WO1996000617A1 - A shower head and a hand shower comprising a shower head - Google Patents

A shower head and a hand shower comprising a shower head Download PDF

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Publication number
WO1996000617A1
WO1996000617A1 PCT/DK1995/000261 DK9500261W WO9600617A1 WO 1996000617 A1 WO1996000617 A1 WO 1996000617A1 DK 9500261 W DK9500261 W DK 9500261W WO 9600617 A1 WO9600617 A1 WO 9600617A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
nozzles
shower head
apertures
face plate
water
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/DK1995/000261
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Andreas Tandrup
Original Assignee
Johs. Tandrup Metalvarefabrik Aps
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DK78594 priority Critical
Priority to DK0785/94 priority
Application filed by Johs. Tandrup Metalvarefabrik Aps filed Critical Johs. Tandrup Metalvarefabrik Aps
Publication of WO1996000617A1 publication Critical patent/WO1996000617A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B3/00Spraying or sprinkling apparatus with moving outlet elements or moving deflecting elements ; Spraying or sprinkling heads with rotating elements located upstream the outlet
    • B05B3/02Spraying or sprinkling apparatus with moving outlet elements or moving deflecting elements ; Spraying or sprinkling heads with rotating elements located upstream the outlet with rotating elements
    • B05B3/04Spraying or sprinkling apparatus with moving outlet elements or moving deflecting elements ; Spraying or sprinkling heads with rotating elements located upstream the outlet with rotating elements driven by the liquid or other fluent material discharged, e.g. the liquid actuating a motor before passing to the outlet
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B1/00Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means
    • B05B1/14Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening
    • B05B1/16Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets
    • B05B1/1627Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets with a selecting mechanism comprising a gate valve, a sliding valve or a cock
    • B05B1/1636Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets with a selecting mechanism comprising a gate valve, a sliding valve or a cock by relative rotative movement of the valve elements
    • B05B1/1645Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets with a selecting mechanism comprising a gate valve, a sliding valve or a cock by relative rotative movement of the valve elements the outlets being rotated during selection
    • B05B1/1654Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening having selectively- effective outlets with a selecting mechanism comprising a gate valve, a sliding valve or a cock by relative rotative movement of the valve elements the outlets being rotated during selection about an axis parallel to the liquid passage in the stationary valve element
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B15/00Details of spraying plant or spraying apparatus not otherwise provided for; Accessories
    • B05B15/50Arrangements for cleaning; Arrangements for preventing deposits, drying-out or blockage; Arrangements for detecting improper discharge caused by the presence of foreign matter
    • B05B15/52Arrangements for cleaning; Arrangements for preventing deposits, drying-out or blockage; Arrangements for detecting improper discharge caused by the presence of foreign matter for removal of clogging particles
    • B05B15/528Arrangements for cleaning; Arrangements for preventing deposits, drying-out or blockage; Arrangements for detecting improper discharge caused by the presence of foreign matter for removal of clogging particles by resilient deformation of the nozzle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B1/00Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means
    • B05B1/14Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening
    • B05B1/18Roses; Shower heads

Abstract

A shower head comprises a housing having an inlet for establishing fluid communication with a water supply source and a face plate constituting a wall part of the housing. The face plate defines an inner chamber within the housing communicating with the water supply source through the inlet and is provided with a plurality of through-going apertures for establishing communication from the inner chamber to the surroundings. The shower head further comprises a rubber insert having a base plate and a plurality of conical nozzles protruding from and tapering from the base plate towards a respective apex in which an outlet aperture is provided. The rubber insert is arranged within the inner chamber as the conical nozzles are positioned in registration with and received within the through-going apertures of the face plate. Each of the nozzles has an elastic deformable wall allowing the nozzles to expand from an unexpanded state to an expanded state as water is supplied to the inner chamber from the water supply source and forced under pressure through the conical nozzles for expelling water through the outlet apertures, and each of the conical nozzles defines a height allowing the nozzles to be concealed within the through-going apertures of the face plate in the unexpanded and expanded states. The shower head may be included in a handle shower. The shower head is a self-cleaning and mechanically protected shower head.

Description

A SHOWER HEAD AND A HAND SHOWER COMPRISING A SHOWER HEAD.

The present invention relates to a shower head and also a hand shower comprising a shower head. It is a well-known problem within the art that shower heads or hand showers including shower heads are after some time blocked as the water which is directed through the shower head or hand shower causes deposi¬ tion of limy substances which are generated from the limy water. Numer¬ ous shower head structures have been deduced which are claimed to solve or eliminate the problem relating to blocking of the shower head or hand shower by limy substances. Examples of the prior art hand showers are disclosed in DE 3044310, DE 3107808, EP 0435031, DE-OS 2134537, DE-OS 2060761, DE-OS 3943062, US 3939096, US 3826454, US 5172866 and W0 92/02305. Reference is made to the above patent applications and patents and the above US patents are further incorporated in the present speci¬ fication by reference. The elimination of blocking in the prior art shower heads has in numerous structures been accomplished by producing an elastic insert, such as a rubber insert which defines the outlet apertures through which water is expelled from the shower head. The elastic insert is provided with a plurality of protruding knobs which are provided with through-going bores through which the water is ex¬ pelled. According to the prior art structures, the blocking of the through-going apertures of the elastic knobs through which the water is expelled is eliminated by producing the knobs from an elastic material which is deformed as water is forced through the through-going bores of the knobs causing any deposition of limy substance to crack and to be flushed out through the outlet apertures. According to an alternative technique of eliminating or reducing the blocking of the outlets of a hand shower, the knobs are exposed at the shower head allowing that the knobs are rubbed by the hand of a user. Through the rubbing of the knobs, any depositions of limy substances within the through-going apertures of the knobs are claimed to be caused to crack, whereupon the depositions are flushed out through the outlet apertures.

Experience, however, has proven that the prior art structures are not entirely satisfactory as the claimed self-rinsing or anti-blocking effects are not entirely satisfactory since the prior art shower heads are in spite of their claimed advantages unable to prevent the outlet apertures of the shower heads from being blocked by depositions of limy substances after a period of time of use, such as a period of time vary¬ ing from a few months to a few years.

An object of the present invention is to provide a shower head which is of a structure preventing the outlet apertures of the shower head from being blocked by the deposition of limy substances, as the shower head constitutes a self-rinsing shower head from which any depo¬ sitions of limy substances are flushed out through the outlet apertures. An advantage of the present invention relates to the fact that a shower head structure is provided which provides a mechanical protection of any deformable elements of the shower head and consequently is to a high degree insusceptible to mechanical impact, such as blows or striking or a person rubbing his or her hand across the shower head. A particular feature of the present invention relates to the fact that the self-rinsing or self-cleaning structure characteristic of the present invention in combination with the mechanical protection of the shower head may be implemented in numerous structures including single- mode, dual-mode or multi-mode shower heads allowing water to be expelled from the shower head in different water-ejection modes, directions and intensities as is per se well-known within the art.

The above object, the above advantage and the above feature, to¬ gether with numerous other objects, advantages and features which will be evident from the below detailed description of preferred embodiments of the present invention are in accordance with the teachings of the present invention obtained by a shower head comprising: a housing having an inlet for establishing fluid communication with a water supply source, a face plate constituting a wall part of said housing and defining therewith an inner chamber within said housing, said inner chamber com- municating with said water supply source through said inlet, said face plate being provided with a plurality of through-going apertures for establishing communication from said inner chamber to the surroundings, a rubber insert having a base plate and a plurality of conical nozzles protruding from and tapering from said base plate towards a re- spective apex in which an outlet aperture is provided, said plurality of nozzles being identical with said plurality of through-going apertures of said face plate, said rubber insert being arranged within said inner chamber so as to position said conical nozzles in registration with and received with¬ in said through-going apertures of said face plate, each of said nozzles having an elastic deformable wall allowing said nozzles to expand from an unexpanded state to an expanded state as water is supplied to said inner chamber from said water supply source and forced under pressure through said conical nozzles for expelling water through said outlet apertures, and each of said conical nozzles defining a height allowing said nozzles to be concealed within said through-going apertures of said face plate in said unexpanded and expanded states.

Contrary to the prior art claimed self-rinsing shower head struc¬ tures, the shower head according to the present invention is based on the basic realization that the self-rinsing ability of the nozzles of the shower head is dependent on a high flexibility and high deformabili- ty of the walls of the nozzles through which deformation the walls defi¬ ning the conical nozzles are allowed to expand, causing any depositions of limy substances present within the interior of the nozzles to crack and loosen from the walls of the nozzles, whereupon the loosened limy substances are flushed from the shower head as water is forced under pressure through the conical nozzles. It has, furthermore, been realized that the self-rinsing effect is improved, provided highly elastic and easily deformable nozzles are produced, which nozzles, however, present protruding elements which are easily ruined in case the elements are ex- posed to mechanical impacts, such as strikes or blows or the rubbing of the nozzles by the hand of the user. It is to be realized that the abi¬ lity of the nozzles to be elastically deformed for providing the self- rinsing effect is dependent on the water supply rate and in particular the water pressure. Thus, provided a high pressure exists, the taper of the conical nozzles may be smaller as compared to a shower head which is to be used in connection with a lower water pressure.

Contrary to the prior art shower heads which are rinsed by the hand manipulation by the user, the improved self-rinsing effect accomplished by the highly elastic and easily deformable conical nozzles of the rub- ber insert of the shower head is dependent on the mechanical protection of the nozzles, which protection is accomplished through the provision of the conical nozzles being concealed within the through-going aper- tures of the face plate of the shower head in the unexpanded and also the expanded states of the nozzles, i.e. irrespective of the nozzles be¬ ing exposed to water pressure or being in the unexpanded or relaxed state. The shower head according to the present invention may, dependent on the application of the shower head, be included in a stationary shower, such as an overhead shower or a wall outlet or alternatively and preferably constitute a component of a hand shower as the shower head preferably comprises coupling means for coupling the housing of the shower head to a handle of the hand shower. The coupling means serving the purpose of coupling the shower head to the handle of the hand shower may be constituted by any appropriate coupling means such as snap- fitting coupling means, threaded coupling means or alternatively and preferably bayonet coupling means for cooperating with corresponding bayonet coupling means of the handle of the hand shower. Alternatively, the coupling means may be substituted with a rigid connection between the shower head and a handle as the shower head and the handle may be glued or welded together, e.g. in a high-frequency welding process or a combination of a glueing and welding process as is well-known in the art. Further, alternatively, the handle and the shower head may consti¬ tute an integral component which further may be composed of two or more separate components, together defining the integral handle and shower head.

The face plate of the hand shower may, dependent on the structure of the hand shower and the intentional application of the shower head, i.e. dependent on the shower head constituting a component of a sta¬ tionary shower, such as an overhead shower, or alternatively consti¬ tuting a component of a hand shower be implemented in any geometrical configuration, such as a quadratic, rectangular, triangular, polygonal configuration, elliptical, or preferably circular configuration and may further constitute a plane, a convex or a concave face plate. According to the presently preferred embodiment of the shower head, the face plate is constituted by a dome-shaped circular disc which preferably consti¬ tutes the outer or lower wall part of the housing of the shower head. As the nozzles of the rubber insert have to exhibit a high flexibi¬ lity and high capability of expansion, the nozzles are, as stated above, to a high degree, susceptible to mechanical impact, such as mechanical deformation, strikes or blows. Furthermore, as the nozzles are highly flexible and exhibit a high degree of expansion, the nozzles are in case excessive water pressure is exerted on the nozzles exposed to excessive mechanical expansion which in some instances might cause an excessive deformation or expansion of the nozzles which might ruin or destroy the nozzles. In order to prevent that the nozzles are deformed or expanded beyond a safe limit, each of the through-going apertures of the face plate of the shower head according to the present invention preferably comprises a constriction for limiting the radial expansion of the nozzles received within the apertures.

According to the presently preferred embodiment of the shower head according to the present invention, the elastic deformable walls of the conical nozzles preferably allow the conical nozzles to expand radially and to no substantial extent expand axially as water is forced under pressure through the conical nozzles in order to improve the self-rins¬ ing capability and, on the other hand, prevent the nozzles from being elongated causing the nozzles to be exposed from the concealed position¬ ing within the apertures of the face plate of the shower head.

According to the presently preferred embodiment of the shower head according to the present invention, the conical nozzles define a taper angle of 5-175°, such as 10-90°, preferably 10-15°. As stated above, the taper angle of the conical nozzles is dependent on the water supply rate, and in particular the water pressure. Thus, provided the shower head according to the present invention is to be used in connection with a fairly high water pressure, such as a water pressure of the order of 2-3 bar, the taper angle is preferably of the order of 10-15°, whereas, provided a lower water pressure exists, the taper angle is preferably somewhat higher.

Further according to the presently preferred embodiment of the shower head according to the present invention, the rubber insert is made from natural rubber or synthetic rubber, such as silicone rubber or latex rubber, and the walls of the nozzles are of a thickness of 0.2-0.8 mm, such as 0.25-0.4 mm, preferably approximately 0.3 mm, and each of the nozzles define a height of 2-5 mm, such as 2.2-4 mm, preferably 3- 3.5 mm.

In order to obtain the above mandatory high flexibility and high defor ability of the conical nozzles of the rubber insert of the shower head according to the present invention, the rubber insert is preferably made from an elastic material having a Shore hardness of the order of 45-48 Shore (A).

The housing of the shower head may be made from any appropriate water-proof material, such as a plastic material, e.g. ABS, PP, PVC, PC, PU , PS, PA, P MA, Nylon or the like, or alternatively a non-corroding metal material such as aluminium, stainless steel, copper or combina¬ tions thereof.

The shower head according to the present invention may be imple- mented as a single-mode shower head or alternatively dual- or multi-mode shower head, allowing that the shower head is used for expelling water in accordance with different or various effects, intensities, direc¬ tions, etc. According to the present invention, a dual- or multi-mode shower head is provided as the face plate is further provided with an additional plurality of through-going apertures, said inner chamber be¬ ing divided into a first and a second sub-chamber, said first sub-cham¬ ber communicating with said plurality of nozzles, and said second sub- chamber communicating with said additional plurality of apertures, and said shower head further comprising switching means for switching said shower head from a first operational state to a second operational state, and vice versa, in which first operational state communication is established from said inlet to said first sub-chamber and in which se¬ cond operational state communication is established from said inlet to said second sub-chamber. The above object, the above advantage and the above feature to¬ gether with numerous other objects, advantages and features which will be evident from the below detailed description of presently preferred embodiments of the present invention are in accordance with the teach¬ ings of the present invention obtained by a hand shower according to the present invention, comprising: a handle defining opposite first and second ends, said first end constituting an inlet end for establishing fluid communication with a water supply source, and a shower head having a housing communicating with said inlet through a through-going passage extending through said handle, said shower head further comprising: a face plate constituting a wall part of said housing and defining therewith an inner chamber within said housing, said inner chamber com¬ municating with said water supply source through said inlet, said face plate being provided with a plurality of through-going apertures for establishing communication from said inner chamber to the surroundings, and a rubber insert having a base plate and a plurality of conical nozzles protruding from and tapering from said base plate towards a re¬ spective apex in which an outlet aperture is provided, said plurality of nozzles being identical with said plurality of through-going apertures of said face plate, said rubber insert being arranged within said inner chamber so as to position said conical nozzles in registration with and received with¬ in said through-going apertures of said face plate, each of said nozzles having an elastic deformable wall allowing said nozzles to expand from an unexpanded state to an expanded state as water is supplied to said inner chamber from said water supply source and forced under pressure through said conical nozzles for expelling water through said outlet apertures, and each of said conical nozzles defining a height allowing said nozzles to be concealed within said through-going apertures of said face plate in said unexpanded and expanded states.

The hand shower according to the present invention preferably further comprises any of the features of the shower head according to the present invention. The present invention will now be further described with reference to the drawings, in which

Fig. 1 is a perspective and schematic view of a hand shower in¬ cluding a first embodiment of a shower head according to the present in¬ vention mounted on an adjustable mounting bar arrangement, Figs. 2 and 3 are schematic and sectional views illustrating a self-cleaning and self-protective feature of the shower head according to the present invention,

Fig. 4 is an exploded, perspective and schematic view of the first embodiment of the shower head according to the present invention, Fig. 5 is an exploded, perspective and schematic view similar to the view of Fig. 4 of a second embodiment of the shower head according to the present invention constituting a dual-function shower head, Fig. 6 is an exploded, perspective and schematic view of a third embodiment of the shower head according to the present invention consti¬ tuting a multi-function shower head, and

Fig. 7 is a schematic view illustrating a detail of the multi-func- tion shower head shown in Fig. 6.

In Fig. 1, a hand shower is shown designated the reference numeral 10. The hand shower 10 basically comprises two components, viz. a shower head 12 and a handle 14. The handle 14 comprises an elongated housing defining opposite ends, a first end of which is connected through a fit- ting, not shown in the drawings, to a hose 20 for supplying water to the hand shower from a water supply tube or water supply fitting, and a second end of which is integrally connected to a shell-like housing com¬ ponent 22 in which the shower head 12 is received through a bayonet coupling which will be described in greater detail below and which com- prises an arresting clutch 16. Within the housing of the handle 14, an interior through-going passage is provided for establishing substantial¬ ly unobstructed passage from the interior of the hose 20 to an inner chamber defined within the shell-like housing component 22 of the handle 14 from which inner chamber water is supplied to the shower head 12. In Fig. 1, the handle 14 is received within a holder of a mounting bar arrangement designated the reference numeral 30 in its entirety. The mounting bar arrangement 30 comprises a vertical bar or rod 32 which is fixated to a supporting wall, not shown in the drawings, and kept in pa¬ rallel, vertical and spaced apart relationship relative to the wall by means of two distance-defining blocks, one of which is shown in Fig. 1 and designated the reference numeral 33. On the vertical bar or rod 32, a slidable holder 34 is mounted which comprises a central block 35 on opposite sides of which a receiver 36 and a locking handle 38 are mounted. The receiver 36 serves the purpose of receiving the handle 14 of the hand shower 10 and the locking handle 38 serves the purpose of locking the receiver 36 in a fixed position relative to the central block 35 of the holder 34 and further of fixating the holder 34 relative to the vertical bar or rod 32.

The first embodiment 12 of the shower head is shown in greater de- tail in Fig. 4 and basically comprises four components, firstly, a base component 40 comprising a face plate 42 and a cylindrical element 46 in¬ tegrally connected to the face plate 42, secondly, an annular 0-ring 52 received within a circumferential recess of the base component 40, thirdly, a rubber insert 56 which is received within the base component in accordance with the teachings of the present invention, and fourthly, a locking ring component 64 which is snap-fitted to the base component 40 and constitutes a component of the above-mentioned bayonet coupling comprising the arresting clutch 16.

The locking ring component 64 basically comprises two integrally connected elements, firstly, an annular plane ring element 66 and, se¬ condly, a cylindrical element 68. The outer diameter of the cylindrical element 68 is somewhat smaller than the outer diameter of the annular ring element 66 providing a circumferential recess at the junction be¬ tween the annular ring element 66 and the cylindrical element 68, at which recess a plurality of bayonet locking elements are provided at the outer cylindrical surface of the cylindrical element 68. In Fig. 4, two bayonet locking elements 70 and 72 are shown, which bayonet locking ele¬ ments together with similar bayonet locking elements of said plurality of bayonet locking elements are positioned mutually spaced apart at the outer cylindrical surface of the cylindrical element 68 and serve the purpose of cooperating with corresponding bayonet locking elements pro- vided at an inner cylindrical surface of the shell-like housing compo¬ nent 22, which bayonet locking elements of the locking ring component 64 and of the above-mentioned inner cylindrical surface may be caused to mesh with one another for locking the locking ring element 64 to the shell-like housing component 22 of the handle 14 as the locking ring component 64 is rotated in a clockwise direction after the bayonet lock¬ ing elements of the locking ring component 64, such as the bayonet lock¬ ing elements 70 and 72, are caused to catch behind the cooperating bay¬ onet locking elements of the above-mentioned inner cylindrical surface of the shell-like component 22, which clockwise rotation is easily accomplished through rotating the locking ring component 64 by means of the clutch 16.

The locking ring component 64 constitutes, as is evident from Fig. 4, a slotted locking ring component, as the locking ring component is provided with a through-going slot 65 allowing that the locking ring component 64 is expanded for positioning the locking ring component cir¬ cumferentially encircling a cylindrical wall 48 defined by the cylin¬ drical element of the base component 40. The outer diameter of the cy- lindrical wall 48 is somewhat smaller than the outer overall diameter of the face plate 40 and slightly smaller than the inner diameter of the cylindrical element 68 of the locking ring component 64.

The face plate 42 of the base component 40 is provided with a plu- rality of through-going apertures 44 serving the purpose of receiving and mechanically protecting an identical plurality of conical nozzles 60 of the rubber insert 56, which conical nozzles protrude downwardly from a plane lower surface 58 of the rubber insert 56. The rubber insert 56 is also provided with a central aperture 62 and is to be described in greater detail below with reference to Figs. 2 and 3. The outer overall diameter of the face plate 42 substantially corresponds to the outer overall diameter of the annular ring element 66 of the locking ring com¬ ponent 64.

The locking ring component 64 is fixated to the base component 40 behind an outwardly protruding bead 52 of the cylindrical element 46 which together with a similar outwardly protruding bead 50 defines an annular groove in which the sealing 0-ring 52 is received. The sealing 0-ring 52 serves the purpose of sealing the base component 40 relative to the shell-like housing component 22 for preventing that water which is guided into the above-mentioned inner chamber defined within the she!1-1ike housing component 22 escapes from the inner chamber through paths which are different from paths extending through the conical nozzles 60 of the rubber insert 56, such as leaking along the outer cy¬ lindrical wall 48 of the base component 40. Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate, in greater detail, the structure and function of the nozzles 60 of the rubber insert 56. Thus, Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate vertical, sectional views disclosing a single aperture 44 of the face plate 42 of the base component 40, in which aperture a single nozzle 60 of the rubber insert 56 is received and concealed. In Figs. 2 and 3, the rubber insert 56 is positioned in facial contact with the in¬ ner surface of the face plate 42 as the plane surface 58 of the rubber insert is positioned in facial contact with the adjacent plane inner surface of the face plate 42. Within the aperture 44, an annular con¬ striction is defined by an inwardly protruding annular bead 45 serving the purpose of limiting the expansion of the nozzle 60 by supporting the outer end of the nozzle 60, in case an excessive water pressure is ge¬ nerated within the above-mentioned inner chamber defined within the shell-like housing component 22, which excessive pressure might ruin the nozzles 60 by excessive deformation of the rubber wall of the conical nozzles 60.

In Fig. 2, the nozzle 60 is illustrated in an unsupported and re- laxed position as the nozzles are not exposed to any water pressure as the inner chamber defined within the shell-like housing component 22 is not supplied with water from the water supply pipe or water supply fit¬ tings supplying water to the hand shower 10 through the hose 20. As is well-known in the art per se, limy water may give origin to lime deposi- tions as the limy water is contacted with the atmosphere and as the water evaporates. A serious problem may originate in case lime deposi¬ tions are generated within the nozzles of a shower head of a hand shower, which problem might ruin the function of expelling water from the shower head as the nozzles are blocked with lime depositions. How- ever, the above described problem is in accordance with the teachings of the present invention eliminated as the conical wall of the nozzle 60 is caused to be expanded as water under pressure is forced out through the nozzle 60 as illustrated in Fig. 3. In Fig. 3, two arrows 74 represent the water which is forced into the nozzle 60 from the inner chamber de- fined within the shell-like housing component 22 of the handle 14 and forced out through a central aperture 61 of the conical nozzle 60. The water forced out through the aperture 61 of the nozzle 60 is designated the reference numeral 76 and provides a water spray. As is evident from Fig. 2, the water which is forced into the nozzle 60, as illustrated by the arrow 74, causes the conical wall of the nozzle 60 to expand and consequently causes any lime deposition at the inner surface of the nozzle 60 to crack and to loosen from the inner surface of the nozzle 60, whereupon the loose lime is flushed out through the central aperture 61 of the nozzle 60. As any lime deposition present within the nozzles 60 of the insert 56, such as the nozzle 60 shown in Figs. 2 and 3, is flushed from the nozzle in question through the deformation of the wall of the conical nozzle 60, a self-cleaning effect is accomplished.

It is, however, to be realized that the self-cleaning effect is solely accomplished through a high-flexible and easily deformable wall of the nozzle 60, which high flexibility and easy deformation is de¬ pendent on a very soft and thin conical wall of the nozzles which, on the other hand, makes the nozzles easily breakable, provided the nozzles are unprotected and may be exposed to mechanical impact, such as the pressure or shear force generated in case the unprotected insert 56 is rubbed through the hands of a person. The protection of the nozzles is further important from a further point of view, as the nozzles, provided the nozzles are unprotected, may be destroyed in case limy depositions at the front surface of the face plate 42 are mechanically forced into contact with the highly flexible nozzles which may unintentionally be destroyed as the limy depositions cut into the unprotected nozzles. For preventing the nozzles 60 from being broken or otherwise destroyed through e.g. being torn off the plane surface 58 of the insert 56, the nozzles 60 of the rubber insert 56 is concealed within the apertures 44 of the face plate 42. The concealing of the nozzles 60 within the aper¬ tures of the face plate 42 is accomplished not only as the nozzles 60 are not deformed as shown in Fig. 2 and pressed outwardly towards the outer surface of the face plate 42, but also as the nozzles are pressu¬ rized as the water from the inner chamber defined within the shell-like housing component 22 of the handle 40 is forced into the nozzle 60, as shown in Fig. 3, and further out through the central aperture 61 of the nozzle 60, generating the water spray 76. Thus, as shown in Fig. 3, the nozzle 60 is in its entirety concealed within the face plate 42 as the nozzle 60 is caused to expand and be deformed as the water is forced in¬ to the interior of the nozzle 60 generating the expansion of the conical nozzle 60 and also to some extent, yet smaller extent, a longitudinal extension of the nozzle 60. In Figs. 5 and 6, a second and a third embodiment, respectively, of the shower head according to the present invention are shown, consti¬ tuting a dual-mode and a triple-mode shower head, respectively. The dual-mode embodiment or second embodiment of the shower head according to the present invention shown in Fig. 5 is designated the reference nu- meral 112. Throughout the below description, components or elements which are identical to the above described components or elements of the first embodiment 12 are designated the same reference numerals, and com¬ ponents or elements which are slightly modified as compared to those of the first embodiment are designated the same reference numeral as the corresponding component or element of the first embodiment, however, added the prefix 1. Thus, the second embodiment or dual-mode embodiment 112 comprises a base component 140 corresponding to the base component 40 of the first embodiment, a rubber insert 156 corresponding to the rubber insert 56 of the first embodiment 12, a change-over ring compo¬ nent 180 for cooperating with an apertured water-guidance plate 190, and the above described locking ring component 64. The base component 140 differs from the above described base component 40 in that the face plate 142 of the base component 140 is provided with a first plurality of apertures 144 corresponding to the apertures 44 of the first embodi¬ ment of the base component 40 and, furthermore, a second plurality of apertures 145. The first plurality of apertures 144 are, like the above described apertures 44, positioned in registration with the conical nozzles 160 of the rubber insert 156 for receiving, concealing, and pro¬ tecting the nozzles 160 as described above with reference to Figs. 2 and 3. The second plurality of apertures 145 are, as is evident from Fig. 5, provided at a central area of the face plate 142, which area is un- covered by the rubber insert 156 which, as is evident from Fig. 5, is provided with a large diameter central aperture 162.

The change-over ring component 180 is adapted to receive the base component 140 as the base component 140 seals against an annular surface 181 provided within the interior of the change-over ring component through a sealing 0-ring 147 which is received in a circumferential re¬ cess 149 provided at the upper side of the face plate 142. From the upper side of the face plate 142 of the base component 140, an annular partition ring 141 protrudes upwardly for cooperating with an annular partition ring element 182 of the change-over ring component 180. The annular partition ring 141 and the annular partition ring element 142 basically serve the purpose of dividing the inner chamber defined within the shower head into two compartments, a first one of which communicates with the apertures 144 through the nozzles 160 of the rubber insert 156, and a second one of which communicates with the apertures 145 directly as the rubber insert 156 is received entirely within the first chamber circumferentially encircling the annular partition ring 141.

From the above-mentioned inner chamber defined within the shell- like housing component 22 of the handle 14, communication is established to the first chamber through two apertures, one of which is shown in Fig. 5 and designated the reference numeral 184, whereas communication to the second chamber is established through two apertures 185 and 186. The change-over ring component 180 is further provided with a central aperture 187 for receiving a central post 151 of the base component 140, which post extends coaxially relative to the annular partition ring 141 upwardly beyond the upper rim thereof. The change-over ring component 180 is provided with an outer cylindrical wall 188 serving the purpose of receiving the slotted locking ring component 64.

The apertured water guidance plate 190 is positioned on top of the change-over ring component 180 sandwiching the locking ring component 64 therebetween. For maintaining the shower head 112 in assembled state, the apertured water guidance plate 190 is provided with a central aper- ture 192 through which the central post 151 of the base component 140 extends for cooperating with a bushing 197 which is provided with a cen¬ tral quadrangular aperture for cooperating with the quadrangular outer end of the rod 151 as the bushing 197 is fixated relative to the rod 151 by means of a screw 198 which is screwed into an inner central threaded hole of the central post 151. The apertured water guidance plate 190 is further provided with two through-going apertures 194 for establishing communication from the above-mentioned inner chamber defined within the shell-like housing component 22 of the handle 14 to the above described first chamber or alternatively the above described second chamber through the apertures 184 and 185,186 respectively, of the change-over ring component. Apart from establishing communication to the first, or alternatively the second plurality of apertures 144 and 145, respective¬ ly, through the apertures 184 and 185,186, respectively of the change¬ over ring component 180, the change-over ring component 180 may be ro- tated relative to the apertured water guidance plate 190 so as to estab¬ lish communication to the first plurality of apertures 144 and also the second plurality of apertures 145.

The apertures 194 are, as is evident from Fig. 5, encircled within annular beads 195 which circumferentially encircle the lower rims of the apertures 194. The annular beads 195 are further enclosed within kidney- shaped beads 196 which along with the annular beads 195 serve the pur¬ pose of sealing against the upper surface of the change-over ring compo¬ nent 180 for preventing water from leaking along the outer surface of the change-over ring component 180. The change-over ring component 180 is preferably also provided with upwardly protruding cams, not shown in the drawings, serving the purpose of cooperating with corresponding grooves or cams provided at the lower side of the apertured water guidance plate for limiting the angular rotation of the change-over ring component 180 relative to the apertured water guidance plate 190 and consequently the handle 12 of the hand shower. It is to be realized that the second embodiment 112 of the shower head according to the present invention, like the third embodiment of the shower head to be described below with reference to Figs. 6 and 7, may readily be used for substitu¬ ting the above described first embodiment 12 of the shower head in the handle 14. It is also to be understood that the locking ring component 64 of the second embodiment 112 locks the assembled shower head 112 to the handle 12 and also locks the apertured water guidance plate 190 in a fixed position relative to the handle, which fixed position is preferab¬ ly secured through a toothed outer rim 199, whereas the change-over ring component 180 along with the base component 140 may be rotated relative to the apertured water guidance plate 190 and the handle in which the shower head is mounted.

The triple-mode embodiment or third embodiment of the shower head according to the present invention shown in Figs. 6 and 7 is designated the reference numeral 212. Throughout the below description, components or elements which are identical to the above described components or elements of the first embodiment 12 shown in Figs. 1 and 4 or identical to the above described components or elements of the second embodiment 112 shown in Fig. 5 are designated the same reference numerals, and com¬ ponents or elements which are slightly modified as compared to those of the first embodiment are designated the same reference numerals as the corresponding component or element of the first embodiment, however, added the prefix 2. Thus, the third embodiment or triple-mode embodiment 212 comprises a base component 240 corresponding to the base component 40 of the first embodiment, a set of water-restricting elements 230 and 234, a rubber insert 256 corresponding to the rubber insert 56 of the first embodiment 12, a first water guidance ring component 270, a seal¬ ing gasket 282, a gripping ring component 280, the above described lock¬ ing ring component 64, an apertured water guidance plate 290, the above described bushing 197, and the above described screw 198. The base com¬ ponent 240 differs from the above described base components 40 and 140 shown in Figs. 1, 4 and 5, respectively, in that the face plate 242 of the base component 240 is provided with three pluralities of apertures, a first plurality of apertures 244 corresponding to the apertures 44 and the apertures 144 of the first and the second embodiment, respectively, of the base component 40 and 140, respectively, a second plurality of apertures 245 and a third plurality of apertures 246. Like the above described second embodiment of the base component 240, the third embodi- ment 240 is also provided with an annular partition ring 241 and a cen¬ tral post 251 corresponding to the annular partition ring 141 and the central post 151, respectively. The annular partition ring 241 serves the purpose of establishing a first and a second chamber above the upper surface of the face plate 242, which first chamber communicates with the apertures 244, whereas the second chamber communicates with the aper¬ tures 245. Within the chamber defined within the annular partition ring 241, a further partition ring is provided, not shown in the drawings, separating the inner chamber into said second chamber communicating with the apertures 245 and a third chamber communicating with the apertures 246.

Within the third chamber, two water-restricting elements 230 and 234 are received. The element 230 constitutes a flange element, the flange of which is provided with three apertures 232 which serve the purpose of guiding water which is supplied to the upper side of the flange into a sloping direction relative to the direction along the axi¬ al direction of the flange element. The finned element 234 is positioned below the element 230 and is provided with a total of seven fins for guiding the water supplied from the flanged element 230 to the apertures 246. The rubber insert 256 comprises a first set of nozzles 260 similar to the nozzles 60 of the first embodiment of the rubber insert and a se¬ cond set of nozzles 262. The first set of nozzles 260 are positioned at an annular surface 258 which is positioned in facial contact with the inner surface of the face plate 242 of the base component 240 within the above-mentioned first chamber for positioning the nozzles 260 in the above described concealed and protected configuration in registration with the apertures 244. The second set of apertures 262 are positioned at a second annular surface 264 and are raised above the inner surface of the face plate 242 defined within the above-mentioned second chamber as the second chamber is established in the interspace between the se¬ cond annular surface 264 and the inner surface of the face plate 242 within the annular partition ring 241 and the above-mentioned further partition ring separating the above-mentioned third chamber from the above-mentioned second chamber. The rubber insert 256 is further pro¬ vided with an annular inner wall 266 for contacting and sealing against an annular ring 278 of the first water guidance ring component 270 and the above-mentioned inner partition ring of the base component 240, which inner partition ring separates the above-mentioned second chamber from the above-mentioned third chamber.

In the above described dual-mode embodiment 112 shown in Fig. 5, the change-over ring component 180 serves the purpose of guiding water to the first set of apertures 144, or alternatively to the second set of apertures 145. In the triple-mode embodiment 212 shown in Figs. 6 and 7, the change-over component is composed of two separate elements, firstly, the gripping ring component 280 which is provided with connecting cams at the inner cylindrical wall and, secondly, the first water guidance ring component 270. The component 270 basically constitutes a ring ele¬ ment in which communication is established through internal channels from a set of inlet apertures provided at a specific diameter at a top wall of the element to respective outlets communicating with the above described first, second, and third chambers communicating with the aper- tures 244, 245, and 246, respectively. The component 270 is provided with a stepped outer cylindrical wall in which longitudinal recesses 271 are provided for receiving the cams 281 of the ring 280 for fixating the gripping ring 280 relative to the ring 270. The stepped outer cylin¬ drical wall of the component 270 defines a smaller diameter outer cy- lindrical wall 242 for receiving the locking ring element 64. Within the interior defined below the above-mentioned top wall of the component 270, the annular ring 278 and a further annular ring 273 protrude downwardly for establishing connection with the annular partition ring 241 and the above described additional annular partition ring as described above. Within the annular ring 278, two apertures 276 are pro¬ vided for guiding water to the above described third chamber for expel¬ ling water through the apertures 246. In an annular rim defined between the annular rings 278 and 273, two apertures are provided, one of which is shown in Fig. 6 and designated the reference numeral 275 for guiding water to the above described second chamber for expelling water through the nozzle 262 and the apertures 245. In the inner top wall of the com¬ ponent 270, two additional apertures are provided, one of which is de- signated the reference numeral 274 for guiding water to the above de¬ scribed first chamber for expelling water through the nozzles 260 and the apertures 244 of the face plate 242 of the base component 240. For guiding water supplied to the above-mentioned inner chamber defined within the shell-like housing component 22 of the handle 14 to one of the above described chambers and further to the chambers 244, 245, or alternatively 246, a second water guidance plate 290 is provided which is mounted above the first water guidance ring component 270 and sealed relative thereto by means of a sealing gasket 282 which is provided with three sets of through-going apertures, a first set of which comprises two apertures 284, 284', a second set of which comprises two apertures 285, 285', and a third set of which comprises two identical apertures designated 286. The through-going apertures 284, 284' are positioned in registration with a set of through-going apertures 294 of the second water guidance plate 290 for guiding water from the water supply to the apertures 274 and further to the above described first chamber for supplying water to the nozzles 260 for expelling water through the aper¬ tures 244. The apertures 285, 285' serve the purpose of guiding water to the above described second chamber through the apertures 275, provided the apertures 285 and 285' are positioned in registration with the aper¬ tures 294 of the second water guidance plate 290. Similarly, the aper¬ tures 286 serve the purpose of guiding water from the inner chamber de¬ fined within the shell-like housing component 22 of the handle 14 to the elements 230 and 234 for expelling the water through the apertures 246. It is to be realized that the conical nozzles of the rubber inserts of the above described embodiments of the shower head according to the present invention may be provided in any appropriate number and may de¬ fine any appropriate geometrical configuration e.g. be provided in con¬ centrically arranged rows etc. In Fig. 7, the first water guidance plate or component 270 is shown from above, also illustrating the sealing gasket 282 and disclosing in phantom lines the conducts provided within the component 270 for guiding the water to the respective apertures 274 from the apertures 284, 284' to the apertures 275 from the apertures 285, 285' and to the apertures 276 through the apertures 286. In Fig. 7, the apertures 294 of the second water guidance plate 290 are positioned in registration with the apertures 284' and 285' for supplying water to the above described first chamber and further the above described second chamber. By rotating the composite set of rings 270 and 280 relative to the plate 290, the triple-mode shower head may be shifted from one operational mode to a different operational mode for expelling water from different sets of apertures at the face plate of the base component 240.

Example

A prototype of the first embodiment 12 of the shower head according to the present invention was made from the following components: the base component 40 was cast from ABS. The outer diameter of the face plate 42 of the base component 40 was 60 mm and the thickness of the face plate 42 of the base component 40 was 4 mm. The O-ring 52 was a neoprene 0-ring. Through the casting of the face plate 40, a total of 60 apertures 44 were produced. The diameter of each of the apertures 44 was 3,2 mm, and the bead 45 defined a minimum diameter through-going hole within each of the apertures 44 measuring 3.2 mm. The rubber insert 56 was cast from natural rubber and defined an outer diameter of 56.4 mm corresponding to the inner diameter defined within the cylindrical ele- ment 46 of the base component 40. The rubber insert 56 was constituted by a plate element defining the above outer diameter and defining a thickness of 0.7 mm. The rubber insert included a total of 60 nozzles to be positioned in registration with the apertures 44 of the face plate 42 of the base component 40. Each of the nozzles 60 was of a height of 3.5 mm. The cone of each of the nozzles 60 was defined by a conical element having an outwardly tapering wall varying from an inner thickness of 0.4 mm to an outer thickness of 0.3 mm. The cone tapered from an inner dia¬ meter at the junction with the base plate of the rubber insert measuring 3.2 mm to an outer diameter at the outer end of the nozzle 60 measuring i.4 mm. The aperture 61 defined a diameter of 0.8 mm. All the above measures were determined in the unrelaxed state shown in Fig. 2. The locking ring element 64 was cast in the configuration shown in Figs. 4, 5, and 6 from ABS. The outer diameter of the annular ring element 66 was 60 mm. The shower head 12 was mounted in a commercially available handle 12 supplied from the applicant and was tested. The shower head 12 mounted in the handle 14 was exposed to water supplied from the water company. The pressure of the water supplied from the water company was approximately 2-3 Bar. During the test, the shower head 12 was visually inspected and it was established that the expansion of each of the nozzles 60 was limited by the beads of the apertures 44 and further that the longitudinal expansion of each of the nozzles 60 did not cause the nozzles to be freely exposed at the outer surface of the face plate 42 of the base component 40.

The shower head 12 was used for an extended period of time of 7 months and was periodically used for its intentional purpose, several times a day. The water which was supplied by the water company was of a degree of hardness of 17-18, and the water supply rate was of the order of 810 1/min. After the test period, the shower head 12 functioned per¬ fectly without any of the nozzles 60 being blocked by limy depositions. Although the invention has been described above with reference to specific and presently preferred embodiments, the present invention is by no means to be construed limited to the above described embodiments, as modifications and amendments which are readily obvious to a person having ordinary skill in the art are to be considered part of the pre¬ sent invention as defined in the appending patent claims.

Claims

1. A shower head, comprising: a housing having an inlet for establishing fluid communication with a water supply source, a face plate constituting a wall part of said housing and defining therewith an inner chamber within said housing, said inner chamber com¬ municating with said water supply source through said inlet, said face plate being provided with a plurality of through-going apertures for establishing communication from said inner chamber to the surroundings, a rubber insert having a base plate and a plurality of conical nozzles protruding from and tapering from said base plate towards a re¬ spective apex in which an outlet aperture is provided, said plurality of nozzles being identical with said plurality of through-going apertures of said face plate, said rubber insert being arranged within said inner chamber so as to position said conical nozzles in registration with and received with¬ in said through-going apertures of said face plate, each of said nozzles having an elastic deformable wall allowing said nozzles to expand from an unexpanded state to an expanded state as water is supplied to said inner chamber from said water supply source and forced under pressure through said conical nozzles for expelling water through said outlet apertures, and each of said conical nozzles defining a height allowing said nozzles to be concealed within said through-going apertures of said face plate in said unexpanded and expanded states.
2. The shower head according to Claim 1, further comprising coup¬ ling means for coupling said housing of said shower head to a handle of a hand shower.
3. The shower head according to Claim 2, said coupling means being constituted by bayonet coupling means for cooperating with corresponding bayonet coupling means of said handle.
4. The shower head according to any of the Claims 1-3, said face plate being constituted by a dome-shaped circular disc.
5. The shower head according to any of the Claims 1-4, each of said through-going apertures comprising a constriction for limiting the radi¬ al expansion of said nozzles received within said apertures.
6. The shower head according to any of the Claims 1-5, said elastic deformable walls of said conical nozzles allowing said conical nozzles to expand radially and to no substantial extent expand axially as water is forced under pressure through said conical nozzles.
7. The shower head according to any of the Claims 1-6, said conical nozzles defining a taper angle of 5-175°, such as 10-90°, preferably 10- 15°.
8. The shower head according to any of the Claims 1-7, said rubber insert being made from natural rubber, synthetic rubber, PVC, PUR, sili- cone rubber, latex rubber and the walls of the nozzles being of a thick¬ ness of 0.2-0.8 mm, such as 0.25-0.4 mm, preferably approximately 0.3 mm, and each of the nozzles defining a height of 2-5 mm, such as 2.2-4 mm, preferably 3-3.5 mm.
9. The shower head according to any of the Claims 1-8, said rubber insert being made from an elastic material having a Shore hardness of the order of 45-48 Shore (A).
10. The shower head according to any of the Claims 1-8, said housing being made from a plastic material, such as ABS, PP, PVC, PC, PUM, PS, PA, PMMA, Nylon or the like, or alternatively a non-corroding metal material such as aluminium, stainless steel, copper or combina- tions thereof.
11. The shower head according to any of the Claims 1-10, said face plate further being provided with an additional plurality of through-go¬ ing apertures, said inner chamber being divided into a first and a second sub-chamber, said first sub-chamber communicating with said plu¬ rality of nozzles, and said second sub-chamber communicating with said additional plurality of apertures, and said shower head further com- 23
prising switching means for switching said shower head from a first ope¬ rational state to a second operational state, and vice versa, in which first operational state communication is established from said inlet to said first sub-chamber and in which second operational state communica- tion is established from said inlet to said second sub-chamber.
12. A hand shower, comprising: a handle defining opposite first and second ends, said first end constituting an inlet end for establishing fluid communication with a water supply source, and a shower head having a housing communicating with said inlet through a through-going passage extending through said handle, said shower head further comprising: a face plate constituting a wall part of said housing and defining therewith an inner chamber within said housing, said inner chamber com¬ municating with said water supply source through said inlet, said face plate being provided with a plurality of through-going apertures for establishing communication from said inner chamber to the surroundings, and a rubber insert having a base plate and a plurality of conical nozzles protruding from and tapering from said base plate towards a re¬ spective apex in which an outlet aperture is provided, said plurality of nozzles being identical with said plurality of through-going apertures of said face plate, said rubber insert being arranged within said inner chamber so as to position said conical nozzles in registration with and received with¬ in said through-going apertures of said face plate, each of said nozzles having an elastic deformable wall allowing said nozzles to expand from an unexpanded state to an expanded state as water is supplied to said inner chamber from said water supply source and forced under pressure through said conical nozzles for expelling water through said outlet apertures, and each of said conical nozzles defining a height allowing said nozzles to be concealed within said through-going apertures of said face plate in said unexpanded and expanded states.
13. A hand shower according to Claim 12, said hand shower further comprising any of the features of the shower head according to any of the Claims 2-11.
PCT/DK1995/000261 1994-06-30 1995-06-22 A shower head and a hand shower comprising a shower head WO1996000617A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DK78594 1994-06-30
DK0785/94 1994-06-30

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

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AU27856/95A AU2785695A (en) 1994-06-30 1995-06-22 A shower head and a hand shower comprising a shower head

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Publication Number Publication Date
WO1996000617A1 true WO1996000617A1 (en) 1996-01-11

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US9127794B2 (en) 2007-05-04 2015-09-08 Water Pik, Inc. Pivot attachment for showerheads
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US9404243B2 (en) 2013-06-13 2016-08-02 Water Pik, Inc. Showerhead with turbine driven shutter
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US10226777B2 (en) 2012-06-22 2019-03-12 Water Pik, Inc. Showerhead bracket
USD843549S1 (en) 2017-07-19 2019-03-19 Water Pik, Inc. Handheld spray nozzle
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US9127794B2 (en) 2007-05-04 2015-09-08 Water Pik, Inc. Pivot attachment for showerheads
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US20170184068A1 (en) * 2015-12-25 2017-06-29 Xiamen Runner Industrial Corporation Hydroelectric power generator
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