Floor panel with tongue and groove
The invention relates to a floor panel in the form of a rectangular, a useful surface and a base plate having the base surface facing plate which is provided on at least two opposite edge sides with connecting elements for joining along a parting surface of two adjacent floor panels in the form of a first groove on the one Side and in the form of a first spring on the opposite side are formed, wherein the groove and the spring are provided with additional mechanical locking means, in the form of a directed to the base surface projection of the spring, and an upstanding lip, which serves as a parapet of the groove is designed and their Nutinneren facing stop surface is part of a recess formed within the groove, and with a second spring,
which extends at the first groove having edge side above this groove, and with a second groove which extends at the first spring having opposite edge side above this spring. Exn floor panel of the type mentioned is known from WO 01/48331. To connect and guide two identical floor panels together, the elasticity of the lip bearing, over the groove protruding bolt pin is used. So that the spring can be inserted into the groove and locked there, the locking pin gives way to shock resiliently. The resilient deformation of the contour of the locking pin is enforced by geometric relationships of the groove and the spring, in that the clear width of the groove is smaller than the maximum thickness of the spring. When the spring is inserted into the groove, the clear width of the groove increases.
After snapping it takes her original measure again. Therefore, the known floor panel pays to the per se known group of tongue and groove impact profiles. The disadvantage is that the locking pin can be broken if a too strong or false shock is applied. Also, the shock requires a metered force that can be easily exceeded and leads to excessive elongation and also to a strong noise.
The object of the invention is to develop a generic floor panel, which essentially requires no elastic deformation of its projecting beyond the groove locking pin during installation and thus needs a less strong shock.
This object is achieved by a floor panel of the type mentioned,
a second spring extends on the longitudinal side of the floor panel having the first groove and the lip, the opposite longitudinal side, which carries the first spring with the projection, has a second,
the second spring is arranged above the first groove and has a lower flank inclined in the laid state upward in the direction of the parting plane of two floor panels, which parting plane is defined by a side end of the useful surface,
the second groove in the laying state is above the first spring and has a lower side surface inclined downwards in the direction of the base surface,
wherein the lower flank of the second spring and the lower side surface of the second groove include a first acute angle with the planar effective area of the floor panel.
The solution according to the invention allows a simple and silent connection and joining of tongue and groove and thus the floor panels together by pivoting. Also, the installation is simple and ensures the rigidity of the laid floor while maintaining the necessary freedom of movement of the floor panels. The latter is required to compensate for wood moisture changes caused by the microclimate in each room. The assembled to a floor panel floor panels then tend due to the changes in wood moisture for jointing.
These displacements and joints can be compensated for by a pressure force exerted on the abutment surface of the lip of the projection arranged on the first spring, so that the connection is brought into a stable end position.
For a better understanding of the description, the following terms are explained as used in connection with the description of the present application:
consists of several laid, assembled floor panels;
- "effective area" or "tread surface" corresponds to the top surface of the floor panels that results after laying;
- "base area" corresponds to a tread surface opposite bottom of the floor panel;
a "parting plane" arranged perpendicular to the tread surface and defined in projection on the tread surface by an upper longitudinal edge or transverse edge of the floor panel extending above the second groove or the second spring, in other words on average by the side end of the floor panel;
- "counter panel" refers to the particular floor panel that interacts with the other;
Terms and conditions such as "top", "top", "bottom", "bottom", "below", "above" refer to the floor panels laid on a level surface, as shown in the drawing. The projection of the first spring - in the laying state of the floor panels - is a rounded down bead bar, which is held in the groove similar to a joint socket. The dimensions are set so that a horizontal, slight movement of the floor panels is possible. The radius of the cross-sectional area of the rounded bead fillet approximates the radius of rounding of the fillet approximately as 1: 5 to 1:10.
The rounding of the bead bar is also useful when one of the floor panels is to be brought together in an inclined or tilted position with the other.
The rounding of the bead bar allows a smooth sliding of the first spring over the lip and over a portion of the concave stop surface adjacent to the lip.
The rounding of the bead strip of the first spring can pass over a groove arranged perpendicular to the base surface of the floor panel Nutwangenabschnitt in the bottom of a longitudinal groove into which the lip of the Gegenpaneels can engage. Preferably, the lip is arranged in the laying state plane-parallel to the bottom of the longitudinal groove.
Preferably, the lower flank of the second spring coincides with an upper side surface of the first groove and, correspondingly, a lower side surface of the second groove with an upper flank of the first spring, the lower flank of the second spring and the lower side surface of the second flute tip a first one Include the angle with the footboard of the floor panel.
Preferably, the first acute angle is in an angular range of 15 [deg.] + - 2 deg. This angular range has been determined empirically and agrees with the aforementioned curves of the circle segment and - in the laying state - underlying, concave stop surface. The dimensional ratios of the first groove to the first spring and corresponding to the second groove to the second spring are set so that when laying the floor panels essentially no bending deformations of the protruding parts are to be expected.
This is due in particular to the fact that the clear width of the lower, first groove does not fall below the dimensions of the first spring both in a horizontal and in an inclined position of the floor panels to one another, but allows sufficient play, wherein in the final laying position defined assignment is achieved.
It is advantageous that the side surfaces of the first groove converge towards one another in the direction of the groove bottom, preferably at a second acute angle with respect to the tread surface and correspondingly with respect to the base surface of the floor panel.
Preferably, the second angle is about 15 °, wherein the two flanks of the first spring have a convergence corresponding to the first groove.
It is advantageous that an end face of the first spring coincides with the plane of separation arranged perpendicular to the tread surface or is set back relative to the parting plane, whereby the material losses during processing can be reduced.
However, it is also possible embodiments in which the first spring protrudes beyond the parting line.
Preferably, the abutment surface of the lip rises at an acute angle relative to the base surface towards the groove bottom of the first groove and merges into a flat inner surface of a longer arm of the first groove.
The floor panel is preferably made of wood or wood-based material and consists of a middle core layer, a visible surface resulting visible surface and a lower, the base surface resulting layer.
Preferably, below the lip there is a second inclined abutment surface, which may substantially form a lateral termination of the lower layer on the longitudinal side of the floor panel.
The inclined stop surface runs in this embodiment in pairs in inclined abutment surfaces on the other side of the panel in parallel. The laid panels form a gap, which preferably has a width of 0.4 mm in the dry state of the floor panels. The empirically determined column width corresponds to an anticipated increase of linear dimensions of the floor panels as the humidity increases. Preferably, the abutment surfaces form a third sharp angle with a plane oriented perpendicular to the useful or base surface.
The raised lip transmits the load to the second stop surfaces in the lower part of the floor panel, whereby the aforementioned controlled movement of the rounded projection and at the same time a slight push-out of the floor panels can be caused parallel to the ground.
If the wood moisture decreases, the floor panels return to their original position.
It is advantageous if at least one ventilation channel is incorporated at the lower layer, which preferably runs parallel to the longitudinal side of the floor panel.
Preferably, the abutment surface of the lip transitions into a planar, inclined side surface, which can be guided at a fifth acute angle with respect to a plane parallel to the parting plane. This inclined side surface opens into an upper end of the lip and forms there a nose, which prevents the slipping of the lower rounding of the first spring from the stop surface on the lip. Preferably, the fifth acute angle is about 15 [deg.] + - 2 deg.
Preferably, the first and the second groove are incorporated on the core layer.
The core layer may consist of solid wood or at least two strips glued together. The strips can be made of solid wood or wood-based material.
On the stop surface of the lip, a round, concave trough may be arranged, the radius of which is equal to or greater than the radius of the lower rounding of the first spring.
On the short transverse sides of the floor panels further connecting elements may be provided, consisting of a third spring located on one side of the floor panel and a third groove arranged on the opposite side. On the third spring may be provided on the base surface directed, preferably triangular projection and on the third groove to the projection compatible bolt groove. The third spring may have an upper, sloping flank which is at a fourth acute angle to the effective area.
In turn, a correspondingly inclined, upper side surface can be arranged on the third groove. The size of the fourth acute angle is about 12 [deg.].
It is of great advantage that the connection of two floor panels according to the invention can ensure a required stability and freedom of displacement both in the dry state and after the increase in moisture, which occurs primarily within the core layer. The pressure forces occurring during assembly at the contact points of the tongue and groove joints stabilize the position of the floor panels. As stability of the compound is here especially a resistance to the changes in position, d. H.
Canting of the usable area in the area of the parting plane is designated, so that the effective area of the entire laid floor comes to rest in one plane.
The solution according to the invention makes possible an embodiment of the floor panels in which the first spring arranged on the longitudinal side lies within a rectangular outline which is defined by the tread surface, parting plane and base surface of the floor panel. This leads to significant material savings in the manufacturing process. Embodiments of the invention are explained in more detail with reference to the drawing.
The figures show:
1 shows a floor panel in a schematic plan view of its effective area.
2 shows a cross section A-A according to FIG. 1,
Figures 3a, 3b enlarged details of the mechanical locking means of two floor panels on their longitudinal sides, before and after the connection, also in a cross section;
FIG. 4 shows two floor panels according to FIG. 2 during installation on a level surface; FIG.
5 shows the floor panels according to FIG. 4 after installation; FIG.
Fig. 6a shows a second embodiment of the floor panel, also in a cross section, as in Fig.2;
6b an enlarged detail of the connection of two floor panels according to FIG. 6a, on their longitudinal sides;
Figures 7a, 7b enlarged details of the mechanical locking means on longitudinal sides of two floor panels according to a third embodiment, before and after the connection, in a cross section; 8a shows a section B-B according to FIG. 1;
Fig. 8b an enlarged detail of the mechanical
Locking means of two floor panels on their lateral sides, after the connection.
The rectangular floor panels 1, 1 'shown in FIGS. 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4 and 5 consist in cross-section of three layers of different wood-based materials glued together.
In the exemplary embodiment, a substantially consisting of three layers floor panel is shown, which consists of a core layer 2 of transversely arranged needle wood strips 40, an upper layer of sight 3, made of solid wood with an overhead seal, and a lower layer 4 of softwood with a longitudinal direction extending wood fiber alignment.
The upper viewing layer 3 is delimited by a useful surface 24 and the lower layer 4 by a base surface 25, with which the floor panels 1, 1 'are to be laid on a flat surface in the joining composite.
On the opposite edge sides 51, 52, the floor panels are provided with connecting elements which are arranged for joining along a separating surface T. Reference is made in particular to FIGS. 3a and 3b.
In the core layer 2 is on a longitudinal side of the floor panel 1 ', a first, grooved, profiled groove 5 and on the opposite longitudinal side of Fussbodenpa-neels 1 profiled, adapted to the groove 5 spring 6 is introduced. The first spring 6 is bounded by an upper flank [beta] a and a lower projection 7. In the laying state, the spring 6 of the floor panel 1 engages in the groove 5 of the other, adjacent floor panel 1 '(see Figures 3b and 4).
The first groove 5 is bounded on its side facing the lower layer 4 by a leg 8 projecting beyond this groove 5. This, a locking element forming, extended leg 8 has at its free end an upwardly projecting, the groove 5 defining lip
9, which is therefore designed as a parapet of the groove 5.
The stop surface facing the groove is part of a concave recess 29 formed inside the groove 5, which has been produced by cutting woodworking
(see Fig. 3a). From the inside of the lip thus a groove 9 'is formed.
The concave recess 29 troughs down in the direction of its at the top of the lower layer 4 lying vertex 31, wherein the groove 9 'is rounded. The recess 29 continues over the apex 31 in an upwardly in the direction of groove 5 extending, flat inner surface 10 continues. The upwardly continuing inner surface
10 of the recess 29 also forms a lower side surface of the first groove. 5
Reference numeral 5a denotes an upper side surface of the first groove 5.
The cavity of the groove 9 'has a first radius Rl, the circle center 32 is positioned approximately on the effective surface 24 of the floor panel. As shown in FIGS. 3a and 3b, the lower inner surface 10 and the upper side surface 5a of the first groove 5 converge towards each other in the groove bottom 30 direction, forming a seventh acute angle [omega] which is about 15 [deg.]. The lower inner surface 10 of the groove 5 is inclined at a first acute angle [alpha] with respect to the base surface 25. The angle is about 15 [deg.]. The upper side surface 5a of the first groove 5 is inclined at a second acute angle ss with respect to the useful surface 24, which is also about 15 [deg.].
The upper flank 6a of the first spring 6 is also inclined at 15 ° relative to the working surface 24 at the second acute angle ss.
The downwardly directed projection 7 of the first spring 6 has a bead strip 27 with a rounding in the form of a circle segment. The rounding of the bead strip 27 has a second radius R2, whose length in the present case is about 1/7 of the length of the first radius Rl.
The bead strip 27 merges into a groove bottom 28 of a longitudinal groove 11 into which the lip 9 engages in the laying state of the floor panel (see FIG. In this case, the longitudinal groove 11 is slightly wider than the plane parallel to the groove bottom 28 arranged lip. 9
After joining two floor panels 1, 1 'with each other, the stop surface 9 <?> Of the lip 9 and the bead strip 27 of the first spring 6 contacting the stop surface form mechanical locking means which prevent the floor panels from sliding apart parallel to the base surface 25 or the respective substrate , Extending above the first groove 5, there is a second spring 12 delimited by upper and lower flanks 35, 33. The lower flank 33 coincides with the upper side surface 5a of the first groove 5 inclined at the aforementioned acute angle ss.
The second spring 12 protrudes beyond an upper side end 26 'of the effective area of the floor panel 1', but is shorter than the extended leg 8 provided with the lip 9.
The first spring 6, however, is designed so that its end face 34 is set back slightly relative to an upper side end 26 of the effective area of the floor panel 1. Such a design is advantageous because of relatively small material losses in wood processing. Reference numeral 36 denotes a rectangular outline of the floor panel blank prior to its processing into a floor panel with a dot-dash line.
On the opposite side of the floor panel, a second groove 13 is disposed above the first spring 6, the lower side surface 37 coincides with the upper edge 6a of the first spring 6. In addition, also at the same acute angle ss relative to the useful surface 24 is inclined. The corresponding inclined flanks 33; 6a of the springs 12; 6 or
Side surfaces 5a, 37 of the grooves 5; 13 allow a laying of floor panels by pivotal movements, without bending the leg. 8
When laying the floor panels 1, 1 'engage the springs 6; 12 in the grooves 5; 13, until the two successive side finishes 26, 26 'come into contact with a separating plane T. The second groove 13 of the floor panel 1 then also contacted with the second spring 12 of the Gegenpaneels.
The leg 8 ends with a lying below the lip 9, the first inclined stop surface 14, which is disposed at a third acute angle [delta] with respect to a base plane 25 perpendicularly directed plane E. The angle [delta] is about 30 °.
As shown in Fig. 3a, the downwardly open longitudinal groove 11 of the floor panel 1 merges into a second inclined abutment surface 15, which after laying (see Fig. 3b) of two floor panels 1, 1 'is parallel to the first inclined abutment surface 14 ,
The fine dimensions of the floor panels 1, 1 'are chosen such that after laying an oblique gap S (see Figures 3b and 5) between the inclined stop surfaces 14, 15 is formed, the size of which corresponds to an expected increase in linear extent of the floor panels. The column S is in the present case about 0.4 mm wide and can approach zero when the material of the floor panels is slightly wet.
Thus, the first and the second lower abutment surfaces 14, 15 can transmit a fourth force F4 indicated in FIG. 5, which can be caused by the swelling of the moistened material. If the material swells, the bead bar 27 can press against the lip 9 and as a result exert a pressure on the second lower stop surface 15 via the first lower stop surface 14. The gap S decreases and in extreme cases assumes the zero value. It is assumed that with a column width of 0.4 mm, the floor panels are in the dry state, which at a relative humidity of between 50 and 60 percent occurs at a room temperature between 18 <0> C and 24 <0> C ,
As can be seen from Figures 2, 3a and 3b, the first and the second groove 5; 13 and the first and the second spring 6; 12 incorporated on the core layer 2.
In the embodiment according to FIG. 2, the core layer 2 consists of solid wood, whereas, according to FIG. 6a, thin wooden strips 40 are glued together.
In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 8a and 8b, tongue-and-groove connection elements are provided on the short transverse sides of the floor panels, in which a third spring 16 located on one side of the floor panel has a triangular projection 17 facing the base surface 25. On one of the spring 16 opposite side of the floor panel turn to the spring 16 compatible, third groove 18 is provided, which merges into a lower, beyond the parting plane T protruding, second leg 20.
The third spring 16 has an upper, sloping flank 38 which lies at a fourth acute angle [epsilon] to the useful surface 24, the fourth acute angle [epsilon], the magnitude of which amounts to approximately 12 [deg.], Also for an upper one Side surface 39 of the groove 18 applies. On the second leg 38, a triangular, adapted to the third groove 18 bolt groove 19 is incorporated, which lies approximately in the parting plane T.
As shown in FIG. 2, the lower layer 4 has at least one ventilation duct 21 which runs along the longitudinal side of the floor panel 1 and is rectangular in its cross-section, with which the moisture occurring in the area of the base surface 25 can be quickly removed. Since the humid air is lighter than the dry one, there arises a forced, following the natural drive following air circulation.
At the same time, the ventilation channels 21 counteract the excessive stresses that arise as a result of the expansion forces in the area of the connection directed transversely to the fiber orientation and can lead to cracking and splitting of the lower layer 4.
The hygroscopic material of the floor panel swells or contracts due to changes in ambient humidity. When the moisture increases, first, the lower layer 4 and the core layer 2 are exposed to the action of moisture. As a result, the bead bar 27 presses against the abutment surface 9 <1> of the lip 9 with a third force F3 shown in FIG. 3b. Even with the aforementioned fourth force F4, the lip 9 is pressed against the lower stop surface 15 of the adjacent floor panel, whereby the column S decreases to zero value.
However, the pressure acts against the lower stop surface 15, so that the bead bar 27 slides over the stop surface 9 'of the lip 9 and a slight sliding apart of the two floor panels 1, I <1>. Thereafter, the moisture of the wood material of the upper layer of sight 3 and an increase in the dimensions thereof increases transversely to the longitudinal direction of the floor panel. The mechanism of action of the changes in moisture increase can be described as follows: When the core layer 2 swells, the thickness of the first spring 6 increases and, at the same time, the width of the first groove 5 decreases.
As a result, tensions occur within the connection, which can lead to a difference in the thickness of the floor panels 1, 1 'at its parting plane T, in which the visible working surfaces 24 of the two floor panels are no longer in a cursory plane. The additional second groove 13 and second spring 12 serve as a remedy. This additional tongue-and-groove connection compensates for the changes in the floor panels caused by the swelling and contraction of the first groove 5 and the first spring 6 perpendicular to the base surface, specifically in the parting plane T.
As a result, a required average value of the moisture-induced swelling of the core layer 2 in the region of the parting plane on the longitudinal sides of the two floor panels is achieved.
Since the material-related continuity of the core layer 2 in the region of the springs 6; 12 is interrupted, the position changes of the effective area 24 are limited to the minimum. Thus, a fifth and a sixth force F5 occur; F6 at the contact point of the upper side surface 6a of the second groove 13 and the lower edge 6a of the second spring 12 (see Figures 3b and 7b), which counteract the changes in position of the useful surface 24 in the parting plane and stabilize the resulting compound.
Finally, the upper flank 35 of the second spring 12 and an upper surface 41 of the second groove 13 to be contacted with it also contribute to the stability of the connection since the two run parallel to the useful surface 24.
It comes to swelling of the wood material, which is illustrated by the aforementioned forces F3, F4, and to increase the pressure of the bead strip 27 against the stop surface 9 'of the lip.
With decreasing humidity, the interconnected floor panels return to their original position. The stiffness of the floor is not affected.
The horizontal forces F1, F2 shown in FIGS. 3b, 6b and 7b secure the floor panels from their damage in the parting plane T.
In an embodiment shown in Figures 6a and 6b, the stop surface 9 'of the lip goes into a plane, inclined side surface 42, which is guided at a fifth acute angle Y opposite to the separation plane T parallel plane El and in the height of the lip 9 a Nose 22 forms. The angle y is in the range 12 [deg.]. The nose 22 additionally prevents the bead strip 27 from slipping out of the stop surface 9 'via the lip 9. As shown in FIG. 6b, the bead strip 27 of the first spring merges into a lower flank 43 extending parallel to the base surface 25.
In this case, the lower, adjoining the abutment surface 9 ', the inner surface 10 of the first groove is formed by the upper side of the lower layer 4 of the floor panel. Between the flank 43 of the spring and the inner surface 10 of the first groove, a gap 47 extending to the bead strip 27 remains. In another embodiment shown in FIGS. 7a and 7b, the abutment surface 9 'of the lip 9 forms a circular recess 23 of a third radius R3, which is about 8 to 9 times larger than a fourth radius R4 of the lower bead strip 27 of the first spring. A peculiarity of the present embodiment is that the trough 23 merges via an upwardly directed bending edge 44 into the lower inner surface 10 of the first groove, the latter extending at a sixth acute angle [phi] with respect to the base surface 25.
The angle [phi] is about 15 [deg.]. Accordingly, the lower bead bar 27 protrudes downward over a lower flank 45 and adjoins it via a second crease edge 46. The lower edge 45 is also angled at an angle to the base surface 25. The trough 23 forms after joining two floor panels together a seat for the bead strip 27, thereby improving the stiffness of the connection.
The end face 34 of the first spring 6 is shown in FIG. 7a in the parting plane T.
BLKP 03 PCT list of reference numbers. dt. doc
List of reference numbers:
1, 1 'floor panel
2 core layer
3 visible layer
4 lower layer
5 first groove
5a side surface
6 first spring
10 inner surface
11 longitudinal groove
12 second spring
13 second groove
14; 15 stop surface
16 third spring
17 triangular projection
18 third groove
19 triangular groove
20 thighs (arm)
21 ventilation channel
24 usable area
25 base area
26 'side finish
27 bead bar
28 groove bottom
30 groove bottom
32 circle center
37 lower side surface
39 upper side surface 40 wooden strip
42 side surface (v. 22)
44 bending edge
46 bending edge
47 gap E, El level
F2 second force
F3 third force
F4 fourth power
F5 fifth strength
F6 sixth power
Rl first radius
R2 second radius
R3 third radius
R4 fourth radius
T separation surface [alpha] first acute angle ss second acute angle [delta] third acute angle [epsilon] fourth acute angle
Y fifth acute angle [phi] sixth acute angle [omega] seventh acute angle