the compressors and turbines.
9. Method according to claim 8, characterized in that at the end of the second cooling step, the working fluid is brought to a low temperature of the order of 60 K and in that the circuit (200) working comprises a number of compressors (7, 5, 3, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106) three times larger than the number of expansion turbines (9, 11, 13, 116, 111).
10. Method according to any one of claims 8 or 9, characterized in that the working fluid is used to cool or keep cold superconducting elements at a temperature of about 65 K.
11. A method according to any one of claims 8 to 10, characterized in that the temperature drop of the fluid constituting the cold source (15) is substantially identical to the increase in temperature of the working gas in exchangers (110, 10, 12, 14) of the working circuit (200).
PCT/FR2008/051919 2007-11-23 2008-10-23 Cryogenic refrigeration method and device WO2009066044A2 (en)

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CN2008801166825A CN101868677B (en) 2007-11-23 2008-10-23 Cryogenic refrigeration method and device
EP08852903.7A EP2225501B1 (en) 2007-11-23 2008-10-23 Cryogenic refrigeration method and device
EP19174805.2A EP3561411A1 (en) 2007-11-23 2008-10-23 Device and method for cryogenic refrigeration
PL08852903T PL2225501T3 (en) 2007-11-23 2008-10-23 Cryogenic refrigeration method and device
DK08852903.7T DK2225501T3 (en) 2007-11-23 2008-10-23 Method and device for cryogen cooling
US12/742,751 US20100263405A1 (en) 2007-11-23 2008-10-23 Cryogenic Refrigeration Method And Device
JP2010534519A JP2011504574A (en) 2007-11-23 2008-10-23 Cryogenic freezing method and device
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DK2225501T3 (en) 2018-11-19
EP3561411A1 (en) 2019-10-30
WO2009066044A3 (en) 2009-07-16
US20100263405A1 (en) 2010-10-21
CN101868677A (en) 2010-10-20
WO2009066044A4 (en) 2009-09-11
EP2225501B1 (en) 2018-09-05
EP3410035A1 (en) 2018-12-05
CN101868677B (en) 2012-10-03

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