WO1988008516A1 - Ultrasonic fluid flowmeter - Google Patents

Ultrasonic fluid flowmeter Download PDF

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Publication number
WO1988008516A1
WO1988008516A1 PCT/GB1988/000328 GB8800328W WO8808516A1 WO 1988008516 A1 WO1988008516 A1 WO 1988008516A1 GB 8800328 W GB8800328 W GB 8800328W WO 8808516 A1 WO8808516 A1 WO 8808516A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
ultrasonic
transducer
pulse
fluid
mounting block
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/GB1988/000328
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Michael Cottrell
Alan Seeckts
Original Assignee
Micronics Limited
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB878710064A priority Critical patent/GB8710064D0/en
Priority to GB8710064 priority
Application filed by Micronics Limited filed Critical Micronics Limited
Publication of WO1988008516A1 publication Critical patent/WO1988008516A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/66Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by measuring frequency, phaseshift, or propagation time of electromagnetic or other waves, e.g. ultrasonic flowmeters
    • G01F1/667Schematic arrangements of transducers of ultrasonic flowmeters; Circuits therefor
    • G01F1/668Compensating or correcting for variations in velocity of sound
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/66Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by measuring frequency, phaseshift, or propagation time of electromagnetic or other waves, e.g. ultrasonic flowmeters
    • G01F1/662Constructional details
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/66Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by measuring frequency, phaseshift, or propagation time of electromagnetic or other waves, e.g. ultrasonic flowmeters
    • G01F1/667Schematic arrangements of transducers of ultrasonic flowmeters; Circuits therefor

Abstract

An ultrasonic fluid flowmeter has a first mounting block (1) for location at a first station on the external surface of a pipe through which a fluid flows. Two ultrasonic transducers are fixed within the block, the first (T1) being oriented to direct an ultrasonic pulse at a preselected angle to the axis of fluid flow and a second transducer (T4) angled to direct an ultrasonic pulse in a direction perpendicular to the axis of flow. A third ultrasonic transducer (T2) is fixed within a second mounting block (2), for location at a second station on the pipe, and is oriented to intercept the direct or reflected acoustic path of a pulse transmitted by the first transducer. Output signals from the transducers are processed to compute the time of flight of the pulse from first to third transducers and hence the flowrate and the computed flowrate is corrected for variation in the propagation rate of the ultrasound by derivation of a correction factor from the output signal from the second transducer.

Description

ULTRASONIC FLUID FLOWMETE
This invention relates to an ultrasonic fluid flowmeter for non-intrusive monitoring by ultrasound of fluid flow in pipes.
Ultrasonic fluid flowmeters operate on the principle of directing a pulse of ultrasonic energy- through a flowing fluid and monitoring the passage of the pulse either by detecting a Doppler shift brought about by the effect of the fluid flow on the pulse, or, alternatively, by measuring the time taken for the pulse to complete its passage through the fluid. It is to the latter type, so-called "time-of-flight' meters, that the present invention relates.
For measurement of the flow of fluid in pipes ultrasonically it is usual for apertures to be cut in the pipe wall for introduction of the ultrasonic transducers directly into contact with the fluid flow to avojid effects of the pipe wall on the measurement. This requirement is clearly disadvantageous in that the design of portable instruments is more or less ruled out. However, a few examples of non-intrusive flowmeters operating on the Doppler effect are known.
The theory on which non-intrusive monitoring of flow by time-of-flight measurement is as follows: A pulse of ultrasonic energy is transmitted from one transducer to another through the flowing fluid in a direction which may be perpendicular or at an angle to the axis of the flow and the time-of-flight ( 1) of the pulse is measured. A second pulse is then sent along the same path but in the reverse diection and the second time-of-flight (T2) is measured. One of the pulses will be accelerated by the flow and the other will be retarded. The difference (delta-T) between the two times-of-flight (T,-T2) is proportional to the flowrate after suitable correction.
However, to arrive at the absolute value of the flowrate it is necessary to correct the value of delta-T for interfering effects. Using" Snell"s Law of Refraction and" a knowledge of wall thickness, the angle of the ultrasonic pathway to the wall and the rate of propagation of the ultrasound in the material of the pipe wall, a correction factor for wall effect may be calculated. Likewise the rate of propagation of the ultrasound in the fluid will also enable a correction factor to be derived. It will be understood that these factors vary between locations and with time. Thus the material of the pipe wall and its thickness, which is not, of couse, apparent from outside the pipe, and the density of the fluid, which may vary with changes in composition and with temperature, affect the measurement and require correction of the observed time-of-flight and delta-T.
An object of the present invention is to provide a non-intrusive ultrasonic flowmeter operating on the principle of time-of-flight measurement. According to the present invention there is provided an ultrasonic fluid flowmeter comprising;
(a) a first mounting block for location at a first station on the external surface of a pipe carrying a flow of fluid;
(b) a first ultrasonic transducer fixedly housed within the block and oriented to direct an ultrasonic pulse at a preselected angle to the axis of fluid flow;
(c) a second ultrasonic transducer within the first mounting block and oriented to direct an ultrasonic pulse in a direction perpendicular to the axis of flow;
(d) a second mounting block for location at a second station on the pipe;
(e) a third ultrasonic transducer fixedly housed within the second mounting block and oriented to intercept the direct or reflected acoustic path of a pulse transmitted by the first transducer; and,
(f) means for receiving and processing output signals from first, second and third transducers whereby the time of flight of the pulse from first to third transducers is computed and converted to flowrate and an output signal from the second transducer is processed to modify the conversion in response to any changes in propagation rate represented by changes in the output signal from the second transducer. Preferably the flowmeter also includes means within a mounting block responding to changes in temperature and means for modifying the measured flowrate in response thereto.
The flowmeter may also include a fourth ultrasonic transducer for measurement of the wall thickness of the pipe and modifying the measured flowrate in response thereto.
An embodiment of the present invention will now be described, by way of illustration, with reference to the accompanying drawings of which:
Fig„l is a"schematic representation of a section through a pipe having a flowmeter of the invention mounted on its external surface; and,
Fig.2 is a block diagram representing the means for receiving and processing signals from the transducers to give an indication of flowrate.
Referring to Fig.l, a first mounting block 1 and a second mounting block 2 are provided for clamping to the external surface of a pipe 3 carrying a flow of fluid.
Mounting block 1 houses an ultrasonic transducer, referenced as T, in Fig.l, which is fixedly held at an angle to the axis of flow of the fluid so as to direct an ultrasonic pulse at an angle across the flow in the direction indicated in Fig.l.
The second mounting block 2 also houses a transducer T_ which is fixed therein at an angle to intercept the beam from transducer T.. An alternative location for mounting block 2 is shown in broken lines in Fig.l.
Mounting block 1 also houses transducers T3 and
T. orriieenntteedd ttoo ddiirreecctt ppuullsseess ppeerrpptendicular to the axis of flow, and temperature sensor 4
Fig.2 shows a block diagram of the signal handling electronics used to process output signals from transducers T, to T. and sensor 4, to give an output of the fluid flowrate.
The precise calculation of the flowrate requires calculation of the angles of refraction of the pulse and the following parameters are rquired for that calculation:
(i) Transmission angle (a)
In the flowmeter of the present invention the transmission angle "a" is fixed by the housing of the transducers T, and T_ in their respective mounting blocks 1 and 2 .
(ii) Transducer Propagation Rate (T)
This parameter varies with temperature. It is an important parameter since it is required to allow calculation of the fluid angle using Snell's Law. Temperature is is measured by sensor 4 in mounting block 1. (iii) Wall Propagation Rate (VI)
This parameter enables calculation of the beam path in the wall of the pipe. The propagation rates for a variety of pipe materials are held as a look-up table in the memory of the instrument.
(iv) Fluid Propagation Rate (F)
This parameter is dependent on characteristics of the fluid such as density and temperature. It is required for the calculation of the the beam angle/path.
(v) Outside Pipe Diameter
Outside diameter (O-)is readily measurable on site by an operator of the flowmeter. This parameter is necessary for calculation of the pipe inside diameter (I,), that is, O, - 2 x wall thickness = I,.
In the flowmeter of the present invention as illustrated in Fig.l, transducer T., in conjunction with transducer T2 produces output signals which are processed to obtain the total time delay brought about by (a) the transducer material (b) the pipe wall and (c) the fluid flow. The signal processing also produces a delta-T flow signal by measurement and calculation.
Transducer T3 is used to measure the wall thickness. This calculation requires the operator to input to the instrument the outside diameter of the pipe and its material of fabrication, the acoustic properties of materials being readable from memory by the instrument. Transducer T. is used to measure fluid propagation rate.
The temperature sensor 4 measures the temperature of the material of the transducers within the mounting block 1, to be used in the calculation the propagation rate of the transducer material, which varies with temperature, and thus enabling calculation of the fluid angle, θ.
The principle of operation will now be described with reference to Fig.l.
By exciting the piezoelectric crystals within the transducers, ultrasound passes through the pipe wall and across the flow of liquid from at an angle θ to the axis of flow and may be detected or reflected at the opposite wall as shown by the alternative positions of the second mounting block 2 containing transducer T2« The time of flight of the ultrasound from T. to T2 is derived as follows:
t-__2 = I./cos θ x 1/c+Vsinθ (1)
t2_1 = Id/cos θ x 1/c-Vsinθ (2)
Figure imgf000009_0001
= I. x 2Vsinθ / cosΦ x c2 - (Vsinθ)2 (3)
in which; t,_2 ^s tiιe time of ultrasound travel from transducer T. to transducer T_; *-?_-. is the time of ultrasound travel from transducer T_ to transducer T,; I- is the pipe internal diameter; c is the rate of ultrasound propagation in the fluid; V is the flow velocity; & is the fluid angle; and, dT is the time difference.
2 Since (Vsinθ) is insignificant with respect to the
2 term c it can be ignored.
Therefore :
Time Difference (dT) = *d-2V- tanθ / c2 (4)
2 As c changes according to variations in density or temperature of the fluid, it must be eliminated from equation (4) to ensure stable performance. Therefore,
2 by multiplying both sides of equation (4) by c , the solution results in velocity V being proportional to dt/T2.
Now, since c 2 =
Figure imgf000010_0001
dT.I2/T2 = Id.2Vtanθ
Therefore: dT/T2 = 2Vtanθ/Id (5)
The flowmeter of the present invention is
2 designed to monitor dT/T as well as to detect and measure accurately the very minute time differences involved.
Having defined the relationship between flow velocity (V) and time, two other factors have to be taken into account in order to modify the readings for the effect of the pipe wall on a clamp-on system flowmeter to obtain accurate results without resorting to volumetric calibration.
(i) As can be seen from Fig..l, refraction in the various media encountered by the ultrasonic beam controls the fluid angle (θ) which, according to Snell's Law is defined by the equation (6).
V /sinθ = V_,/sin < = constant (6)
where: V = liquid sound velocity;
Vτ = transducer sound velocity; ex = transducer injection angle; and, O = liquid beam angle.
(ii) The effects of flow profile variation which are directly related to the Reynolds Number have also to be taken into account. Here again the flowmeter reading and the Reynolds Number are related mathematically and thus only processing of the collected data is required.

Claims

1. An ultrasonic fluid flowmeter comprising;
(a) a first mounting block for location at a first station on the external surface of a pipe carrying a flow of fluid;
(b) a first ultrasonic transducer fixedly housed within the block and oriented to direct an ultrasonic pulse at a preselected angle to the axis of fluid flow;
(c) a second ultrasonic transducer within the first mounting block and oriented to direct an ultrasonic pulse in a direction perpendicular to the axis of flow;
(d) a second mounting block for location at a second station on the pipe;
(e) a third ultrasonic transducer fixedly housed within the second mounting block and oriented to intercept the direct or reflected acoustic path of a pulse transmitted by the first transducer; and, (f) means for receiving and processing output signals from first, second and third transducers whereby the time of flight of the pulse from first to third transducers is computed and converted to flowrate and an output signal from the second transducer is processed to modify the conversion in response to any changes in propagation rate represented by changes in the output signal from the second transducer.
2. An ultrasonic fluid flowmeter according to claim 1, which also includes means within a mounting block responding to changes in temperature and means for modifying the measured flowrate in response thereto.
3. An ultrasonic fluid flowmeter according to claim 1 or claim 2, which also includes a fourth ultrasonic transducer for measurement of the wall thickness of the pipe and modifying the measured flowrate in response thereto.
An ultrasonic fluid flowmeter according to claim 1 or claim 2 or claim 3, in which the means for receiving and processing output signals includes a data store of acoustic properties of materials of fabrication of pipes, accessible on input of the identity of the material of fabrication by an operator.
PCT/GB1988/000328 1987-04-28 1988-04-28 Ultrasonic fluid flowmeter WO1988008516A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB878710064A GB8710064D0 (en) 1987-04-28 1987-04-28 Ultrasonic fluid flowmeter
GB8710064 1987-04-28

Publications (1)

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WO1988008516A1 true WO1988008516A1 (en) 1988-11-03

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GB (1) GB8710064D0 (en)
WO (1) WO1988008516A1 (en)

Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1992000507A1 (en) * 1990-06-29 1992-01-09 Panametrics, Inc. Improved flow measurement system
US5179862A (en) * 1990-06-29 1993-01-19 Panametrics, Inc. Snap-on flow measurement system
US5271267A (en) * 1992-03-09 1993-12-21 Joseph Baumoel Method and apparatus for determining fluid properties from sonic/temperature fluid signature
EP0598720A1 (en) * 1991-08-14 1994-06-01 Rockwell International Corp Nonintrusive flow sensing system.
EP0605944A2 (en) * 1992-10-06 1994-07-13 Caldon, Inc. Apparatus for determining fluid flow
WO1995017650A1 (en) * 1993-12-23 1995-06-29 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Clamp-on ultrasonic volume throughput measuring device
EP0733885A1 (en) * 1995-03-20 1996-09-25 Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. Ultrasonic flowmeter with temperature and pressure compensation
EP0773431A2 (en) 1995-11-13 1997-05-14 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Ultrasonic flowmeter for liquid of gas media
WO1999051945A1 (en) * 1998-03-25 1999-10-14 Lindahl Joergen A method and a device for determining the flow rate of a flowing medium
FR2826455A1 (en) * 2001-06-25 2002-12-27 Univ Pasteur Method and device for measuring speeds of liquids in pipes and channels
WO2003098166A1 (en) * 2002-05-15 2003-11-27 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Ultrasonic transducer for an ultrasonic flow-rate meter
WO2005038410A2 (en) * 2003-10-15 2005-04-28 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Device for determining and/or monitoring the volume and/or mass flow rate of a medium in a pipeline
EP2278567A2 (en) 2003-05-14 2011-01-26 VFS Technologies Limited Improved sensing apparatus and method
US8065922B2 (en) 2004-11-12 2011-11-29 Vfs Technologies Limited Flow metering device for an aspirated smoke detector
WO2012120039A2 (en) 2011-03-07 2012-09-13 Flexim Flexible Industriemesstechnik Gmbh Method for ultrasonic clamp-on flow measurement and device for implementing the method
CN104007287A (en) * 2014-05-12 2014-08-27 江南大学 Pipeline fluid flow speed detection method based on ultrasonic waves
DE102015107753A1 (en) * 2015-05-18 2016-11-24 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Method for determining a characteristic variable for evaluating a measuring arrangement comprising a clamp-on ultrasonic flow measuring device and a pipe and / or for evaluating the measuring operation of this measuring arrangement
US10175077B2 (en) 2013-07-19 2019-01-08 Texas Instruments Incorporated Single transceiver ultrasonic flow meter having an array of transducer elements
CN109506728A (en) * 2018-12-24 2019-03-22 江苏华尔威科技集团有限公司 A kind of ultrasonic flow rate counter device
EP2816327B1 (en) * 2013-06-18 2019-05-22 Yokogawa Electric Corporation Ultrasonic flowmeter

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GB861584A (en) * 1958-04-11 1961-02-22 Technical Ceramics Ltd Ultrasonic flowmeter
FR2061959A5 (en) * 1969-10-06 1971-06-25 Electronique Appliquee
FR2077827A1 (en) * 1970-02-17 1971-11-05 Thomson Csf
FR2077968A1 (en) * 1970-02-27 1971-11-05 Thomson Csf
US4397194A (en) * 1981-04-07 1983-08-09 Fischer & Porter Company Ultrasonic flowmeter including means to measure pipe geometry
EP0200896A2 (en) * 1985-03-27 1986-11-12 Badger Meter, Inc. Digital flow meter circuit and method for measuring flow

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB861584A (en) * 1958-04-11 1961-02-22 Technical Ceramics Ltd Ultrasonic flowmeter
FR2061959A5 (en) * 1969-10-06 1971-06-25 Electronique Appliquee
FR2077827A1 (en) * 1970-02-17 1971-11-05 Thomson Csf
FR2077968A1 (en) * 1970-02-27 1971-11-05 Thomson Csf
US4397194A (en) * 1981-04-07 1983-08-09 Fischer & Porter Company Ultrasonic flowmeter including means to measure pipe geometry
EP0200896A2 (en) * 1985-03-27 1986-11-12 Badger Meter, Inc. Digital flow meter circuit and method for measuring flow

Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1992000507A1 (en) * 1990-06-29 1992-01-09 Panametrics, Inc. Improved flow measurement system
US5179862A (en) * 1990-06-29 1993-01-19 Panametrics, Inc. Snap-on flow measurement system
EP0598720A1 (en) * 1991-08-14 1994-06-01 Rockwell International Corp Nonintrusive flow sensing system.
EP0598720A4 (en) * 1991-08-14 1994-06-29 Rockwell International Corp Nonintrusive flow sensing system.
US5271267A (en) * 1992-03-09 1993-12-21 Joseph Baumoel Method and apparatus for determining fluid properties from sonic/temperature fluid signature
EP0605944A2 (en) * 1992-10-06 1994-07-13 Caldon, Inc. Apparatus for determining fluid flow
EP0605944A3 (en) * 1992-10-06 1994-09-14 Caldon Inc Apparatus for determining fluid flow.
US5546813A (en) * 1992-10-06 1996-08-20 Caldon, Inc. Apparatus for determining fluid flow
US5533408A (en) * 1993-12-23 1996-07-09 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Clamp-on ultrasonic volumetric flowmeter
WO1995017650A1 (en) * 1993-12-23 1995-06-29 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Clamp-on ultrasonic volume throughput measuring device
EP0733885A1 (en) * 1995-03-20 1996-09-25 Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. Ultrasonic flowmeter with temperature and pressure compensation
US5856622A (en) * 1995-03-20 1999-01-05 Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. Clamp-on type ultrasonic flow meter and a temperature and pressure compensation method therein
EP0773431A2 (en) 1995-11-13 1997-05-14 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Ultrasonic flowmeter for liquid of gas media
EP0773431A3 (en) * 1995-11-13 1998-05-13 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Ultrasonic flowmeter for liquid of gas media
WO1999051945A1 (en) * 1998-03-25 1999-10-14 Lindahl Joergen A method and a device for determining the flow rate of a flowing medium
US6629467B1 (en) 1998-03-25 2003-10-07 Thermo Electron Corporation Method and a device for determining the flow rate of a flowing medium
CN100356144C (en) * 1998-03-25 2007-12-19 依斯泰科技有限公司 Method and device for determining flow rate of a flowing medium
FR2826455A1 (en) * 2001-06-25 2002-12-27 Univ Pasteur Method and device for measuring speeds of liquids in pipes and channels
WO2003001159A1 (en) * 2001-06-25 2003-01-03 Universite Louis Pasteur (Etablissement Public A Caractere Scientifique, Culturel Et Professionnel) Method and device for measuring the speed of liquids in conduits and channels
WO2003098166A1 (en) * 2002-05-15 2003-11-27 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Ultrasonic transducer for an ultrasonic flow-rate meter
US8892399B2 (en) 2003-05-14 2014-11-18 Xtralis Technologies Ltd Sensing apparatus and method
US9746363B2 (en) 2003-05-14 2017-08-29 Garrett Thermal Systems Limited Sensing apparatus and method
EP2278567A2 (en) 2003-05-14 2011-01-26 VFS Technologies Limited Improved sensing apparatus and method
US8224621B2 (en) 2003-05-14 2012-07-17 Vision Fire & Security Pty Ltd Sensing apparatus and method
WO2005038410A3 (en) * 2003-10-15 2005-09-29 Flowtec Ag Device for determining and/or monitoring the volume and/or mass flow rate of a medium in a pipeline
WO2005038410A2 (en) * 2003-10-15 2005-04-28 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Device for determining and/or monitoring the volume and/or mass flow rate of a medium in a pipeline
DE10348676A1 (en) * 2003-10-15 2005-05-12 Flowtec Ag Device for determining and / or monitoring the volume and / or mass flow of a medium in a pipeline
US7373839B2 (en) 2003-10-15 2008-05-20 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Apparatus for determining and/or monitoring volume- and/or mass-flow of a medium in a pipeline
US8065922B2 (en) 2004-11-12 2011-11-29 Vfs Technologies Limited Flow metering device for an aspirated smoke detector
WO2012120039A2 (en) 2011-03-07 2012-09-13 Flexim Flexible Industriemesstechnik Gmbh Method for ultrasonic clamp-on flow measurement and device for implementing the method
DE102011005170A1 (en) 2011-03-07 2012-09-13 Flexim Flexible Industriemesstechnik Gmbh Method for ultrasonic clamp-on flow measurement and apparatus for implementing the method
EP2816327B1 (en) * 2013-06-18 2019-05-22 Yokogawa Electric Corporation Ultrasonic flowmeter
US10175077B2 (en) 2013-07-19 2019-01-08 Texas Instruments Incorporated Single transceiver ultrasonic flow meter having an array of transducer elements
CN104007287A (en) * 2014-05-12 2014-08-27 江南大学 Pipeline fluid flow speed detection method based on ultrasonic waves
DE102015107753A1 (en) * 2015-05-18 2016-11-24 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Method for determining a characteristic variable for evaluating a measuring arrangement comprising a clamp-on ultrasonic flow measuring device and a pipe and / or for evaluating the measuring operation of this measuring arrangement
US10641641B2 (en) 2015-05-18 2020-05-05 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Method for ascertaining a characteristic variable for evaluating a measuring arrangement comprising a clamp-on, ultrasonic, flow measuring device and a pipe and/or for evaluating measurement operation of such a measuring arrangement
CN109506728A (en) * 2018-12-24 2019-03-22 江苏华尔威科技集团有限公司 A kind of ultrasonic flow rate counter device

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB8710064D0 (en) 1987-06-03
AU1709088A (en) 1988-12-02

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