Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

System and method for recognizing touch typing under limited tactile feedback conditions

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
USRE40993E1
USRE40993E1 US11332861 US33286106A USRE40993E1 US RE40993 E1 USRE40993 E1 US RE40993E1 US 11332861 US11332861 US 11332861 US 33286106 A US33286106 A US 33286106A US RE40993 E1 USRE40993 E1 US RE40993E1
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
key
touch
hypothesis
sequence
typing
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
US11332861
Inventor
Wayne Carl Westerman
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Apple Inc
Original Assignee
Apple Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/048Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI]
    • G06F3/0487Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser
    • G06F3/0488Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser using a touch-screen or digitiser, e.g. input of commands through traced gestures
    • G06F3/04886Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser using a touch-screen or digitiser, e.g. input of commands through traced gestures by partitioning the screen or tablet into independently controllable areas, e.g. virtual keyboards, menus

Abstract

A system is disclosed for recognizing typing from typing transducers that provide the typist with only limited tactile feedback of key position. The system includes a typing decoder sensitive to the geometric pattern of a keystroke sequence as well as the distance between individual finger touches and nearby keys. The typing decoder hypothesizes plausible key sequences and compares their geometric pattern to the geometric pattern of corresponding finger touches. It may also hypothesize home row key locations for touches caused by hands resting on or near home row. The resulting pattern match metrics may be combined with character sequence transition probabilities from a spelling model. The typing decoder then chooses the hypothesis sequence with the best cumulative match metric and sends it as key codes or commands to a host computing device.

Description

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS Referenced-applications

Ser. No. 09/236,513 Jan. 1, 1999 U.S. Pat. No. 5,463,388 Jan. 29, 1993 U.S. Pat. No. 5,812,698 Jul. 14, 1997 U.S. Pat. No. 5,818,437 Jul. 26, 1995 U.S. Pat. No. 6,137,908 Jun. 29, 1994 U.S. Pat. No. 6,107,997 Jun. 27, 1996.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention pertains to typing recognition systems and methods, and more particularly to recognition of typing in air or on a relatively smooth surface that provides less tactile feedback than conventional mechanical keyboards.

2. The Related Art

Typists generally employ various combinations of two typing techniques: hunt and peck and touch typing. When hunting and pecking, the typist visually searches for the key center and strikes the key with the index or middle finger. When touch typing, the fingers initially rest on home row keys, each finger is responsible for striking a certain column of keys and the typist is discouraged from looking down at the keys. The contours and depression of mechanical keys provide strong tactile feedback that helps typists keep their fingers aligned with the key layout. The finger motions of touch typists are ballistic rather than guided by a slow visual search, making touch typing faster than hunt and peck. However, even skilled touch typists occasionally fall back on hunt and peck to find rarely-used punctuation or command keys at the periphery of the key layout.

Many touchscreen devices display pop-up or soft keyboards meant to be activated by lightly tapping a displayed button or key symbol with a finger or stylus. Touch typing is considered impractical on such devices for several reasons: a shrunken key layout may have a key spacing too small for each finger to be aligned with its own key column, the smooth screen surface provides no tactile feedback of finger/key alignment as keys are struck, and most touchscreens cannot accurately report finger positions when touched by more than one finger at a time. Such temporal touch overlap often occurs when typing a quick burst of keys with both hands, holding the finger on modifier keys while striking normal keys, or attempting to rest the hands. Thus users of touchscreen key layouts have had to fall back on a slow, visual search for one key at a time.

Since touchscreen and touch keyboard users are expected to visually aim for the center of each key, typing recognition software for touch surfaces can use one of two simple, nearly equivalent methods to decide which key is being touched. Like the present invention, these methods apply to devices that report touch coordinates interpolated over a fine grid of sensors rather than devices that place a single large sensor under the center of each key. In the first method, described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/236,513 by Westerman and Elias, the system computes for each key the distance from key center to the sensed touch location. The software then selects the key nearest the finger touch. In the second method, described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,463,388 to Boie et al., the software establishes a rectangle or bounding box around each key and decides which, if any, bounding box the reported touch coordinates lie within. The former method requires less computation, and the latter method allows simpler control over individual key shape and guard bands between keys, but both methods essentially report the key nearest to the finger touch, independent of past touches. Hence we refer to them as ‘nearest key’ recognizers.

Unlike touchscreens, the multi-touch surface (MTS) described by Westerman and Elias in Ser. No. 09/236,513 can handle resting hands and temporal finger overlap during quick typing bursts. Since the MTS sensing technology is fully scalable, an MTS can easily be built large enough for a full-size QWERTY key layout. The only remaining barrier to fast touch typing on an MTS is the lack of tactile feedback. While it is possible to add either textures or compressibility to an MTS to enhance tactile feedback, there are two good reasons to keep the surface firm and smooth. First, any textures added to the surface to indicate key centers can potentially interfere with smooth sliding across the surface during multi-finger pointing and dragging operations. Second, the MTS proximity sensors actually allow zero-force typing by sensing the presence of a fingertip on the surface whether or not the finger applies noticeable downward pressure to the surface. Zero-force typing reduces the strain on finger muscles and tendons as each key is touched.

Without rich tactile feedback, the hands and individual fingers of an MTS touch typist tend to drift out of perfect alignment with the keys. Typists can limit the hand drift by anchoring their palms in home position on the surface, but many keystrokes will still be slightly off center due to drift and reach errors by individual fingers. Such hand drift and erroneous finger placements wreak havoc with the simple ‘nearest key’ recognizers disclosed in the related touchscreen and touch keyboard art. For example, if the hand alignment with respect to the key layout drifts by half a key-spacing (˜9 mm or ⅜″), all keystrokes may land half-way between adjacent keys. A ‘nearest key’ recognizer is left to choose one of the two adjacent keys essentially at random, recognizing only 50% of the keystrokes correctly. A spelling model integrated into the recognizer can help assuming the typist intended to enter a dictionary word, but then actually hinders entry of other strings. Thus there exists a need in the touchscreen and touch keyboard art for typing recognition methods that are less sensitive to the hand drift and finger placement errors that occur without strong tactile feedback from key centers.

For many years, speech, handwriting, and optical character recognition systems have employed spelling or language models to help guess users' intended words when speech, handwriting, or other input is ambiguous. For example, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,812,698 Platt et al. teach a handwriting recognizer that analyzes pen strokes to create a list of probable character strings and then invokes a Markov language model and spelling dictionary to pick the most common English word from that list of potential strings. However, such systems have a major weakness. They assume all user input will be a word contained in their spelling or language model, actually impeding entry of words not anticipated by the model. Even if the user intentionally and unambiguously enters a random character string or foreign word not found in the system vocabulary, the system tries to interpret that input as one of its vocabulary words. The typical solution is to provide the user an alternative (often comparatively clumsy) process with which to enter or select strings outside the system vocabulary. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,818,437 to Grover et al. teaches use of a dictionary and vocabulary models to disambiguate text entered on a ‘reduced’ keyboard such as a telephone keypad that assigns multiple characters to each physical key. In cases that the most common dictionary word matching an input key sequence is not the desired word, users must select from a list of alternate strings. Likewise, users of speech recognition system typically fall back on a keyboard to enter words missing from the system's vocabulary.

Unfortunately, heavy reliance on spelling models and alternative entry processes is simply impractical for a general-purpose typing recognizer. Typing, after all, is the fallback entry process for many handwriting and speech recognition systems, and the only fallback conceivable for typing is a slower, clumsier typing mode. Likewise, personal computer users have to type into a wide variety of applications requiring strange character strings like passwords, filenames, abbreviated commands, and programming variable names. To avoid annoying the user with frequent corrections or dictionary additions, spelling model influence must be weak enough that strings missing from it will always be accepted when typed at moderate speed with reasonable care. Thus a general-purpose typing recognizer should only rely on spelling models as a last resort, when all possible measurements of the actual typing are ambiguous.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Since a typing recognizer cannot depend too much on spelling models, there still exists a need in the touchscreen and touch keyboard art for spelling-independent methods to improve recognition accuracy. The main aspect of the present invention is to search for the geometric pattern of keys that best matches the geometric pattern of a touch sequence, rather than just searching for the key closest to each touch. This method improves recognition accuracy without any assumptions about the character content being typed.

According to this aspect of the invention, touch or finger stroke coordinates reported by a sensing device and key coordinates from a key layout feed into a typing recognizer module. The typing recognizer then hypothesizes plausible sequences of keys by extending existing sequences with keys that are within the immediate neighborhood of the newest finger touch. It can also hypothesize home row key locations for touches caused by hands resting on or near the home row keys. For each hypothesized sequence, the typing recognizer computes separation vectors between the layout position of successive keys in the sequence. The typing recognizer also computes separation vectors between successive touch positions in the touch sequence. Each key sequence is evaluated according to a pattern match metric that includes not only the distance between each finger touch and the corresponding key but also how closely the separation vectors between successive touches match the separation vectors between successive keys. The hypothesized sequence with the best cumulative match metric is transmitted to the host computer, possibly replacing an older, higher cost partial sequence that was transmitted previously.

It is therefore an objective of this invention to provide typing recognition methods that overcome the shortcomings of the related touchscreen and touch keyboard art.

A primary object of the present invention is to recognize typing accurately even when lack of tactile key position feedback leads to significant hand and finger drift.

Yet another objective of this invention is to improve typing recognition accuracy without excessive dependence on spelling models.

A further objective of this invention is to disambiguate typing as much as possible with measurements of its geometric pattern before falling back on a spelling model to resolve any remaining recognition ambiguities.

A secondary objective of this invention is to beneficially incorporate key/hand alignment measurements from resting hands into recognition decisions without explicitly shifting the key layout into alignment with the resting hands.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a block level diagram of the preferred surface typing detection and recognition system for the present invention.

FIG. 2 contains illustrations of a sample touch sequence on the left half of a standard QWERTY key layout (FIG. 2A), the touch separation vectors for the sample touch sequence (FIG. 2B), and the key separation vectors for several hypothesized key sequences that might correspond to the key sequence intended by the touch typist (FIGS. 2C-J).

FIG. 3 illustrates the contents of the touch data structure used to store measured touch parameters, a decoding stack, and key finally output for a touch.

FIG. 4 illustrates the contents of the hypothesis data structure that serves as nodes of the hypothesis trees for the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a flow chart illustrating the preferred embodiment of key hypothesis tree generation according to the present invention.

FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a hypothesis tree that could be generated by the process of FIG. 5 during recognition of the sample touch sequence in FIG. 2.

FIG. 7 is a flow chart illustrating the steps for computing the geometry match metric of each key hypothesis.

FIG. 8 is a flow chart illustrating the process that outputs the best new key hypothesis to the host computer, erasing as necessary previously output keys that differ from past keys in the current best sequence.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In the preferred embodiment, the typing recognition methods of this invention are utilized within a multi-touch system like that shown in FIG. 1. The sensor scanning hardware 6 detects touches by fingers 2 on the surface 4. The proximity image formation 8 and contact tracking 10 modules determine the touch timing and surface coordinates and report these to the typing recognizer 12. The typing recognizer decides which keys the user intended to press and tells the host communications interface 16 to send those keys to the host computer 18. The system may also include a chord motion recognizer module 14 that interprets lateral sliding of multiple fingers as pointing or gesture input and effectively disables the typing recognizer for such touches. The synchronization detector 13 searches for simultaneous presses or releases of multiple fingers, thereby aiding in detection of chord slides, chord taps, and resting hands. All modules besides the typing recognizer are fully described in related U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/236,513 by Westerman and Elias. That application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The present invention constitutes improvements to the rudimentary ‘nearest key’ typing recognizer described in that application.

Those skilled in the art will recognize that the typing recognizer disclosed herein could be utilized with any sensing device that accurately reports the lateral position of fingertips as they near the end of their stroke, whether or not the fingers actually touch a surface of depress physical keys. Examples of such alternative finger position sensing systems include micro radar, data gloves, and pressure-sensitive surface materials. The term touch location will be used hereafter for the lateral position or x and y coordinates detected for fingertips within a plane roughly normal to the fingertips at the end of their stroke, even for sensing devices that require no physical contact with a surface at the end of the stroke. Likewise, the typing recognition software need not reside within a microprocessor packaged with the sensing device. It could just as easily execute within the host computer system, or the host computer system and sensing device might be combined such that the same microprocessor executes finger tracking, typing recognition, and user application software.

Related art ‘nearest key’ typing recognizers typically assume that touch location errors are independent from keystroke to keystroke. But for typing devices that don't provide strong tactile feedback of key position, the hand sometimes drifts slightly out of alignment with the key layout. This causes the absolute location errors for most touches to be biased in the drift direction and statistically dependent. However, if the typist still reaches the proper amount (a whole number of key spacings) relative to recent touches, the lateral separations between finger touches will closely match the separations between the keys the typist intended to strike, regardless of the overall hand drift.

A related type of bias occurs when individual fingers drift relative to the rest of the hand. This causes the absolute location errors to be biased the same way for all keys typed by the drifting finger(s). However, keys typed by adjacent fingers may not share this bias.

An important discovery of the present invention is that when trying to recognize a sequence of touches located ambiguously between keys, searching for key sequences whose relative geometric pattern matches the touch pattern greatly narrows the list of plausible key sequences. This is illustrated intuitively in FIG. 2. FIG. 2A shows a series of four touches as triangles t0, t1, t2, t3, on the left half of a QWERTY key layout 29. The distance between a given key and touch, herein referred to as the zero-order key/touch alignment error, is apparent by inspection. The radii of the dotted circles 30 indicate the distance from a touch to the nearest key. Touch t0 is roughly equidistant from keys ‘D’ and ‘F’, as indicated by t0's circle passing through both key symbols, and t0 is not far from ‘C’ or ‘V’ either. A ‘nearest key’ recognizer would associate t0 with ‘D’, but with little confidence. If t0 was just a bit farther right, ‘F’ would become the nearest choice. A nearest key recognizer also faces a tossup between ‘E’ and ‘R’ for t3, and cannot be terribly confident of recognizing t2 as ‘R’. Touch t1 is the only touch close enough to a single key (‘A’) to be confidently interpreted as that key.

FIG. 2B illustrates the vectors separating successive touches. Solid lines 32 are ‘first-order’ vectors from t0 to t1, t1 to t2, and t2 to t3. Dashed lines 34 are ‘second-order’ vectors from t0 to t2 and t1 to t3. The dotted line 36 is the ‘third-order’ vector from t0 to t3. FIGS. 2‘C’-‘H’ show corresponding key separate vectors for possible matching key sequences. In all cases but FIG. 2H and 2J, at least one of the key separation vectors clearly differs from a corresponding touch separation vector. For the ‘CARE’ hypothesis in FIG. 2C, the third-order ‘C’-‘E’ vector is significantly longer than the corresponding t0-t3 vector. For the ‘FARE’ hypothesis in FIG. 2D, the second-order ‘F’-‘R’ and third order ‘F’-‘E’ vectors have clearly different angles than the corresponding t0-t2 and t0-t3 vectors. For the ‘CARR’ and ‘DARR’ hypotheses in FIGS. 2E and 2G, the first order ‘R’-‘R’ vector will have length 0, quite different than the first order t2-t3 vector's length of one full key-spacing. For the ‘FATE’ hypothesis of FIG. 2F, the ‘T’-‘E’ vector is now a full key-spacing longer than the t2-t3 vector. Even though all the hypotheses shown are nearly indistinguishable in terms of the zero-order alignment error between each touch and corresponding key, an improved typing recognizer that compares the touch separation and key separation vectors can quickly eliminate all but hypotheses ‘DARE’ and ‘FRST’ in FIGS. 2H and 2J. The final decision can be made based upon ‘DARE's smaller zero-order, absolute error between t1 and ‘A’ than between t1 and ‘S’. In even more ambiguous cases, a language model can help choose English words (like ‘DARE’ instead of ‘FRST’) from the list of remaining hypotheses.

Since typists expect the symbol of each touched key to appear on the host computer screen immediately after each corresponding finger stroke, a typing recognizer cannot wait for an entire touch sequence to complete before choosing the best key sequence. In a preferred embodiment of this invention, the recognizer module decodes the touch sequence incrementally, extending key hypothesis sequences by one key each time a new touch is detected. This process will form a hypothesis tree whose nodes are individual key hypotheses. It is important to note that related art ‘nearest key’ recognizes need not construct a hypothesis tree since they assume that finger placement errors from each keystroke are statistically independent.

FIG. 3 lists the basic parameters the recognizer needs to store in each touch data structure 79. A ring or chain of such data structures ordered by touchdown time represents a touch sequence. Each touch data structure 79 must contain the touch's x and y surface coordinates 70 as reported by the touch sensors. These should estimate the center of the touch, which for proximity or pressure sensors is typically computed as the centroid of fingertip flesh contacting the surface. To help lookup the home row key of each touch from a resting hand, each touch data structure should have a copy of the hand and finger identity 71 estimated for the touch by the contact tracking and identification module 10. To keep track of the recency of past touches, the touch data should also include the finger touchdown time or press time 72. For compressible surfaces, this should correspond to the time the finger stroke bottomed out. The touch release time 73 should be set to either the time of finger liftoff from the surface or the current system time if the finger is still touching. To aid in decoding the most likely hypothesis sequence, all hypotheses caused by a touch will be inserted into a stack 76 and sorted so that the hypothesis with the best cumulative metric 98 rises to the top of the stack. Finally, to support undoing preliminary key outputs, the touch structure should maintain a reference 77 to the hypothesis whose key gets output in response to the touch. This reference will be null until a key is chosen to be output through the host communications interface 16.

FIG. 4 shows that to establish the tree structure, each hypothesis data structure 85 needs a reference 86 to its parent hypothesis from the previous touch. For the very first touch, this reference will be null, representing the root of the hypothesis tree. Having a reference to the data structure 88 of the touch causing the hypothesis is also convenient. The key center coordinates 92, and key code, symbol or command to be output 94, are retrieved from the key layout according to which key the hypothesis represents. Once computed, a measure of the match between the touch pattern and key pattern represented by the key hypothesis and its parent sequence will be stored as the geometry match metric 96. Though the embodiment presented herein formulates this geometry match metric as a cost to be minimized, it can just as easily be formulated as a probability to be maximized and remain well within the scope of this invention. It will be added in step 222 of FIG. 7 to the parent 86 hypothesis' cumulative match metric to obtain a new, extended cumulative match metric 98 for the sequence. In embodiments that include a spelling model, each hypothesis data structure 85 will also need to hold a spelling match metric 97. The spelling match metric may also be formulated as either a bad spelling cost to be minimized or a character transition probability to be maximized.

FIG. 5 is a flowchart illustrating the preferred embodiment of the hypothesis tree extension, evaluation, and decoding processes. Step 100 shows that the typing recognizer starts up with the touch count n set to 0 and the hypothesis tree empty. Decision diamond 102 waits for a new touch to be detected by the sensors and recorded as T[n], the newest touch data structure 79 of the chain. We will use the pseudo-code notation T[n].x and T[n].y for the touch coordinates 70. Step 104 resets the parent hypothesis index p to 0. Step 106 retrieves a parent hypothesis h p[n−1] data structure 85 associated with the previous touch T[n−1]. In the case that n equals 0, step 106 simply sets the parent hypothesis to null, representing the root of the empty tree. Step 108 resets the new hypothesis counter j to 0. Step 110 picks a key from the key layout, an array of key coordinates and symbols that describes the arrangement of keys across the surface. Decision diamond 112 tests whether the key center is within a maximum activation radius Ract of the new touch T[n]'s surface coordinates. If the key is too far away, it need not be evaluated further, and decision diamond 111 will pick another key from the layout 110 until all keys' in the vicinity of the touch have been hypothesized. About one standard key-spacing (˜2 cm or ¾″ inch) is sufficiently large for Ract, but Ract can be bumped up for oversize keys like Space, Shift, and Enter. Choosing Ract too large wastes computation by hypothesizing keys that are nowhere near the finger touch and that the typist clearly did not intend to hit. Choosing Ract too small limits the amount of hand drift that the typing recognizer can correct for.

If a key is within the radius Ract of the new touch, step 114 creates a new hypothesis hj[n] (using data structure 85) descended from the current parent hp[n−1]. The new hypothesis' parent hypothesis reference 86 is set accordingly. Block 116 evaluates how well the new key hypothesis hj[n] and its parent sequence matches the touch sequence T[0] . . . T[n]. FIG. 7 will describe this critical block in more detail. Step 118 inserts the new hypothesis hj[n] into T[n]'s stack 76, which is sorted such that hypotheses with the best cumulative match metric (either lowest sum of costs or highest product of probabilities) rise to the top.

Once hypotheses descended from parent hp[n−1] have been generated for all keys near the touch T[n], decision diamond 120 decides whether the previous touch T[n−1]'s stack 76 contains additional parent hypotheses that need to be extended. If so, the parent hypothesis index p is incremented in step 122, and steps 106-122 repeat for the next parent. Once all parent hypotheses have been extended, block 124 actually outputs the best hypothesis sequence as described further in FIG. 8. Step 126 prunes from the tree those hypotheses whose cumulative match metric is already so poor that they are very unlikely to spawn best hypotheses in the future. This prevents exponential growth of the hypothesis tree by discarding clearly had hypotheses but preserving competitive hypotheses that might become parents of the best hypothesis for a future touch. The most efficient pruning method is to start at the bottom of T[n]'s stack 76 and discard all hypotheses whose cumulative metric is not within a future cost margin of the top (best) hypothesis's cumulative match metric. When all of a parent's child hypotheses have been discarded the parent is discarded as well. The pruning step 126 completes all processing of touch T[n], leaving step 128 to increment the touch index n so decision diamond 102 can resume waiting for the next touch.

Working together, steps 118, 124, and 126 constitute a stack decoder. They sort all of the new hypotheses for the current touch T[n] according to their cumulative match metric, choose the lowest cost sequence that winds up at the top of the stack as the best hypothesis sequence to output, and prune the implausible sequences at the bottom of the stack whose costs are much greater than the current best sequence. The stack decoder is a well-known method in the speech recognition, handwriting recognition, and digital communications arts for finding the optimal path through a hypothesis tree. For example, see F. Jelinek, Statistical Methods for Speech Recognition (published by The MIT Press, pages 93-110, 1997). Those skilled in the art will recognize that a basic Viterbi decoder would only be appropriate in place of the stack decoder if the touch geometry metric only included first order separation vectors. Including higher order separation vectors as is necessary to get a wholesome hand drift estimate makes the touch cost dependent on more than the previous touch and thus violates the first-order Markov condition for basic Viterbi decoders.

FIG. 6 shows an example of a hypothesis tree that the typing recognition process in FIG. 5 might generate while decoding the touch sequence described in FIG. 2. The tree starts empty while waiting for the first touch, consisting only of the null root 150. When touch t0 152 is detected, the typing recognizer will sprout hypotheses 154 for the keys ‘D’, ‘F’, and ‘C’ neighboring t0. Because the sequence so far contains only one touch, the match metric for these first keys will only include the zero-order, key/touch alignment error distance. In this case, the typing recognizer would be ready to output the ‘D’ key since, referring to FIG. 2A, ‘D’ is closest to t0. When touch t1 arrives 156, each hypothesis for t0 branches into hypotheses 158 for the keys nearest t1, namely ‘A’ and ‘S’. The match metric for these t1 hypotheses can include both the zero-order key/touch alignment error and first-order separation vectors between t1 and t0. With a second touch, the typing recognizer is ready to start picking the best hypothesis sequence. To do so, for each t1 hypothesis it must compute a cumulative cost that also includes the cost of the parent to hypothesis. The t1 hypothesis with lowest cumulative cost will be selected, in this case ‘DA’. Since ‘D’ was just output, only ‘A’ need be sent to the host.

In case the previous touch's output had been some key other than ‘D’, say ‘F’, the preliminary ‘F’ output would need to be undone and replaced with ‘D’ by sending a Backspace or Erase key followed by ‘DA’ to the host. The hypothesis tree extensions and output of best sequence would continue similarly for the t2 and t3 touches, except that the match metrics for these touches would include second and third-order separation vectors, respectively. Pruning of hypothesis chains 160 that accumulate relatively high total costs prevents the tree from growing exponentially as more touches occur.

The flowchart in FIG. 7 illustrates how the preferred embodiment of the typing recognizer evaluates the quality of the match between a hypothesized key sequence and the corresponding touch sequence. This expanded flowchart corresponds to step 116 of FIG. 5. For the convenience of those skilled in the art, the evaluation process is also shown below as pseudocode:

Copy hj[n] and its parent hypothesis sequence into hseq[n]. . .hseq[0]
for (m=0; m < 10 && n−m >= 0; m++) {
if (m == 0) {//zero-order key/touch alignment error
hseq[n].geomcost = d0(T[n].x − hseq[n].x,T[n].y − hseq[n].y)
continue;
} else if (′T′[n].hand_identity != T[n−m].hand_identity)
continue;
else if (T[n−m] not keystroke or resting finger)
break;
τ[m].x = T[n].x − T[n−m].x //touch separation vectors
τ[m].y = T[n].y − T[n−m].y
λ[m].x = hseq[n].x − hseq[n−m].x //key separation vectors
λ[m].y = hseq[n].y − hseq[n−m].y
wt[m] = ft(T[n].tpress−T[n−m].trelease)
wa[m] = fa(τ[m].x,τ[m].y)
hseq[n].geomcost +=wt[m]*wa[m]*
dM(τ[m].x−λ[m].x,τ[m].y−λ[m].y)
}
hseq[n].cumulcost = hseq[n].geomcost + hseq[n−1].cumulcost

For notational and computational convenience, step 200 copies the particular key hypothesis sequence to be evaluated into the array hseq[ ], starting at hj[n], the new leaf of the hypothesis tree, traversing back through its parent hypothesis references, and stopping at the root. Step 202 computes the zero-order, key/touch misalignment error and stores it as the hypothesis' geometry match metric 96, hseq[n].geomcost. The distance metric d0 determines how the hseq[n].geomcost scales with misalignment in the x and y dimensions. Those skilled in the art will realize that any of a Manhattan metric, Euclidean distance, squared Euclidean distance metric or other metrics would be suitable here. Related art ‘nearest key’ typing recognizers essentially stop with this zero-order alignment error as the final geometry metric, but the current invention includes higher order separation vector mismatches in the geometry metric via the following steps.

Step 204 initializes the order index m to 1. Since each hand's drift is presumed to be independent of the other's drift, only separation vectors for touches and keys typed within the same hand should be considered. Decision diamond 206 tests whether the m th previous hypothesized key hseq[n−m]is normally typed by the same hand as the currently hypothesized key hseq[n]. If not, hseq[n−m] presumably contains no information about the drift of the current hand, so the evaluation process skips m th-order separation vector computations and advances to step 218.

If both touches come from the same hand, decision diamond 207 decides whether the m th previous was actually typing related and thus a possible predictor of hand drift. Decision diamond 207 is particularly important for multi-touch systems that support non-typing synchronous touches such as chord taps, lateral chord slides, and hand resting. For instance, finger location at the beginning or end of pointing motions has nothing to do with subsequent typing drift, so decision diamond 207 should break the loop and skip to the final cost accumulation step 222 when it encounters a touch involved in pointing or any other sliding gesture. However, when typing on a surface, resting a hand (all fingers simultaneously) on home row in between words is quite convenient. Any slight misalignments between the home row keys and finger locations within the resting chord are a good predictor of hand/key misalignment during subsequent typing. Such resting finger locations can be incorporated into separation vector evaluation by having the synchronization detector 13 insert a chain of five special resting finger hypotheses into the hypothesis tree for any five nearly simultaneous touches deemed to be part of a hand resting on or near its home row keys. Each resting finger hypothesis is given key coordinates 92 from the home row key that its finger normally rests on. The hypothesis can look up its finger and hand identity 71 through its causing touch reference 88, and the identities can then index into a table of home row key center coordinates. Resting finger hypotheses are given a null key code 94 so that they produce no output signals to the host computer. For the purpose of key and touch separation vector matching, however, decision diamond 207 and steps 208-216 of FIG. 7 treat them as typing-related hypotheses. This subtle incorporation of resting hand alignment is an alternative to the key layout morphing method described by Westerman and Elias in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/236,513. The morphing method snaps the home row keys to the precise resting finger locations and shifts the rest of the key layout accordingly, thus removing any misalignment between the resting hand and the key layout, but is only practical for touch surfaces integrated onto a video display that indicates key location shifts to the user.

For typing-related touches from the same hand, step 208 creates the m th-order touch separation vector I.[m] by subtracting the spatial and temporal coordinates of the m th previous touch T[n−m] from the current touch T[n]. Likewise, step 210 creates the m th-order key separation vector {umlaut over (l)}>>[m] by subtracting the layout coordinates of hseq[n−m]'s key from the currently hypothesized key hseq [n].

Step 212 computes the temporal confidence weighting wr[m] that should decrease monotonically toward 0 with the time elapsed between the press 72 of the current touch, T[n].tpress and release 73 of the m th previous touch, T[n−m].trelease. The release time is used in case the preceding touch was caused by a hand that began resting near home row many seconds ago but lifted off quite recently. This temporal confidence weighting is meant to reflect the fact that old touches are poorer predictors of the current hand drift than newer touches. Those skilled in the art will realize that the exact downward slope for this weighting function can be empirically optimized by computing old and new touch drift correlations from actual typing samples. For instance, if the typing samples showed that the hand/layout alignment error remained fairly consistent over ten second periods, then the weighting function should be designed to stay well above 0 for touches less than ten seconds old.

Step 214 computes a touch adjacency weighting wa[m] that should decrease monotonically toward 0 as the separation between the current and m th previous touch increases. The touch adjacency weighting is meant to reflect the fact that the separation between touches by the same finger or an adjacent finger, especially if the fingers have not reached far between the touches, is a better predictor of finger drift and overall hand drift than separation vectors for touches by non-adjacent fingers. Thus the second-order separation vector between t2 and t0 in FIG. 2B should be weighted more heavily than the long, first-order separation vector between t2 and t1. The adjacency weighting should be strongest when the m th previous touch occurred at the same surface location as the current touch, as this is a very strong indication both touches were intended to produce the same key. In this situation, the m th order key separation vector {umlaut over (l)}>>[m] of the matching key sequence is expected to have zero length, and any hypothesized key sequences with a non-zero m th order vector length should be punished with a strongly weighted cost.

Step 216 adds to the geometry metric a cost for any mismatch between the m th-order touch separation vector {umlaut over (l)}.[m] and the m th-order key separation vector {umlaut over (l)}>>[m]. This incremental cost should generally increase with the magnitude of the difference between the two vectors. In the preferred embodiment, the square of the magnitude of the vector difference is weighted by the temporal confidence wr[m] and adjacency confidence wa[m] to obtain the m th-order cost increment. The squared Euclidean metric is preferred for dM because it favors sequences with uniformly small vector differences.

Step 218 increments the order index m so that decision diamond 220 can decide whether to continue evaluating higher order separation vectors. Ideally, the evaluation process would continue with previous touches all the way back to the tree root, where m reaches n, but in practice it is usually sufficient to include separation vectors from the ten or so most recent typing-related touches. Once decision diamond 220 decides m has reached its useful limit, flow falls through to the final step 222. Step 222 sets the sequence cumulative match metric hj[m].cumulcost to the sum of the new touch cost hseq[n]. geomcost and the parent's cumulative metric hseq[n−1].cumulcost.

It is also instructive to examine an alternative embodiment of geometry match metric evaluation that, mathematically, is the exact equivalent of and produces the same result as the process in FIG. 7. However, a different factoring of the computations lends this alternative embodiment a differently intuitive interpretation. For the convenience of those of ordinary skill in the art, this alternative embodiment is shown below as pseudocode:

Copy hj[n] and its parent hypothesis sequence into hseq[n]. . .hseq[0]
Allocate key/touch error array e[ ] for different orders
for (m=0; m < 10 && n−m >= 0; m++) {
e[m].x = T[n−m].x − hseq[n−m].x //alignment errors
e[m].y = T[n−m].y − hseq[n−m].y
if (m == 0) {//zero-order key/touch alignment error
hseq[n].geomcost = d0(e[0].x,e[0].y)
continue;
} else if (T[n].hand_identity != T[n−m].hand_identity)
continue;
else if(T[n−m] not keystroke or resting finger)
break;
wt[m] = ft(T[n].tpress − T[n−m].trelease)
τ[m].x = T[n].x − T[n−m].x //touch separation vectors
τ[m].y = T[n],y − T[n−m].y
wa[m] = fa(τ[m].x,τ[m].y)
hseq[n].geomcost +=wt[m]*wa[m]*
dM(e[0].x−e[m].x,e[0].y−e[m].y)
}
hseq[n].cumulcost = hseq[n].geomcost + hseq[n−1].cumulcost

Both embodiments compute the zero-order alignment error component the same, but this alternative embodiment restates the comparison between the m th-order key and touch separate vectors as a comparison between the new touch T[n]'s key/touch alignment error vector, c[0], and the m th previous touch T[n−m]'s key/touch alignment error vector, e[m]. This suggests that the stack decoder in either embodiment will tend to pick as the best sequence a key hypothesis sequence whose individual key/touch alignment error vectors at small yet consistent with one another. Clearly this alternative, equivalent embodiment falls well within the scope of this invention.

The output module in FIG. 8 is responsible for transmitting the key code, command or symbol 94 from the best hypothesis hbest[n] to the host application. This job is complicated by the fact that any keys sent for previous touches may not have come from hbest[n]'s parent sequence. This happens when, based on additional cost evaluations from a new touch, a stack decoder decides a totally different sequence is optimal than was considered optimal from previous touch information alone. This occurrence presents the human interface designer with a tough question—leave the old character sequence or partial word on the screen, even though the new key is likely to be from a different word, or erase characters that have already been displayed to the typist and replace them with the better sequence. This question is important because in rare instances the old characters may actually be what the user intended to type, in which case replacing them with the new, supposedly more optimal sequence will annoy and surprise the typist.

The preferred embodiment of the output module adopts a compromise. It will only replace characters within the current word (i.e. it will not go back past any space characters and change any completed words), and it will only replace these characters it they have only been typed within the last couple seconds, before the typist has had a chance to notice and correct the probably erroneous old characters himself. The output module starts with the current best hypothesis 350 hbest[n]from the stack decoder. Step 352 sets the previous output index m to 1. Decision diamond 354 checks whether the hypothesis 77 whose key was output for touch T[n−m] was hbest[n]'s parent hypothesis hbest[n−m]. If not, decision diamond 356 checks whether the old key was a word-breaking space or was output more than a few seconds ago. It not, step 358 sends an Erase or Backspace key to the host to undo the old character, and step 360 increments m to continue checking for a parent hypothesis that both the best sequence and previously sent sequence share. Once that parent is found or the search is aborted at a word boundary, step 362 begins sending the replacement key codes 94 from the hbest[ ] sequence, looping through step 363 to increment m until decision diamond finds that m has reached 0, and hseq[n]'s key code 94 has been transmitted.

Now that the preferred embodiment of the typing recognizer has been described, it is instructive to consider additional consequences of its design. One important consequence is that the key activated may not always be the key nearest the fingertip. Generating a neighboring key when the finger actually lands right on top of another key would be startling to the user. However, if the adjacency weightings are kept sufficiently low, the separation vectors cannot override a zero-order, key/touch position error near zero. Proper tuning of the adjacency weighting function ensures that separation vectors can only be decisive when the finger lies in a zone between keys, at least 2-4 mm (⅛″-¼″) from the center of any key.

To further improve recognition accuracy when typing plain English or another predictable language, alternative embodiments of the typing recognizer may incorporate a spelling model. Such integration of spelling models into character recognizers is clearly taught in the handwriting recognition art (see, for example, the post-processing with Markov model and Dictionary in U.S. Pat. No. 5,812,698 to Platt et al. and the use of trigrams in U.S. Pat. No. 6,137,908), and will only be summarized here briefly. Basicly, the spelling model computes for each hypothesis a character transition cost that indicates whether the hypothesized key/character is building a dictionary word out of its parent hypothesis sequence. Costs will be high for character transitions that cannot be found in the dictionary. Command or editing keys can be given a neutral or zero spelling cost. Step 222 of FIG. 7 can then be modified to include the character transition cost weighted with the geometry cost in the cumulative cost total. Character transition costs need only be determining of the best sequence when different hypothesized key sequences have equally high touch geometry costs.

The case of a finger repetitively striking the same location halfway between keys is a good example of the advantages of considering touch sequence geometry in addition to zero-order alignment error, especially for typing recognizers that include a spelling model. Typists find it disconcerting if they strike the same location repeatedly yet the decoder outputs different neighboring characters. This can happen, say, if the user intended to type ‘DDD’ but the three consecutive finger strikes occur roughly between the ‘S’, ‘E’, and ‘W’ and ‘D’ keys. For a ‘nearest key’ recognizer with spelling model, the zero-order alignment errors for all four keys would be roughly equal, leaving the character transition costs to dominate and encourage the stack decoder to output common spelling sequences like ‘WES’, ‘SEW’, and ‘DES.’ But for a typing recognizer improved with touch geometry matching, only the key sequences ‘SSS’, ‘EEE’, ‘DDD’ and ‘WWW’ have small key separation vectors matching the small touch separations, so these sequences' relatively low geometry match costs would override the spelling model, causing one of them to be output. Even though the ‘SSS’ or ‘EEE’ sequences may not be what the typist intended, they are less disconcerting than a mixed output sequence like ‘SEW’ when the typist knows her finger was not hopping between keys. Thus separation vector matching can overcome misleading character transition costs to ensure the typist sees a consistent, homogeneous output sequence when a finger strikes approximately the same location repeatedly.

Though embodiments and applications of this invention have been shown and described, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that numerous further embodiments and modifications than mentioned above are possible without departing from the inventive concepts disclosed herein. The invention, therefore, is not to be restricted except in the true spirit and scope of the appended claims.

Claims (38)

1. A typing recognition apparatus for touch typing on surfaces with limited tactile feedback that compensates for finger and hand drift during typing and discourages any integrated spelling model from choosing dictionary words over unusual but carefully typed strings, the apparatus comprising:
a typing surface means that displays symbols indicating the locations of touchable keys;
touch sensor means that provides the surface coordinates of each touch by a typist attempting to strike said key symbols on said surface;
hypothesis tree generator means that extends existing key hypothesis sequences with hypotheses for keys in the neighborhood of each new touch;
pattern geometry evaluation means that computes geometry match metrics for the hypothesized key sequences by comparing separation vectors between the successive touch locations with separation vectors between the successively hypothesized key locations as well as by measuring the zero-order key/touch alignment error;
decoding means that finds the hypothesized key sequence with the best cumulative match metric; and,
transmission means for communicating the symbols and commands represented by the best hypothesized key sequence to host computer applications.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein a synchronization detection means inserts resting finger hypothesis into the hypothesis tree upon detection of a hand resting substantially on home row, and wherein said resting hypotheses are given for key separation vector computation purposes the coordinates of the home row key that their touch's identified finger normally rests upon.
3. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein a stack decoder is utilized as the particular decoding means.
4. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the geometry match metric for a hypothesized key is substantially formulated as the squared distance between a touch and its hypothesized key plus the sum of squared differences between corresponding key and touch separation vectors of all valid orders.
5. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein the difference between a touch separation vector and the corresponding key separation vector is weighted in roughly inverse proportion to the touch time difference between the two touches from which the touch separation vector was computed.
6. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein the difference between a touch separation vector and the corresponding key separation vector is weighted less if the touch separation vector is large.
7. A method for recognizing typing from typing devices that sense lateral finger position but provide limited tactile feedback of key location, the method advantageously compensating for finger and hand drift during typing and discouraging any integrated spelling model from choosing dictionary words over unusual but carefully typed strings, wherein the method comprises the following steps:
forming a touch location and time sequence from the fingertip position at the end of each keystroke as measured by typing sensors;
computing a set of touch separation vectors of increasing orders from the location difference between the newest touch and previous touch in said touch location sequence;
generating a set of key hypothesis sequences for the given touch sequence, each hypothesis in a sequence being for a key near the location of the touch causing the hypothesis;
for each key hypothesis, computing a set of key separation vectors of increasing orders from differences between the position of the newest key and previous keys in the hypothesized sequence;
for each key hypothesis, computing a geometry match metric as a function of the magnitude of the zero-order touch/key alignment error as well as of the magnitudes of each order's touch and key separation vector difference;
combining the geometry match metrics from each hypothesis in a key hypothesis sequence into a cumulative match metric for the hypothesis sequence;
choosing the hypothesized key sequence with the best cumulative metric as the best hypothesized key sequence; and,
transmitting the symbols and commands represented by the best hypothesized key sequence to a host computer for further action.
8. The method of claim 7 wherein the magnitude of each difference between a touch separation vector and the corresponding key separation vector is weighted in roughly inverse proportion to the time between the two touches from which the touch separation vector was computed.
9. The method of claim 7 wherein the magnitude of each difference between a touch separation vector and the corresponding key separation vector is weighted less if the touch separation vector is large.
10. The method of claim 7 wherein a synchronization detection means inserts resting finger hypothesis into the hypothesis tree upon detection of a hand resting substantially on home row, and wherein said resting hypotheses are given for key separation vector computation purposes the coordinates of the home row key that their touch's identified finger normally rests upon.
11. The method of claim 7 wherein the set of key hypothesis sequences are stored as a hypothesis tree that can extend the sequences upon reception of a new touch by sprouting new hypotheses.
12. The method of claim 11 wherein a stack decoder is utilized to find the best hypothesized key sequence.
13. A method for recognizing typing from typing devices that sense lateral finger position but provide limited tactile feedback of key location, the method advantageously compensating for finger and hand drift during typing and discouraging any integrated spelling model from choosing dictionary words over unusual but carefully typed strings, wherein the method comprises the following steps:
forming a touch location and time sequence from the fingertip position at the end of each keystroke as measured by typing sensors;
generating a set of key hypothesis sequences for the given touch sequence, each hypothesis in a sequence being for a key near the location of the touch causing the hypothesis;
for each key hypothesis, computing a key/touch alignment error vector as the difference between the location of the hypothesized key and the location of its causing touch;
for each key hypothesis, computing a geometry match metric as a function of the magnitude of the hypothesis' key/touch alignment error as well as of the magnitude of differences between the hypothesis' key/touch alignment error vector and that of preceding hypotheses in its sequence;
combining the geometry match metrics from each hypothesis in a key hypothesis sequence into a cumulative match metric for the hypothesis sequence;
choosing the hypothesized key sequence with the best cumulative metric as the best hypothesized key sequence; and,
transmitting the symbols and commands represented by the best hypothesized key sequence to a host computer for further action.
14. The method of claim 13 wherein the magnitude of the difference between two hypotheses' key/touch alignment error vectors is weighted in roughly inverse proportion to the time between the two touches from which the touch separation vector was computed.
15. The method of claim 13 wherein the magnitude of the difference between two hypotheses' key/touch alignment error vectors is weighted less if the separation between the corresponding touches is large.
16. The method of claim 13 wherein a synchronization detection means inserts resting finger hypothesis into the hypothesis tree upon detection of a hand resting substantially on home row, and wherein said resting hypotheses are given for key/touch alignment error vector computation purposes the coordinates of the home row key that their touch's identified finger normally rests upon.
17. The method of claim 13 wherein the set of key hypothesis sequences are stored as a hypothesis tree that can extend the sequences upon reception of a new touch by sprouting new hypotheses.
18. The method of claim 17 wherein a stack decoder is utilized to find the best hypothesized key sequence.
19. A typing recognition apparatus comprising:
a typing surface;
at least one touch sensor configured to provide surface coordinates of each touch by a typist to the typing surface;
a hypothesis tree generator configured to generate key hypothesis sequences from the surface coordinates of each touch; and
a pattern geometry evaluator configured to compute a geometry match metric for each of the key hypothesis sequences.
20. The typing recognition apparatus of claim 19 further comprising:
a decoder configured to select as a best hypothesized key sequence from among the key hypothesis sequences based on the computed geometry match metrics.
21. The typing recognition apparatus of claim 20 further comprising:
a transmitter configured to send at least one symbol or command represented by the best hypothesized key sequence.
22. A method for recognizing typing, the method comprising:
receiving a touch location and time sequence for a plurality of keystrokes;
generating a set of key hypothesis sequences for the plurality of keystrokes;
computing a geometry match metric for each key hypothesis sequence; and
choosing a best hypothesized key sequence based on the geometry match metrics.
23. A typing recognition apparatus that compensates for finger and hand drift during typing on a touch-sensitive surface, the apparatus comprising:
sensor scanning hardware configured for providing surface coordinates of each touch received on the touch-sensitive surface; and
a processor programmed for
extending existing key hypothesis sequences with hypotheses for keys in a neighborhood of each new touch,
computing geometry match metrics for the hypothesized key sequences by comparing touch separation vectors between successive touch locations with key separation vectors between successively hypothesized key locations and measuring zero-order key/touch alignment error,
computing a character transition cost for each of the hypothesized key sequences based on whether the hypothesized key sequence is building a dictionary word,
selecting a best hypothesized key sequence from the hypothesized key sequences, the best hypothesized key sequence having a best cumulative match metric formulated from the geometry match metric and the character transition cost, and
communicating symbols and commands represented by the best hypothesized key sequence to a host computer application.
24. The typing recognition apparatus of claim 23, further comprising a touch-sensitive surface configured for displaying symbols indicating locations of touchable keys.
25. The typing recognition apparatus of claim 23, wherein the character transition cost is high when a dictionary match is not found.
26. The typing recognition apparatus of claim 23, wherein the character transition cost is set to neutral or zero when the hypothesized key location is a command or editing key.
27. A method for compensating for finger and hand drift during typing on a touch-sensitive surface, comprising:
obtaining a touch location and time sequence for each detected touch in a touch sequence;
computing a set of touch separation vectors of increasing orders between the detected touches in the touch sequence;
generating a set of key hypothesis sequences for each touch in the touch sequence, each key hypothesis sequence associated with a key near the location of the touch;
for each key hypothesis sequence, computing a set of key separation vectors of increasing orders between the keys in the hypothesized key sequence;
for each key hypothesis sequence, computing a geometry match metric as a function of a magnitude of a zero-order touch/key alignment error and the magnitudes of each order's touch and key separation vector difference;
computing a character transition cost for each of the hypothesized key sequences based on whether the hypothesized key sequence is building a dictionary word;
selecting a best hypothesized key sequence from the hypothesized key sequences, the best hypothesized key sequence having a best cumulative match metric formulated from the geometry match metric and the character transition cost, and
transmitting symbols and commands represented by the best hypothesized key sequence to a host computer for further action.
28. The method of claim 27, further comprising detecting the touches in the touch sequence on a touch-sensitive surface configured for displaying symbols indicating locations of touchable keys.
29. The method of claim 27, wherein the character transition cost is high when a dictionary match is not found.
30. The method of claim 27, wherein the character transition cost is set to neutral or zero when a hypothesized key location is a command or editing key.
31. A typing recognition apparatus comprising:
a typing surface;
at least one touch sensor integrated with the typing surface and configured to provide surface coordinates of each touch on the typing surface;
a hypothesis tree generator configured to generate key hypothesis sequences from the surface coordinates of each touch;
a pattern geometry evaluator configured to compute a geometry match metric for each of the key hypothesis sequences;
a dictionary selector configured to compute a character transition cost for each of the key hypothesis sequences based on whether the hypothesized key sequence is building a dictionary word; and
a decoder configured for selecting a best hypothesized key sequence from the hypothesized key sequences, the best hypothesized key sequence having a best cumulative match metric formulated from the geometry match metric and the character transition cost.
32. The typing recognition apparatus of claim 31, the typing surface configured for displaying symbols indicating locations of touchable keys.
33. The typing recognition apparatus of claim 31, wherein the character transition cost is high when a dictionary match is not found.
34. The typing recognition apparatus of claim 31, wherein the character transition cost is set to neutral or zero when a hypothesized key location is a command or editing key.
35. A method for recognizing typing, the method comprising:
receiving a touch location and time sequence for a plurality of keystrokes;
generating a set of key hypothesis sequences for the plurality of keystrokes;
computing a geometry match metric for each key hypothesis sequence;
computing a character transition cost for each key hypothesis sequence based on whether the key hypothesis sequence is building a dictionary word; and
selecting a best hypothesized key sequence from the hypothesized key sequences, the best hypothesized key sequence having a best cumulative match metric formulated from the geometry match metric and the character transition cost.
36. The method of claim 35, further comprising detecting the plurality of keystrokes on a touch-sensitive surface configured for displaying symbols indicating locations of touchable keys.
37. The method of claim 35, wherein the character transition cost is high when a dictionary match is not found.
38. The method of claim 35, wherein the character
transition cost is set to neutral or zero when a hypothesized key location is a command or editing key.
US11332861 2001-01-28 2006-01-13 System and method for recognizing touch typing under limited tactile feedback conditions Active USRE40993E1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09681146 US6677932B1 (en) 2001-01-28 2001-01-28 System and method for recognizing touch typing under limited tactile feedback conditions
US11332861 USRE40993E1 (en) 2001-01-28 2006-01-13 System and method for recognizing touch typing under limited tactile feedback conditions

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11332861 USRE40993E1 (en) 2001-01-28 2006-01-13 System and method for recognizing touch typing under limited tactile feedback conditions

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09681146 Reissue US6677932B1 (en) 2001-01-28 2001-01-28 System and method for recognizing touch typing under limited tactile feedback conditions

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
USRE40993E1 true USRE40993E1 (en) 2009-11-24

Family

ID=29780709

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09681146 Active 2022-06-15 US6677932B1 (en) 2001-01-28 2001-01-28 System and method for recognizing touch typing under limited tactile feedback conditions
US11332861 Active USRE40993E1 (en) 2001-01-28 2006-01-13 System and method for recognizing touch typing under limited tactile feedback conditions

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09681146 Active 2022-06-15 US6677932B1 (en) 2001-01-28 2001-01-28 System and method for recognizing touch typing under limited tactile feedback conditions

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US6677932B1 (en)

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070177804A1 (en) * 2006-01-30 2007-08-02 Apple Computer, Inc. Multi-touch gesture dictionary
US20080158178A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2008-07-03 Apple Inc. Front-end signal compensation
US20080163130A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2008-07-03 Apple Inc Gesture learning
US20080158175A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2008-07-03 Apple Inc. Minimizing mismatch during compensation
US20080158177A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2008-07-03 Apple Inc. Master/slave mode for sensor processing devices
US20080162967A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2008-07-03 Apple Computer, Inc. Gated power management over a system bus
US20080211766A1 (en) * 2007-01-07 2008-09-04 Apple Inc. Multitouch data fusion
US20090178011A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2009-07-09 Bas Ording Gesture movies
US20100228539A1 (en) * 2009-03-06 2010-09-09 Motorola, Inc. Method and apparatus for psychomotor and psycholinguistic prediction on touch based device
US20100315338A1 (en) * 2006-10-10 2010-12-16 Promethean Limited Duplicate objects
US8352884B2 (en) 2009-05-21 2013-01-08 Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Dynamic reconfiguration of GUI display decomposition based on predictive model
US8639494B1 (en) * 2010-12-28 2014-01-28 Intuit Inc. Technique for correcting user-interface shift errors
US20140122057A1 (en) * 2012-10-26 2014-05-01 Google Inc. Techniques for input method editor language models using spatial input models
US8797283B2 (en) 2010-11-22 2014-08-05 Sony Computer Entertainment America Llc Method and apparatus for performing user-defined macros
US8907903B2 (en) 2011-01-13 2014-12-09 Sony Computer Entertainment America Llc Handing control of an object from one touch input to another touch input
US8971572B1 (en) 2011-08-12 2015-03-03 The Research Foundation For The State University Of New York Hand pointing estimation for human computer interaction
US9305229B2 (en) 2012-07-30 2016-04-05 Bruno Delean Method and system for vision based interfacing with a computer
US20160110027A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2016-04-21 Apple Inc. Multi-touch input discrimination
US9513705B2 (en) 2008-06-19 2016-12-06 Tactile Displays, Llc Interactive display with tactile feedback

Families Citing this family (555)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB9722766D0 (en) 1997-10-28 1997-12-24 British Telecomm Portable computers
US9239673B2 (en) 1998-01-26 2016-01-19 Apple Inc. Gesturing with a multipoint sensing device
US9292111B2 (en) * 1998-01-26 2016-03-22 Apple Inc. Gesturing with a multipoint sensing device
EP1717681B1 (en) * 1998-01-26 2015-04-29 Apple Inc. Method for integrating manual input
US8645137B2 (en) 2000-03-16 2014-02-04 Apple Inc. Fast, language-independent method for user authentication by voice
US7765095B1 (en) 2000-10-26 2010-07-27 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Conditional branching in an in-circuit emulation system
US8103496B1 (en) 2000-10-26 2012-01-24 Cypress Semicondutor Corporation Breakpoint control in an in-circuit emulation system
US8160864B1 (en) 2000-10-26 2012-04-17 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation In-circuit emulator and pod synchronized boot
US8176296B2 (en) 2000-10-26 2012-05-08 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Programmable microcontroller architecture
US8149048B1 (en) 2000-10-26 2012-04-03 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Apparatus and method for programmable power management in a programmable analog circuit block
US6724220B1 (en) 2000-10-26 2004-04-20 Cyress Semiconductor Corporation Programmable microcontroller architecture (mixed analog/digital)
GB0103053D0 (en) * 2001-02-07 2001-03-21 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd A communication terminal having a predictive text editor application
US7030861B1 (en) * 2001-02-10 2006-04-18 Wayne Carl Westerman System and method for packing multi-touch gestures onto a hand
US7117144B2 (en) * 2001-03-31 2006-10-03 Microsoft Corporation Spell checking for text input via reduced keypad keys
US6950988B1 (en) * 2001-06-11 2005-09-27 Handspring, Inc. Multi-context iterative directory filter
US6975304B1 (en) 2001-06-11 2005-12-13 Handspring, Inc. Interface for processing of an alternate symbol in a computer device
US7395089B1 (en) 2001-06-11 2008-07-01 Palm, Inc Integrated personal digital assistant device
US7406674B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2008-07-29 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Method and apparatus for generating microcontroller configuration information
US8775023B2 (en) 2009-02-15 2014-07-08 Neanode Inc. Light-based touch controls on a steering wheel and dashboard
US9052777B2 (en) 2001-11-02 2015-06-09 Neonode Inc. Optical elements with alternating reflective lens facets
US8416217B1 (en) 2002-11-04 2013-04-09 Neonode Inc. Light-based finger gesture user interface
US8339379B2 (en) * 2004-04-29 2012-12-25 Neonode Inc. Light-based touch screen
US9778794B2 (en) 2001-11-02 2017-10-03 Neonode Inc. Light-based touch screen
US8674966B2 (en) 2001-11-02 2014-03-18 Neonode Inc. ASIC controller for light-based touch screen
US8078970B1 (en) 2001-11-09 2011-12-13 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Graphical user interface with user-selectable list-box
US7774190B1 (en) 2001-11-19 2010-08-10 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Sleep and stall in an in-circuit emulation system
US8069405B1 (en) 2001-11-19 2011-11-29 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation User interface for efficiently browsing an electronic document using data-driven tabs
US6971004B1 (en) 2001-11-19 2005-11-29 Cypress Semiconductor Corp. System and method of dynamically reconfiguring a programmable integrated circuit
US7844437B1 (en) 2001-11-19 2010-11-30 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation System and method for performing next placements and pruning of disallowed placements for programming an integrated circuit
US7770113B1 (en) 2001-11-19 2010-08-03 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation System and method for dynamically generating a configuration datasheet
US7487444B2 (en) 2002-03-19 2009-02-03 Aol Llc Reformatting columns of content for display
US8103497B1 (en) 2002-03-28 2012-01-24 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation External interface for event architecture
US7308608B1 (en) 2002-05-01 2007-12-11 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Reconfigurable testing system and method
US7761845B1 (en) 2002-09-09 2010-07-20 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Method for parameterizing a user module
US9152258B2 (en) * 2008-06-19 2015-10-06 Neonode Inc. User interface for a touch screen
US9164654B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2015-10-20 Neonode Inc. User interface for mobile computer unit
US7176905B2 (en) * 2003-02-19 2007-02-13 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Electronic device having an image-based data input system
US7808479B1 (en) 2003-09-02 2010-10-05 Apple Inc. Ambidextrous mouse
US20050114115A1 (en) * 2003-11-26 2005-05-26 Karidis John P. Typing accuracy relaxation system and method in stylus and other keyboards
US7745369B2 (en) * 2003-12-19 2010-06-29 Shell Oil Company Method and catalyst for producing a crude product with minimal hydrogen uptake
US7620915B2 (en) * 2004-02-13 2009-11-17 Ludwig Lester F Electronic document editing employing multiple cursors
US7295049B1 (en) 2004-03-25 2007-11-13 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Method and circuit for rapid alignment of signals
US9213443B2 (en) * 2009-02-15 2015-12-15 Neonode Inc. Optical touch screen systems using reflected light
US7663607B2 (en) 2004-05-06 2010-02-16 Apple Inc. Multipoint touchscreen
US8381135B2 (en) * 2004-07-30 2013-02-19 Apple Inc. Proximity detector in handheld device
US7760187B2 (en) * 2004-07-30 2010-07-20 Apple Inc. Visual expander
US20080098331A1 (en) * 2005-09-16 2008-04-24 Gregory Novick Portable Multifunction Device with Soft Keyboards
US7844914B2 (en) * 2004-07-30 2010-11-30 Apple Inc. Activating virtual keys of a touch-screen virtual keyboard
US7653883B2 (en) * 2004-07-30 2010-01-26 Apple Inc. Proximity detector in handheld device
US20060033724A1 (en) * 2004-07-30 2006-02-16 Apple Computer, Inc. Virtual input device placement on a touch screen user interface
US7614008B2 (en) * 2004-07-30 2009-11-03 Apple Inc. Operation of a computer with touch screen interface
US8479122B2 (en) * 2004-07-30 2013-07-02 Apple Inc. Gestures for touch sensitive input devices
US8069436B2 (en) 2004-08-13 2011-11-29 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Providing hardware independence to automate code generation of processing device firmware
US8286125B2 (en) 2004-08-13 2012-10-09 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Model for a hardware device-independent method of defining embedded firmware for programmable systems
KR100927064B1 (en) 2004-08-16 2009-11-13 애플 인크. A method of increasing the spatial resolution of touch sensitive devices
US7719522B2 (en) * 2004-09-24 2010-05-18 Apple Inc. Raw data track pad device and system
US7728823B2 (en) * 2004-09-24 2010-06-01 Apple Inc. System and method for processing raw data of track pad device
US7332976B1 (en) 2005-02-04 2008-02-19 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Poly-phase frequency synthesis oscillator
US7952564B2 (en) * 2005-02-17 2011-05-31 Hurst G Samuel Multiple-touch sensor
US20060197753A1 (en) * 2005-03-04 2006-09-07 Hotelling Steven P Multi-functional hand-held device
US7656393B2 (en) 2005-03-04 2010-02-02 Apple Inc. Electronic device having display and surrounding touch sensitive bezel for user interface and control
US7504833B1 (en) 2005-04-01 2009-03-17 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Automatically balanced sensing device and method for multiple capacitive sensors
US7400183B1 (en) 2005-05-05 2008-07-15 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Voltage controlled oscillator delay cell and method
US8089461B2 (en) * 2005-06-23 2012-01-03 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Touch wake for electronic devices
US7375535B1 (en) 2005-09-19 2008-05-20 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Scan method and topology for capacitive sensing
FR2892847B1 (en) * 2005-11-03 2007-12-21 St Microelectronics Sa Process for storing data in a memory circuit for automatic recognition of characters aho-Corasick type and citcuit of corresponding memorisation.
US20070132789A1 (en) 2005-12-08 2007-06-14 Bas Ording List scrolling in response to moving contact over list of index symbols
US8085067B1 (en) 2005-12-21 2011-12-27 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Differential-to-single ended signal converter circuit and method
US8280169B2 (en) * 2005-12-21 2012-10-02 Michael Linderman Recordation of handwriting and hand movement using electromyography
US7657849B2 (en) 2005-12-23 2010-02-02 Apple Inc. Unlocking a device by performing gestures on an unlock image
US7649526B2 (en) * 2005-12-23 2010-01-19 Apple Inc. Soft key interaction indicator
US7786975B2 (en) * 2005-12-23 2010-08-31 Apple Inc. Continuous scrolling list with acceleration
US7480870B2 (en) 2005-12-23 2009-01-20 Apple Inc. Indication of progress towards satisfaction of a user input condition
US7958456B2 (en) * 2005-12-23 2011-06-07 Apple Inc. Scrolling list with floating adjacent index symbols
US20070152983A1 (en) * 2005-12-30 2007-07-05 Apple Computer, Inc. Touch pad with symbols based on mode
US7509588B2 (en) 2005-12-30 2009-03-24 Apple Inc. Portable electronic device with interface reconfiguration mode
US8918736B2 (en) * 2006-01-05 2014-12-23 Apple Inc. Replay recommendations in a text entry interface
US7694231B2 (en) * 2006-01-05 2010-04-06 Apple Inc. Keyboards for portable electronic devices
US7574672B2 (en) * 2006-01-05 2009-08-11 Apple Inc. Text entry interface for a portable communication device
US7860536B2 (en) * 2006-01-05 2010-12-28 Apple Inc. Telephone interface for a portable communication device
US7312616B2 (en) 2006-01-20 2007-12-25 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Successive approximate capacitance measurement circuit
US20070176903A1 (en) * 2006-01-31 2007-08-02 Dahlin Jeffrey J Capacitive touch sensor button activation
US8067948B2 (en) * 2006-03-27 2011-11-29 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Input/output multiplexer bus
US8144125B2 (en) 2006-03-30 2012-03-27 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Apparatus and method for reducing average scan rate to detect a conductive object on a sensing device
US7538760B2 (en) * 2006-03-30 2009-05-26 Apple Inc. Force imaging input device and system
US7511702B2 (en) * 2006-03-30 2009-03-31 Apple Inc. Force and location sensitive display
US8040142B1 (en) 2006-03-31 2011-10-18 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Touch detection techniques for capacitive touch sense systems
US7721609B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2010-05-25 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Method and apparatus for sensing the force with which a button is pressed
US9274807B2 (en) * 2006-04-20 2016-03-01 Qualcomm Incorporated Selective hibernation of activities in an electronic device
US7978181B2 (en) * 2006-04-25 2011-07-12 Apple Inc. Keystroke tactility arrangement on a smooth touch surface
US8062115B2 (en) * 2006-04-27 2011-11-22 Wms Gaming Inc. Wagering game with multi-point gesture sensing device
US8279180B2 (en) * 2006-05-02 2012-10-02 Apple Inc. Multipoint touch surface controller
US9063647B2 (en) * 2006-05-12 2015-06-23 Microsoft Technology Licensing, Llc Multi-touch uses, gestures, and implementation
US7903092B2 (en) * 2006-05-25 2011-03-08 Atmel Corporation Capacitive keyboard with position dependent reduced keying ambiguity
US8537121B2 (en) * 2006-05-26 2013-09-17 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Multi-function slider in touchpad
US8089472B2 (en) 2006-05-26 2012-01-03 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Bidirectional slider with delete function
US7899251B2 (en) * 2006-06-05 2011-03-01 Microsoft Corporation Balancing out-of-dictionary and in-dictionary recognition scores
US8552989B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2013-10-08 Apple Inc. Integrated display and touch screen
KR101190484B1 (en) 2006-06-09 2012-10-12 애플 인크. Touch screen liquid crystal display
CN104965621A (en) * 2006-06-09 2015-10-07 苹果公司 Touch screen liquid crystal display and an operation method
US8040321B2 (en) 2006-07-10 2011-10-18 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Touch-sensor with shared capacitive sensors
US8786554B2 (en) * 2006-07-10 2014-07-22 Atmel Corporation Priority and combination suppression techniques (PST/CST) for a capacitive keyboard
US9507465B2 (en) * 2006-07-25 2016-11-29 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Technique for increasing the sensitivity of capacitive sensor arrays
US9766738B1 (en) 2006-08-23 2017-09-19 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Position and usage based prioritization for capacitance sense interface
US7940250B2 (en) * 2006-09-06 2011-05-10 Apple Inc. Web-clip widgets on a portable multifunction device
US9304675B2 (en) 2006-09-06 2016-04-05 Apple Inc. Portable electronic device for instant messaging
US8842074B2 (en) 2006-09-06 2014-09-23 Apple Inc. Portable electronic device performing similar operations for different gestures
US7864163B2 (en) 2006-09-06 2011-01-04 Apple Inc. Portable electronic device, method, and graphical user interface for displaying structured electronic documents
US7843427B2 (en) 2006-09-06 2010-11-30 Apple Inc. Methods for determining a cursor position from a finger contact with a touch screen display
US8014760B2 (en) 2006-09-06 2011-09-06 Apple Inc. Missed telephone call management for a portable multifunction device
US20080055263A1 (en) 2006-09-06 2008-03-06 Lemay Stephen O Incoming Telephone Call Management for a Portable Multifunction Device
US7934156B2 (en) 2006-09-06 2011-04-26 Apple Inc. Deletion gestures on a portable multifunction device
US8564544B2 (en) 2006-09-06 2013-10-22 Apple Inc. Touch screen device, method, and graphical user interface for customizing display of content category icons
US20080082930A1 (en) * 2006-09-06 2008-04-03 Omernick Timothy P Portable Multifunction Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Configuring and Displaying Widgets
US8106856B2 (en) 2006-09-06 2012-01-31 Apple Inc. Portable electronic device for photo management
US7996792B2 (en) 2006-09-06 2011-08-09 Apple Inc. Voicemail manager for portable multifunction device
US8902173B2 (en) * 2006-09-29 2014-12-02 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Pointing device using capacitance sensor
WO2008045464A3 (en) 2006-10-10 2008-11-20 Wms Gaming Inc Multi-player, multi-touch table for use in wagering game systems
US7667148B2 (en) * 2006-10-13 2010-02-23 Apple Inc. Method, device, and graphical user interface for dialing with a click wheel
EP2095214A2 (en) 2006-10-26 2009-09-02 Apple Inc. Portable multifunction device, method, and graphical user interface for adjusting an insertion point marker
US7856605B2 (en) * 2006-10-26 2010-12-21 Apple Inc. Method, system, and graphical user interface for positioning an insertion marker in a touch screen display
US8090087B2 (en) * 2006-10-26 2012-01-03 Apple Inc. Method, system, and graphical user interface for making conference calls
US8570278B2 (en) 2006-10-26 2013-10-29 Apple Inc. Portable multifunction device, method, and graphical user interface for adjusting an insertion point marker
US8547114B2 (en) 2006-11-14 2013-10-01 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Capacitance to code converter with sigma-delta modulator
US8089288B1 (en) 2006-11-16 2012-01-03 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Charge accumulation capacitance sensor with linear transfer characteristic
US8493330B2 (en) * 2007-01-03 2013-07-23 Apple Inc. Individual channel phase delay scheme
US8510481B2 (en) * 2007-01-03 2013-08-13 Apple Inc. Memory access without internal microprocessor intervention
US8214768B2 (en) 2007-01-05 2012-07-03 Apple Inc. Method, system, and graphical user interface for viewing multiple application windows
US9710095B2 (en) 2007-01-05 2017-07-18 Apple Inc. Touch screen stack-ups
US8074172B2 (en) 2007-01-05 2011-12-06 Apple Inc. Method, system, and graphical user interface for providing word recommendations
US8788954B2 (en) * 2007-01-07 2014-07-22 Apple Inc. Web-clip widgets on a portable multifunction device
US7978176B2 (en) 2007-01-07 2011-07-12 Apple Inc. Portrait-landscape rotation heuristics for a portable multifunction device
US7844915B2 (en) 2007-01-07 2010-11-30 Apple Inc. Application programming interfaces for scrolling operations
US20080168402A1 (en) 2007-01-07 2008-07-10 Christopher Blumenberg Application Programming Interfaces for Gesture Operations
US20080168478A1 (en) * 2007-01-07 2008-07-10 Andrew Platzer Application Programming Interfaces for Scrolling
US7966578B2 (en) 2007-01-07 2011-06-21 Apple Inc. Portable multifunction device, method, and graphical user interface for translating displayed content
US7469381B2 (en) 2007-01-07 2008-12-23 Apple Inc. List scrolling and document translation, scaling, and rotation on a touch-screen display
US8451232B2 (en) 2007-01-07 2013-05-28 Apple Inc. Portable multifunction device, method, and graphical user interface for interacting with user input elements in displayed content
US7975242B2 (en) 2007-01-07 2011-07-05 Apple Inc. Portable multifunction device, method, and graphical user interface for conference calling
US20080168395A1 (en) 2007-01-07 2008-07-10 Bas Ording Positioning a Slider Icon on a Portable Multifunction Device
US8519963B2 (en) 2007-01-07 2013-08-27 Apple Inc. Portable multifunction device, method, and graphical user interface for interpreting a finger gesture on a touch screen display
US8519964B2 (en) * 2007-01-07 2013-08-27 Apple Inc. Portable multifunction device, method, and graphical user interface supporting user navigations of graphical objects on a touch screen display
US8849278B2 (en) * 2007-01-07 2014-09-30 Jeffrey Bush Mobile device activation
US8855617B2 (en) 2007-01-07 2014-10-07 Patrice Gautier Method and system for mobile device activation
US8082523B2 (en) 2007-01-07 2011-12-20 Apple Inc. Portable electronic device with graphical user interface supporting application switching
US8054299B2 (en) * 2007-01-08 2011-11-08 Apple Inc. Digital controller for a true multi-point touch surface useable in a computer system
US8058937B2 (en) 2007-01-30 2011-11-15 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Setting a discharge rate and a charge rate of a relaxation oscillator circuit
JP4333768B2 (en) * 2007-04-06 2009-09-16 ソニー株式会社 Display device
US8130025B2 (en) * 2007-04-17 2012-03-06 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Numerical band gap
US8516025B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-08-20 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Clock driven dynamic datapath chaining
US9564902B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2017-02-07 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Dynamically configurable and re-configurable data path
US8092083B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2012-01-10 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Temperature sensor with digital bandgap
US7737724B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2010-06-15 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Universal digital block interconnection and channel routing
US8026739B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2011-09-27 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation System level interconnect with programmable switching
US8040266B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2011-10-18 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Programmable sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter
US8266575B1 (en) 2007-04-25 2012-09-11 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Systems and methods for dynamically reconfiguring a programmable system on a chip
US9720805B1 (en) 2007-04-25 2017-08-01 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation System and method for controlling a target device
US8065653B1 (en) 2007-04-25 2011-11-22 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Configuration of programmable IC design elements
US8144126B2 (en) 2007-05-07 2012-03-27 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Reducing sleep current in a capacitance sensing system
US8666366B2 (en) * 2007-06-22 2014-03-04 Apple Inc. Device activation and access
US8108144B2 (en) 2007-06-28 2012-01-31 Apple Inc. Location based tracking
US7804307B1 (en) 2007-06-29 2010-09-28 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Capacitance measurement systems and methods
US9500686B1 (en) 2007-06-29 2016-11-22 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Capacitance measurement system and methods
US9772751B2 (en) * 2007-06-29 2017-09-26 Apple Inc. Using gestures to slide between user interfaces
WO2009006556A1 (en) * 2007-07-03 2009-01-08 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Normalizing capacitive sensor array signals
US8169238B1 (en) 2007-07-03 2012-05-01 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Capacitance to frequency converter
US8089289B1 (en) 2007-07-03 2012-01-03 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Capacitive field sensor with sigma-delta modulator
US8570053B1 (en) 2007-07-03 2013-10-29 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Capacitive field sensor with sigma-delta modulator
US8471830B2 (en) * 2007-07-06 2013-06-25 Neonode Inc. Scanning of a touch screen
US9451450B2 (en) 2007-09-01 2016-09-20 Apple Inc. Postponed carrier configuration
US7929959B2 (en) * 2007-09-01 2011-04-19 Apple Inc. Service provider activation
US8032181B2 (en) 2007-09-01 2011-10-04 Apple Inc. Service provider activation with subscriber identity module policy
US20090058823A1 (en) * 2007-09-04 2009-03-05 Apple Inc. Virtual Keyboards in Multi-Language Environment
US20090064055A1 (en) * 2007-09-04 2009-03-05 Apple Inc. Application Menu User Interface
US9477395B2 (en) * 2007-09-04 2016-10-25 Apple Inc. Audio file interface
US20090061841A1 (en) * 2007-09-04 2009-03-05 Chaudhri Imran A Media out interface
US8442521B2 (en) 2007-09-04 2013-05-14 Apple Inc. Carrier configuration at activation
US8619038B2 (en) 2007-09-04 2013-12-31 Apple Inc. Editing interface
US8049569B1 (en) 2007-09-05 2011-11-01 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Circuit and method for improving the accuracy of a crystal-less oscillator having dual-frequency modes
US8661340B2 (en) * 2007-09-13 2014-02-25 Apple Inc. Input methods for device having multi-language environment
JP2010541046A (en) * 2007-09-24 2010-12-24 アップル インコーポレイテッド An authentication system that was incorporated in an electronic device
US20090082951A1 (en) * 2007-09-26 2009-03-26 Apple Inc. Intelligent Restriction of Device Operations
US8165886B1 (en) 2007-10-04 2012-04-24 Great Northern Research LLC Speech interface system and method for control and interaction with applications on a computing system
US8631358B2 (en) 2007-10-10 2014-01-14 Apple Inc. Variable device graphical user interface
US8063879B2 (en) * 2007-12-20 2011-11-22 Research In Motion Limited Method and handheld electronic device including first input component and second touch sensitive input component
US8610671B2 (en) 2007-12-27 2013-12-17 Apple Inc. Insertion marker placement on touch sensitive display
US9330720B2 (en) 2008-01-03 2016-05-03 Apple Inc. Methods and apparatus for altering audio output signals
US8355862B2 (en) 2008-01-06 2013-01-15 Apple Inc. Graphical user interface for presenting location information
US9619143B2 (en) 2008-01-06 2017-04-11 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for viewing application launch icons
US8405621B2 (en) * 2008-01-06 2013-03-26 Apple Inc. Variable rate media playback methods for electronic devices with touch interfaces
KR101469034B1 (en) * 2008-01-07 2014-12-05 삼성디스플레이 주식회사 Display device and a control method
US8232973B2 (en) 2008-01-09 2012-07-31 Apple Inc. Method, device, and graphical user interface providing word recommendations for text input
US8525798B2 (en) 2008-01-28 2013-09-03 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Touch sensing
US8487912B1 (en) 2008-02-01 2013-07-16 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Capacitive sense touch device with hysteresis threshold
US8676224B2 (en) * 2008-02-19 2014-03-18 Apple Inc. Speakerphone control for mobile device
US8412150B2 (en) * 2008-02-21 2013-04-02 Apple Inc. Transitional data sets
US8319505B1 (en) 2008-10-24 2012-11-27 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Methods and circuits for measuring mutual and self capacitance
US8358142B2 (en) 2008-02-27 2013-01-22 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Methods and circuits for measuring mutual and self capacitance
US8803737B2 (en) * 2008-02-29 2014-08-12 Apple Inc. Location determination
US9104273B1 (en) 2008-02-29 2015-08-11 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Multi-touch sensing method
US8650507B2 (en) * 2008-03-04 2014-02-11 Apple Inc. Selecting of text using gestures
US8289333B2 (en) * 2008-03-04 2012-10-16 Apple Inc. Multi-context graphics processing
EP2250604B1 (en) 2008-03-04 2017-12-27 Apple Inc. System and method of authorizing execution of software code based on at least one installed profile
US8908973B2 (en) * 2008-03-04 2014-12-09 Apple Inc. Handwritten character recognition interface
US8201109B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2012-06-12 Apple Inc. Methods and graphical user interfaces for editing on a portable multifunction device
US8477143B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2013-07-02 Apple Inc. Buffers for display acceleration
US8645827B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2014-02-04 Apple Inc. Touch event model
US8289283B2 (en) * 2008-03-04 2012-10-16 Apple Inc. Language input interface on a device
DE112009000002T5 (en) * 2008-03-04 2010-01-07 Apple Inc., Cupertino Processing touch events for websites
US8416196B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2013-04-09 Apple Inc. Touch event model programming interface
US8717305B2 (en) 2008-03-04 2014-05-06 Apple Inc. Touch event model for web pages
US9418171B2 (en) * 2008-03-04 2016-08-16 Apple Inc. Acceleration of rendering of web-based content
EP2252957A1 (en) 2008-03-04 2010-11-24 Apple Inc. Managing code entitlements for software developers in secure operating environments
US8996376B2 (en) 2008-04-05 2015-03-31 Apple Inc. Intelligent text-to-speech conversion
US8213389B2 (en) 2008-04-15 2012-07-03 Apple Inc. Location determination using formula
US8949743B2 (en) * 2008-04-22 2015-02-03 Apple Inc. Language input interface on a device
US20090278806A1 (en) * 2008-05-06 2009-11-12 Matias Gonzalo Duarte Extended touch-sensitive control area for electronic device
US8159469B2 (en) * 2008-05-06 2012-04-17 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. User interface for initiating activities in an electronic device
US8644843B2 (en) 2008-05-16 2014-02-04 Apple Inc. Location determination
US8174503B2 (en) 2008-05-17 2012-05-08 David H. Cain Touch-based authentication of a mobile device through user generated pattern creation
US8296684B2 (en) 2008-05-23 2012-10-23 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Navigating among activities in a computing device
US8683362B2 (en) 2008-05-23 2014-03-25 Qualcomm Incorporated Card metaphor for activities in a computing device
US9355090B2 (en) 2008-05-30 2016-05-31 Apple Inc. Identification of candidate characters for text input
US8665228B2 (en) 2008-06-19 2014-03-04 Tactile Displays, Llc Energy efficient interactive display with energy regenerative keyboard
US8217908B2 (en) 2008-06-19 2012-07-10 Tactile Displays, Llc Apparatus and method for interactive display with tactile feedback
US8115745B2 (en) 2008-06-19 2012-02-14 Tactile Displays, Llc Apparatus and method for interactive display with tactile feedback
US8241912B2 (en) * 2008-06-26 2012-08-14 Wms Gaming Inc. Gaming machine having multi-touch sensing device
US20100030549A1 (en) 2008-07-31 2010-02-04 Lee Michael M Mobile device having human language translation capability with positional feedback
US8359643B2 (en) 2008-09-18 2013-01-22 Apple Inc. Group formation using anonymous broadcast information
US8321174B1 (en) 2008-09-26 2012-11-27 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation System and method to measure capacitance of capacitive sensor array
US8284170B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2012-10-09 Apple Inc. Touch screen device, method, and graphical user interface for moving on-screen objects without using a cursor
US8493408B2 (en) 2008-11-19 2013-07-23 Apple Inc. Techniques for manipulating panoramas
US8584031B2 (en) * 2008-11-19 2013-11-12 Apple Inc. Portable touch screen device, method, and graphical user interface for using emoji characters
US8487639B1 (en) 2008-11-21 2013-07-16 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Receive demodulator for capacitive sensing
US8977974B2 (en) * 2008-12-08 2015-03-10 Apple Inc. Ambient noise based augmentation of media playback
US8453057B2 (en) * 2008-12-22 2013-05-28 Verizon Patent And Licensing Inc. Stage interaction for mobile device
US20100162181A1 (en) * 2008-12-22 2010-06-24 Palm, Inc. Interpreting Gesture Input Including Introduction Or Removal Of A Point Of Contact While A Gesture Is In Progress
US20100162165A1 (en) 2008-12-22 2010-06-24 Apple Inc. User Interface Tools
US8451236B2 (en) * 2008-12-22 2013-05-28 Hewlett-Packard Development Company L.P. Touch-sensitive display screen with absolute and relative input modes
US8547244B2 (en) * 2008-12-22 2013-10-01 Palm, Inc. Enhanced visual feedback for touch-sensitive input device
US9092093B2 (en) 2012-11-27 2015-07-28 Neonode Inc. Steering wheel user interface
US20100235734A1 (en) * 2009-03-16 2010-09-16 Bas Ording Methods and Graphical User Interfaces for Editing on a Multifunction Device with a Touch Screen Display
US9311112B2 (en) * 2009-03-16 2016-04-12 Apple Inc. Event recognition
US8564541B2 (en) * 2009-03-16 2013-10-22 Apple Inc. Zhuyin input interface on a device
US8566044B2 (en) * 2009-03-16 2013-10-22 Apple Inc. Event recognition
US8984431B2 (en) * 2009-03-16 2015-03-17 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for moving a current position in content at a variable scrubbing rate
US8285499B2 (en) 2009-03-16 2012-10-09 Apple Inc. Event recognition
US8566045B2 (en) * 2009-03-16 2013-10-22 Apple Inc. Event recognition
US8839155B2 (en) * 2009-03-16 2014-09-16 Apple Inc. Accelerated scrolling for a multifunction device
US8866500B2 (en) 2009-03-26 2014-10-21 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Multi-functional capacitance sensing circuit with a current conveyor
US9448964B2 (en) 2009-05-04 2016-09-20 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Autonomous control in a programmable system
US9858925B2 (en) 2009-06-05 2018-01-02 Apple Inc. Using context information to facilitate processing of commands in a virtual assistant
US9009612B2 (en) 2009-06-07 2015-04-14 Apple Inc. Devices, methods, and graphical user interfaces for accessibility using a touch-sensitive surface
US8930438B2 (en) 2009-06-17 2015-01-06 Apple Inc. Push-based location update
US8723827B2 (en) 2009-07-28 2014-05-13 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Predictive touch surface scanning
US8654524B2 (en) 2009-08-17 2014-02-18 Apple Inc. Housing as an I/O device
US8638939B1 (en) 2009-08-20 2014-01-28 Apple Inc. User authentication on an electronic device
WO2011037558A1 (en) * 2009-09-22 2011-03-31 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for manipulating user interface objects
US9310907B2 (en) 2009-09-25 2016-04-12 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for manipulating user interface objects
WO2011037733A1 (en) 2009-09-25 2011-03-31 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface using mid-drag gestures
US8438500B2 (en) 2009-09-25 2013-05-07 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for manipulation of user interface objects with activation regions
US8832585B2 (en) * 2009-09-25 2014-09-09 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for manipulating workspace views
US8624933B2 (en) 2009-09-25 2014-01-07 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for scrolling a multi-section document
US8619100B2 (en) 2009-09-25 2013-12-31 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for touch-based gestural input on an electronic canvas
US8799826B2 (en) * 2009-09-25 2014-08-05 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for moving a calendar entry in a calendar application
US8766928B2 (en) * 2009-09-25 2014-07-01 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for manipulating user interface objects
US8633916B2 (en) 2009-12-10 2014-01-21 Apple, Inc. Touch pad with force sensors and actuator feedback
EP2333651B1 (en) * 2009-12-11 2016-07-20 Dassault Systèmes Method and system for duplicating an object using a touch-sensitive display
US8358281B2 (en) 2009-12-15 2013-01-22 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for management and manipulation of user interface elements
US8621391B2 (en) * 2009-12-16 2013-12-31 Apple Inc. Device, method, and computer readable medium for maintaining a selection order in a displayed thumbnail stack of user interface elements acted upon via gestured operations
US8347238B2 (en) * 2009-12-16 2013-01-01 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for managing user interface content and user interface elements by dynamic snapping of user interface elements to alignment guides
US8381125B2 (en) * 2009-12-16 2013-02-19 Apple Inc. Device and method for resizing user interface content while maintaining an aspect ratio via snapping a perimeter to a gridline
US20110145739A1 (en) 2009-12-16 2011-06-16 Peter Glen Berger Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Location-Based Data Collection
US8698762B2 (en) 2010-01-06 2014-04-15 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for navigating and displaying content in context
US8510677B2 (en) 2010-01-06 2013-08-13 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for navigating through a range of values
US8698845B2 (en) 2010-01-06 2014-04-15 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface with interactive popup views
KR101688374B1 (en) 2010-01-06 2016-12-20 애플 인크. Device, method, and graphical user interface for mapping directions between search results
US8438504B2 (en) 2010-01-06 2013-05-07 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for navigating through multiple viewing areas
US8806362B2 (en) 2010-01-06 2014-08-12 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for accessing alternate keys
US20110167339A1 (en) 2010-01-06 2011-07-07 Lemay Stephen O Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Attachment Viewing and Editing
US20110163967A1 (en) 2010-01-06 2011-07-07 Imran Chaudhri Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Changing Pages in an Electronic Document
US20110163966A1 (en) 2010-01-06 2011-07-07 Imran Chaudhri Apparatus and Method Having Multiple Application Display Modes Including Mode with Display Resolution of Another Apparatus
US8692780B2 (en) 2010-01-06 2014-04-08 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for manipulating information items in folders
US8736561B2 (en) 2010-01-06 2014-05-27 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface with content display modes and display rotation heuristics
US8786559B2 (en) 2010-01-06 2014-07-22 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for manipulating tables using multi-contact gestures
CN102216897B (en) 2010-01-06 2014-07-02 苹果公司 Apparatus and method for conditionally enabling or disabling soft buttons
US9811507B2 (en) 2010-01-11 2017-11-07 Apple Inc. Presenting electronic publications on a graphical user interface of an electronic device
US20110179372A1 (en) 2010-01-15 2011-07-21 Bradford Allen Moore Automatic Keyboard Layout Determination
US9052894B2 (en) 2010-01-15 2015-06-09 Apple Inc. API to replace a keyboard with custom controls
US20110175826A1 (en) 2010-01-15 2011-07-21 Bradford Allen Moore Automatically Displaying and Hiding an On-screen Keyboard
US9318108B2 (en) 2010-01-18 2016-04-19 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant
US20160062608A1 (en) 2011-01-10 2016-03-03 Apple Inc. Button functionality
US8683363B2 (en) * 2010-01-26 2014-03-25 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for managing user interface content and user interface elements
US8539385B2 (en) * 2010-01-26 2013-09-17 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for precise positioning of objects
US8612884B2 (en) 2010-01-26 2013-12-17 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for resizing objects
US9684521B2 (en) 2010-01-26 2017-06-20 Apple Inc. Systems having discrete and continuous gesture recognizers
US8209630B2 (en) * 2010-01-26 2012-06-26 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for resizing user interface content
US8539386B2 (en) 2010-01-26 2013-09-17 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for selecting and moving objects
US8830182B1 (en) * 2010-02-09 2014-09-09 Google Inc. Keystroke resolution
US8179370B1 (en) 2010-02-09 2012-05-15 Google Inc. Proximity based keystroke resolution
US8682667B2 (en) 2010-02-25 2014-03-25 Apple Inc. User profiling for selecting user specific voice input processing information
US20110210850A1 (en) * 2010-02-26 2011-09-01 Phuong K Tran Touch-screen keyboard with combination keys and directional swipes
US20110242138A1 (en) 2010-03-31 2011-10-06 Tribble Guy L Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface with Concurrent Virtual Keyboards
WO2014200735A1 (en) 2013-06-09 2014-12-18 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for managing folders with multiple pages
US9513801B2 (en) 2010-04-07 2016-12-06 Apple Inc. Accessing electronic notifications and settings icons with gestures
WO2011127309A1 (en) 2010-04-07 2011-10-13 Apple Inc. Avatar editing environment
US9052926B2 (en) 2010-04-07 2015-06-09 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for managing concurrently open software applications
US20110250969A1 (en) 2010-04-07 2011-10-13 Marcel Van Os Systems and methods for providing a game center having player specific achievement data
US20110252349A1 (en) 2010-04-07 2011-10-13 Imran Chaudhri Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Managing Folders
US9823831B2 (en) 2010-04-07 2017-11-21 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for managing concurrently open software applications
US8924304B2 (en) 2010-06-04 2014-12-30 Apple Inc. Methods for using unique identifiers to identify systems in collaborative interaction in a mesh network
US20110307831A1 (en) * 2010-06-10 2011-12-15 Microsoft Corporation User-Controlled Application Access to Resources
US20110307833A1 (en) 2010-06-14 2011-12-15 Thomas Andrew Cooke Dale Control Selection Approximation
US8284748B2 (en) 2010-07-07 2012-10-09 Apple Inc. Ad hoc formation and tracking of location-sharing groups
US8972903B2 (en) 2010-07-08 2015-03-03 Apple Inc. Using gesture to navigate hierarchically ordered user interface screens
US8528072B2 (en) 2010-07-23 2013-09-03 Apple Inc. Method, apparatus and system for access mode control of a device
US9098182B2 (en) 2010-07-30 2015-08-04 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for copying user interface objects between content regions
US8972879B2 (en) 2010-07-30 2015-03-03 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for reordering the front-to-back positions of objects
US9081494B2 (en) 2010-07-30 2015-07-14 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for copying formatting attributes
US8988365B2 (en) * 2010-09-01 2015-03-24 Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ) Input precision method for minimizing erroneous entries stemming from instability of a mobile device using an accelerometer and apparatus to detect a shake and apparatus and computer program thereof
US20120050185A1 (en) 2010-09-01 2012-03-01 Anton Davydov Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Selecting and Using Sets of Media Player Controls
US8555067B2 (en) 2010-10-28 2013-10-08 Apple Inc. Methods and apparatus for delivering electronic identification components over a wireless network
US8587547B2 (en) 2010-11-05 2013-11-19 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for manipulating soft keyboards
US8547354B2 (en) 2010-11-05 2013-10-01 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for manipulating soft keyboards
US8694981B2 (en) 2010-11-17 2014-04-08 Apple Inc. Shared resource dependencies
US9244606B2 (en) 2010-12-20 2016-01-26 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for navigation of concurrently open software applications
US8804056B2 (en) 2010-12-22 2014-08-12 Apple Inc. Integrated touch screens
US8717381B2 (en) 2011-01-11 2014-05-06 Apple Inc. Gesture mapping for image filter input parameters
US9092132B2 (en) 2011-01-24 2015-07-28 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface with a dynamic gesture disambiguation threshold
US20120233565A1 (en) 2011-03-09 2012-09-13 Apple Inc. System and method for displaying content
US9262612B2 (en) 2011-03-21 2016-02-16 Apple Inc. Device access using voice authentication
US9450759B2 (en) 2011-04-05 2016-09-20 Apple Inc. Apparatus and methods for controlling distribution of electronic access clients
US9268441B2 (en) 2011-04-05 2016-02-23 Parade Technologies, Ltd. Active integrator for a capacitive sense array
US9298363B2 (en) 2011-04-11 2016-03-29 Apple Inc. Region activation for touch sensitive surface
US20120304280A1 (en) 2011-05-27 2012-11-29 Apple Inc. Private and public applications
US8677232B2 (en) 2011-05-31 2014-03-18 Apple Inc. Devices, methods, and graphical user interfaces for document manipulation
US20120311504A1 (en) 2011-06-03 2012-12-06 Van Os Marcel Extensible architecture for navigating a hierarchy
EP2715285A2 (en) 2011-06-03 2014-04-09 Apple Inc. Devices and methods for comparing and selecting alternative navigation routes
US20120309510A1 (en) 2011-06-03 2012-12-06 Taylor Nathan D Personalized information for a non-acquired asset
KR20140014269A (en) 2011-06-03 2014-02-05 애플 인크. Systems and methods for printing maps and directions
US8854491B2 (en) 2011-06-05 2014-10-07 Apple Inc. Metadata-assisted image filters
JP5802830B2 (en) 2011-06-05 2015-11-04 アップル インコーポレイテッド System and method for displaying a notification received from a plurality of application
US8959459B2 (en) 2011-06-15 2015-02-17 Wms Gaming Inc. Gesture sensing enhancement system for a wagering game
US20130002598A1 (en) * 2011-06-30 2013-01-03 Victor Phay Kok Heng Circuits and Methods for Tracking Multiple Objects Relative to a Touch-Sensitive Interface
US8754861B2 (en) 2011-07-06 2014-06-17 Google Inc. Touch-screen keyboard facilitating touch typing with minimal finger movement
US8806369B2 (en) 2011-08-26 2014-08-12 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for managing and interacting with concurrently open software applications
US8994660B2 (en) 2011-08-29 2015-03-31 Apple Inc. Text correction processing
US20130082974A1 (en) 2011-09-30 2013-04-04 Apple Inc. Quick Access User Interface
CN102411448A (en) * 2011-10-26 2012-04-11 苏州瀚瑞微电子有限公司 Automatic calibration method for touch screens
WO2013091119A1 (en) * 2011-12-19 2013-06-27 Ralf Trachte Field analyses for flexible computer inputs
CN102566822A (en) * 2012-01-17 2012-07-11 苏州瀚瑞微电子有限公司 Automatic calibration method for touch screen
US9213822B2 (en) 2012-01-20 2015-12-15 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for accessing an application in a locked device
WO2013120851A1 (en) 2012-02-13 2013-08-22 Mach-3D Sàrl Method for sharing emotions through the creation of three-dimensional avatars and their interaction through a cloud-based platform
US9008633B2 (en) 2012-02-17 2015-04-14 Apple Inc. Methods to determine availability of user based on mobile phone status
US9483461B2 (en) 2012-03-06 2016-11-01 Apple Inc. Handling speech synthesis of content for multiple languages
US9086732B2 (en) 2012-05-03 2015-07-21 Wms Gaming Inc. Gesture fusion
WO2013169870A1 (en) 2012-05-09 2013-11-14 Yknots Industries Llc Device, method, and graphical user interface for transitioning between display states in response to gesture
DE202013012233U1 (en) 2012-05-09 2016-01-18 Apple Inc. Device and graphical user interface to display additional information in response to a user Contact
WO2013169875A3 (en) 2012-05-09 2014-03-27 Yknots Industries Llc Device, method, and graphical user interface for displaying content associated with a corresponding affordance
DE112013002412T5 (en) 2012-05-09 2015-02-19 Apple Inc. Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for providing feedback for changing activation states of a user interface object
US9135496B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2015-09-15 Apple Inc. Efficient texture comparison
US9846799B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2017-12-19 Apple Inc. Efficient texture comparison
DE102012010627A1 (en) * 2012-05-23 2013-11-28 Elmos Semiconductor Ag Object detecting and measuring system i.e. gesture detecting system, for detecting gesture parameters of man machine interface during control of e.g. computer, has unit executing steps of feature-extraction and emission computation
DE102012024778A1 (en) 2012-05-23 2013-11-28 Elmos Semiconductor Ag Recognition system for contactless detection of human-machine interface three dimensional object- or gesture parameters, has controller, where signal generated from light emitted from transmitter is compared with signal received by receiver
US9429435B2 (en) 2012-06-05 2016-08-30 Apple Inc. Interactive map
US20130332822A1 (en) 2012-06-06 2013-12-12 Christopher P. Willmore Multi-word autocorrection
US9026691B2 (en) 2012-06-26 2015-05-05 Apple Inc. Semi-autonomous touch I/O device controller operation under control of host
US8913801B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2014-12-16 Apple Inc. Enrollment using synthetic fingerprint image and fingerprint sensing systems
US20140003683A1 (en) 2012-06-29 2014-01-02 Apple Inc. Far-Field Sensing for Rotation of Finger
US9092652B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2015-07-28 Apple Inc. Zero reference based ridge flow map
US20140003681A1 (en) 2012-06-29 2014-01-02 Apple Inc. Zero Enrollment
US9202099B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2015-12-01 Apple Inc. Fingerprint sensing and enrollment
US9710092B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2017-07-18 Apple Inc. Biometric initiated communication
US9495129B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-11-15 Apple Inc. Device, method, and user interface for voice-activated navigation and browsing of a document
US9152842B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2015-10-06 Apple Inc. Navigation assisted fingerprint enrollment
US9342725B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-05-17 Apple Inc. Image manipulation utilizing edge detection and stitching for fingerprint recognition
US9715616B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2017-07-25 Apple Inc. Fingerprint sensing and enrollment
US9035895B2 (en) 2012-07-13 2015-05-19 Apple Inc. Redundant sensing element sampling
WO2014018086A1 (en) 2012-07-26 2014-01-30 Changello Enterprise Llc Force correction on multiple sense elements
DE112013003674T5 (en) 2012-07-26 2015-04-30 Apple Inc. Force detection by an ultrasonic sensor
WO2014018121A1 (en) 2012-07-26 2014-01-30 Changello Enterprise Llc Fingerprint-assisted force estimation
WO2014018115A1 (en) 2012-07-26 2014-01-30 Changello Enterprise Llc Ultrasound-based force sensing of inputs
WO2014018116A1 (en) 2012-07-26 2014-01-30 Changello Enterprise Llc Ultrasound-based force sensing and touch sensing
WO2014018119A1 (en) 2012-07-26 2014-01-30 Changello Enterprise Llc Ultrasound-based force and touch sensing
US20140032584A1 (en) 2012-07-27 2014-01-30 Semantic Compaction Systems Apparatus, method and computer readable medium for selectively editing polysemous symbol sequences in a multifunctional interactive dictionary database
US20140055374A1 (en) 2012-08-27 2014-02-27 Assaf BART Single contact scaling gesture
WO2014035479A3 (en) 2012-08-30 2016-06-16 Apple Inc. Auto-baseline determination for force sensing
US9189064B2 (en) 2012-09-05 2015-11-17 Apple Inc. Delay of display event based on user gaze
US9557846B2 (en) 2012-10-04 2017-01-31 Corning Incorporated Pressure-sensing touch system utilizing optical and capacitive systems
US20140136987A1 (en) 2012-11-09 2014-05-15 Apple Inc. Generation of a user interface based on contacts
US9411510B2 (en) 2012-12-07 2016-08-09 Apple Inc. Techniques for preventing typographical errors on soft keyboards
US20140173746A1 (en) 2012-12-13 2014-06-19 Apple Inc. Application repository
WO2014098946A1 (en) 2012-12-17 2014-06-26 Changello Enterprise Llc Force detection in touch devices using piezoelectric sensors
EP2939098A1 (en) 2012-12-29 2015-11-04 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for transitioning between touch input to display output relationships
US9298360B2 (en) 2013-01-25 2016-03-29 Apple Inc. Accessibility techinques for presentation of symbolic expressions
US9218544B2 (en) 2013-02-01 2015-12-22 Apple Inc. Intelligent matcher based on situational or spatial orientation
US9111125B2 (en) 2013-02-08 2015-08-18 Apple Inc. Fingerprint imaging and quality characterization
US9662015B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2017-05-30 Hello Inc. System or device with wearable devices having one or more sensors with assignment of a wearable device user identifier to a wearable device user
US9445651B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-09-20 Hello Inc. Wearable device with overlapping ends coupled by magnets
US9427160B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-08-30 Hello Inc. Wearable device with overlapping ends coupled by magnets positioned in the wearable device by an undercut
US9532716B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2017-01-03 Hello Inc. Systems using lifestyle database analysis to provide feedback
US9055791B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2015-06-16 Hello Inc. Wearable device with overlapping ends coupled by magnets operating with a selectable strength
US9361572B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-06-07 Hello Inc. Wearable device with magnets positioned at opposing ends and overlapped from one side to another
US9149189B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2015-10-06 Hello, Inc. User or patient monitoring methods using one or more analysis tools
US9357922B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-06-07 Hello Inc. User or patient monitoring systems with one or more analysis tools
US20160220198A1 (en) 2013-06-21 2016-08-04 Hello Inc. Mobile device that monitors an individuals activities, behaviors, habits or health parameters
US20140248483A1 (en) 2013-03-04 2014-09-04 Sabic Innovative Plastics Ip B.V. Compositions and methods of making thin wall housings for electronic devices
US9634921B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2017-04-25 Hello Inc. Wearable device coupled by magnets positioned in a frame in an interior of the wearable device with at least one electronic circuit
US9159223B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2015-10-13 Hello, Inc. User monitoring device configured to be in communication with an emergency response system or team
US9430938B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-08-30 Hello Inc. Monitoring device with selectable wireless communication
US9737214B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2017-08-22 Hello Inc. Wireless monitoring of patient exercise and lifestyle
US9392939B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-07-19 Hello Inc. Methods using a monitoring device to monitor individual activities, behaviors or habit information and communicate with a database with corresponding individual base information for comparison
US9424508B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-08-23 Hello Inc. Wearable device with magnets having first and second polarities
US9848776B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2017-12-26 Hello Inc. Methods using activity manager for monitoring user activity
US9345404B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-05-24 Hello Inc. Mobile device that monitors an individuals activities, behaviors, habits or health parameters
US9298882B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-03-29 Hello Inc. Methods using patient monitoring devices with unique patient IDs and a telemetry system
US9432091B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-08-30 Hello Inc. Telemetry system with wireless power receiver and monitoring devices
US9420856B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-08-23 Hello Inc. Wearable device with adjacent magnets magnetized in different directions
US9320434B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-04-26 Hello Inc. Patient monitoring systems and messages that send alerts to patients only when the patient is awake
US9330561B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-05-03 Hello Inc. Remote communication systems and methods for communicating with a building gateway control to control building systems and elements
US9553486B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2017-01-24 Hello Inc. Monitoring system and device with sensors that is remotely powered
US20140246502A1 (en) 2013-03-04 2014-09-04 Hello Inc. Wearable devices with magnets encased by a material that redistributes their magnetic fields
US9339188B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-05-17 James Proud Methods from monitoring health, wellness and fitness with feedback
US9345403B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-05-24 Hello Inc. Wireless monitoring system with activity manager for monitoring user activity
US9436903B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-09-06 Hello Inc. Wearable device with magnets with a defined distance between adjacent magnets
US9204798B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2015-12-08 Hello, Inc. System for monitoring health, wellness and fitness with feedback
US9530089B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-12-27 Hello Inc. Wearable device with overlapping ends coupled by magnets of a selected width, length and depth
US9704209B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2017-07-11 Hello Inc. Monitoring system and device with sensors and user profiles based on biometric user information
US9420857B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-08-23 Hello Inc. Wearable device with interior frame
US9427189B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-08-30 Hello Inc. Monitoring system and device with sensors that are responsive to skin pigmentation
US8803366B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2014-08-12 Hello Inc. Telemetry system with wireless power receiver and monitoring devices
US9406220B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-08-02 Hello Inc. Telemetry system with tracking receiver devices
US9398854B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-07-26 Hello Inc. System with a monitoring device that monitors individual activities, behaviors or habit information and communicates with a database with corresponding individual base information for comparison
US9526422B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-12-27 Hello Inc. System for monitoring individuals with a monitoring device, telemetry system, activity manager and a feedback system
US9367793B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-06-14 Hello Inc. Wearable device with magnets distanced from exterior surfaces of the wearable device
US9695616B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-07-04 August Home, Inc. Intelligent door lock system and vibration/tapping sensing device to lock or unlock a door
US9477404B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-10-25 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for managing concurrently open software applications
US9359794B2 (en) 2014-03-12 2016-06-07 August Home, Inc. Method for operating an intelligent door knob
US9382739B1 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-07-05 August Home, Inc. Determining right or left hand side door installation
WO2014143065A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Rinand Solutions Llc Force-sensitive fingerprint sensing input
US9574372B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-02-21 August Home, Inc. Intelligent door lock system that minimizes inertia applied to components
US20160041672A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-02-11 Apple Inc. Force Sensing of Inputs Through Strain Analysis
US9624695B1 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-04-18 August Home, Inc. Intelligent door lock system with WiFi bridge
US9725927B1 (en) 2014-03-12 2017-08-08 August Home, Inc. System for intelligent door knob (handle)
US9326094B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-04-26 August Home, Inc. BLE/WiFi bridge with audio sensor
US9447609B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-09-20 August Home, Inc. Mobile device that detects tappings/vibrations which are used to lock or unlock a door
US9528294B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-12-27 August Home, Inc. Intelligent door lock system with a torque limitor
US9706365B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-07-11 August Home, Inc. BLE/WiFi bridge that detects signal strength of bluetooth LE devices at an interior of a dwelling
WO2014143066A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Rinand Solutions Llc Touch force deflection sensor
US9576422B2 (en) 2013-04-18 2017-02-21 Bally Gaming, Inc. Systems, methods, and devices for operating wagering game machines with enhanced user interfaces
US9607075B2 (en) 2013-04-29 2017-03-28 Moogsoft, Inc. Situation dashboard system and method from event clustering
WO2015168071A1 (en) 2014-04-28 2015-11-05 Moogsoft, Inc. Alert dashboard system and method from event clustering
US9477331B2 (en) 2013-06-07 2016-10-25 Apple Inc. Touch detection at bezel edge
WO2014197334A3 (en) 2013-06-07 2015-01-29 Apple Inc. System and method for user-specified pronunciation of words for speech synthesis and recognition
WO2014197336A1 (en) 2013-06-07 2014-12-11 Apple Inc. System and method for detecting errors in interactions with a voice-based digital assistant
US9582608B2 (en) 2013-06-07 2017-02-28 Apple Inc. Unified ranking with entropy-weighted information for phrase-based semantic auto-completion
US9733716B2 (en) 2013-06-09 2017-08-15 Apple Inc. Proxy gesture recognizer
US9671889B1 (en) 2013-07-25 2017-06-06 Apple Inc. Input member with capacitive sensor
CN105493479A (en) 2013-08-29 2016-04-13 苹果公司 Multi-device wireless disable and enable
KR20160051846A (en) 2013-09-03 2016-05-11 애플 인크. User interface for manipulating user interface objects with magnetic properties
US9436863B2 (en) 2013-09-09 2016-09-06 Apple Inc. Reconstructing a biometric image
US9537935B2 (en) 2013-09-30 2017-01-03 Eric Trent Dryden Consumer PC in the cloud
WO2015084376A8 (en) 2013-12-05 2016-07-07 Apple Inc. Wearable multi-modal physiological sensing system
US20160296174A1 (en) 2013-12-05 2016-10-13 Apple Inc. Method of reducing motion artifacts on wearable optical sensor devices
WO2015102590A1 (en) 2013-12-30 2015-07-09 Bodhi Technology Ventures Llc Estimating skin pigmentation to estimate sunburn and melanoma risk
US9514351B2 (en) 2014-02-12 2016-12-06 Apple Inc. Processing a fingerprint for fingerprint matching
US9576126B2 (en) 2014-02-13 2017-02-21 Apple Inc. Updating a template for a biometric recognition device
CN206193905U (en) 2014-05-29 2017-05-24 苹果公司 Electronic equipment
DE202015004268U1 (en) 2014-05-29 2015-11-13 Apple Inc. User interface for payments
US9324067B2 (en) 2014-05-29 2016-04-26 Apple Inc. User interface for payments
DE102015208532A1 (en) 2014-05-30 2015-12-03 Apple Inc. continuity
CN106415559A (en) 2014-05-30 2017-02-15 苹果公司 Wellness data aggregator
US20150347534A1 (en) 2014-05-30 2015-12-03 Apple Inc. Structured suggestions
US9842101B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-12-12 Apple Inc. Predictive conversion of language input
EP3149501A1 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-04-05 Apple Inc. Battery usage tracking user interface
WO2015183699A1 (en) 2014-05-30 2015-12-03 Apple Inc. Predictive messaging method
US20150350448A1 (en) 2014-05-30 2015-12-03 Apple Inc. User interface for phone call routing among devices
US9785630B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-10-10 Apple Inc. Text prediction using combined word N-gram and unigram language models
EP3149728A1 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-04-05 Apple Inc. Multi-command single utterance input method
US20150347532A1 (en) 2014-05-30 2015-12-03 Apple Inc. User interface for searching
US9760559B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-09-12 Apple Inc. Predictive text input
US9715875B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-07-25 Apple Inc. Reducing the need for manual start/end-pointing and trigger phrases
EP3108342A1 (en) 2014-05-30 2016-12-28 Apple Inc. Transition from use of one device to another
DE202014004477U1 (en) 2014-05-30 2014-09-15 Apple Inc. Device and graphical user interface for managing folders with multiple pages
US20150350141A1 (en) 2014-05-31 2015-12-03 Apple Inc. Message user interfaces for capture and transmittal of media and location content
WO2015183756A1 (en) 2014-05-31 2015-12-03 Apple Inc. Message user interfaces for capture and transmittal of media and location content
EP3147747A1 (en) 2014-06-27 2017-03-29 Apple Inc. Manipulation of calendar application in device with touch screen
US9338493B2 (en) 2014-06-30 2016-05-10 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant for TV user interactions
US20160021168A1 (en) 2014-07-21 2016-01-21 Apple Inc. Remote user interface
US9584876B2 (en) 2014-07-23 2017-02-28 Highlands Technologies Solutions System and method for creating and displaying recipient gifts for display at a venue display
EP2977882A1 (en) 2014-07-25 2016-01-27 Motorola Solutions, Inc. Method and apparatus for identifying fingers in contact with a touch screen
WO2016022203A1 (en) 2014-08-02 2016-02-11 Apple Inc. Context-specific user interfaces
US9734659B2 (en) 2014-08-06 2017-08-15 Mido Play Inc. Single platform system for multiple jurisdiction lotteries and social media
WO2016022496A4 (en) 2014-08-06 2016-05-19 Apple Inc. User interfaces for battery management
US9704314B2 (en) 2014-08-13 2017-07-11 August Home, Inc. BLE/WiFi bridge that detects signal strength of Bluetooth LE devices at an exterior of a dwelling
JP2017531235A (en) 2014-08-15 2017-10-19 アップル インコーポレイテッド Authenticated devices that are used to unlock another device
US20160048283A1 (en) 2014-08-15 2016-02-18 Apple Inc. Weather user interface
US9867575B2 (en) 2014-08-22 2018-01-16 Apple Inc. Heart rate path optimizer
DE202015005999U1 (en) 2014-08-26 2015-11-26 Apple Inc. User interface to Restrict messages and alarms
US9841887B2 (en) 2014-08-27 2017-12-12 Apple Inc. Anchoring viewport
US9886179B2 (en) 2014-08-27 2018-02-06 Apple Inc. Anchored approach to scrolling
WO2016036545A1 (en) 2014-09-02 2016-03-10 Apple Inc. Reduced-size notification interface
WO2016036416A1 (en) 2014-09-02 2016-03-10 Apple Inc. Button functionality
EP3189406A2 (en) 2014-09-02 2017-07-12 Apple Inc. Phone user interface
WO2016036412A1 (en) 2014-09-02 2016-03-10 Apple Inc. Remote camera user interface
WO2016036603A1 (en) 2014-09-02 2016-03-10 Apple Inc. Reduced size configuration interface
DE202015006141U1 (en) 2014-09-02 2015-12-14 Apple Inc. Electronic touch communication
US20160062589A1 (en) 2014-09-02 2016-03-03 Apple Inc. Reduced-size user interfaces for dynamically updated application overviews
JP2017526073A (en) 2014-09-02 2017-09-07 アップル インコーポレイテッド Small interface for managing alerts
US20160062573A1 (en) 2014-09-02 2016-03-03 Apple Inc. Reduced size user interface
CN106662966A (en) 2014-09-02 2017-05-10 苹果公司 Multi-dimensional object rearrangement
WO2016036427A1 (en) 2014-09-02 2016-03-10 Apple Inc. Electronic device with rotatable input mechanism
KR101776098B1 (en) 2014-09-02 2017-09-07 애플 인크. Physical activity and workout monitor
WO2016036509A1 (en) 2014-09-02 2016-03-10 Apple Inc. Electronic mail user interface
DE202015006055U1 (en) 2014-09-02 2016-02-02 Apple Inc. User interface for receiving user input
WO2016036510A4 (en) 2014-09-02 2016-04-14 Apple Inc. Music user interface
US9818400B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2017-11-14 Apple Inc. Method and apparatus for discovering trending terms in speech requests
WO2016048308A1 (en) 2014-09-24 2016-03-31 Fortulabs Technologies Llc Management of the channel bar
WO2016048310A1 (en) 2014-09-24 2016-03-31 Fortulabs Technologies Llc Management of the channel bar
US9668121B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2017-05-30 Apple Inc. Social reminders
US9646609B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2017-05-09 Apple Inc. Caching apparatus for serving phonetic pronunciations
US9886432B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2018-02-06 Apple Inc. Parsimonious handling of word inflection via categorical stem + suffix N-gram language models
WO2016109807A1 (en) 2015-01-02 2016-07-07 Hello, Inc. Room monitoring device and sleep analysis
US9610030B2 (en) 2015-01-23 2017-04-04 Hello Inc. Room monitoring device and sleep analysis methods
US20160224973A1 (en) 2015-02-01 2016-08-04 Apple Inc. User interface for payments
US9574896B2 (en) 2015-02-13 2017-02-21 Apple Inc. Navigation user interface
US20160259535A1 (en) 2015-03-02 2016-09-08 Apple Inc. Screenreader user interface
US20160259530A1 (en) 2015-03-02 2016-09-08 Apple Inc. Control of system zoom magnification using a rotatable input mechanism
US9865280B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2018-01-09 Apple Inc. Structured dictation using intelligent automated assistants
US20160259542A1 (en) 2015-03-07 2016-09-08 Apple Inc. Activity based thresholds and feedbacks
US9645732B2 (en) 2015-03-08 2017-05-09 Apple Inc. Devices, methods, and graphical user interfaces for displaying and using menus
US20160259656A1 (en) 2015-03-08 2016-09-08 Apple Inc. Virtual assistant continuity
US9721566B2 (en) 2015-03-08 2017-08-01 Apple Inc. Competing devices responding to voice triggers
US9886953B2 (en) 2015-03-08 2018-02-06 Apple Inc. Virtual assistant activation
US9785305B2 (en) 2015-03-19 2017-10-10 Apple Inc. Touch input cursor manipulation
US9842105B2 (en) 2015-04-16 2017-12-12 Apple Inc. Parsimonious continuous-space phrase representations for natural language processing
DE202015003894U1 (en) 2015-05-28 2015-09-17 Apple Inc. Health data aggregator
US9659460B2 (en) 2015-06-03 2017-05-23 Mido Play Inc. Methods for multiple legal game providers and multiple jurisdictions with a single platform
US20160357728A1 (en) 2015-06-04 2016-12-08 Apple Inc. Language identification from short strings
US20160357354A1 (en) 2015-06-04 2016-12-08 Apple Inc. Condition-based activation of a user interface
US20160358133A1 (en) 2015-06-05 2016-12-08 Apple Inc. User interface for loyalty accounts and private label accounts for a wearable device
US20160358199A1 (en) 2015-06-05 2016-12-08 Apple Inc. User interface for loyalty accounts and private label accounts
US9818247B2 (en) 2015-06-05 2017-11-14 August Home, Inc. Intelligent door lock system with keypad
US20160357583A1 (en) 2015-06-07 2016-12-08 Apple Inc. Intelligent disabling of browser plugins
US9860451B2 (en) 2015-06-07 2018-01-02 Apple Inc. Devices and methods for capturing and interacting with enhanced digital images
US20160357403A1 (en) 2015-06-07 2016-12-08 Apple Inc. Content browsing user interface
US9674426B2 (en) 2015-06-07 2017-06-06 Apple Inc. Devices and methods for capturing and interacting with enhanced digital images
US9640028B2 (en) 2015-07-29 2017-05-02 Mido Play, Inc. Single platform system for multiple jurisdiction lotteries
US9715301B2 (en) 2015-08-04 2017-07-25 Apple Inc. Proximity edge sensing
US20170068513A1 (en) 2015-09-08 2017-03-09 Apple Inc. Zero latency digital assistant
US9697820B2 (en) 2015-09-24 2017-07-04 Apple Inc. Unit-selection text-to-speech synthesis using concatenation-sensitive neural networks
US20170263249A1 (en) 2016-03-14 2017-09-14 Apple Inc. Identification of voice inputs providing credentials
DE102017209504A1 (en) 2016-06-11 2017-12-14 Apple Inc. Data-related recognition and classification of natural language events
US20170359506A1 (en) 2016-06-12 2017-12-14 Apple Inc. User interface for camera effects
DE202017002874U1 (en) 2017-05-31 2017-09-07 Apple Inc. User interface for camera effects

Citations (97)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3333160A (en) 1964-02-24 1967-07-25 Water Economy And Res Company Proximity responsive system
US3541541A (en) 1967-06-21 1970-11-17 Stanford Research Inst X-y position indicator for a display system
US3662105A (en) 1970-05-21 1972-05-09 Univ Kentucky Res Found Electrical sensor of plane coordinates
US3798370A (en) 1972-04-17 1974-03-19 Elographics Inc Electrographic sensor for determining planar coordinates
US4246452A (en) 1979-01-05 1981-01-20 Mattel, Inc. Switch apparatus
US4550221A (en) 1983-10-07 1985-10-29 Scott Mabusth Touch sensitive control device
US4672558A (en) 1984-09-25 1987-06-09 Aquila Technologies Group, Inc. Touch-sensitive data input device
US4672364A (en) 1984-06-18 1987-06-09 Carroll Touch Inc Touch input device having power profiling
US4692809A (en) 1984-11-20 1987-09-08 Hughes Aircraft Company Integrated touch paint system for displays
US4695827A (en) 1984-11-20 1987-09-22 Hughes Aircraft Company Electromagnetic energy interference seal for light beam touch panels
US4733222A (en) 1983-12-27 1988-03-22 Integrated Touch Arrays, Inc. Capacitance-variation-sensitive touch sensing array system
US4734685A (en) 1983-07-28 1988-03-29 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Position control apparatus
US4746770A (en) 1987-02-17 1988-05-24 Sensor Frame Incorporated Method and apparatus for isolating and manipulating graphic objects on computer video monitor
US4771276A (en) 1985-04-15 1988-09-13 International Business Machines Corporation Electromagnetic touch sensor input system in a cathode ray tube display device
US4788384A (en) 1986-12-18 1988-11-29 Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique Device for two-dimensional localization of events that generate current on a resistive surface
US4806846A (en) 1987-07-06 1989-02-21 Kerber George L High accuracy direct reading capacitance-to-voltage converter
US4898555A (en) 1989-03-23 1990-02-06 Bell & Howell Publication Systems Company Display screen bezel and assembly method
US4968877A (en) 1988-09-14 1990-11-06 Sensor Frame Corporation VideoHarp
US5003519A (en) 1988-05-26 1991-03-26 Eta S.A. Fabriques D'ebauches Alarm arrangement for a timepiece
US5017030A (en) 1986-07-07 1991-05-21 Crews Jay A Ergonomically designed keyboard
US5178477A (en) 1991-06-06 1993-01-12 Gambaro Thomas L Ergonomic keyboard input device
US5189403A (en) 1989-09-26 1993-02-23 Home Row, Inc. Integrated keyboard and pointing device system with automatic mode change
US5194862A (en) 1990-06-29 1993-03-16 U.S. Philips Corporation Touch sensor array systems and display systems incorporating such
US5224861A (en) 1990-09-17 1993-07-06 Hughes Aircraft Company Training device onboard instruction station
US5241308A (en) 1990-02-22 1993-08-31 Paragon Systems, Inc. Force sensitive touch panel
US5252951A (en) 1989-04-28 1993-10-12 International Business Machines Corporation Graphical user interface with gesture recognition in a multiapplication environment
US5281966A (en) 1992-01-31 1994-01-25 Walsh A Peter Method of encoding alphabetic characters for a chord keyboard
US5305017A (en) 1989-08-16 1994-04-19 Gerpheide George E Methods and apparatus for data input
US5345543A (en) 1992-11-16 1994-09-06 Apple Computer, Inc. Method for manipulating objects on a computer display
US5376948A (en) 1992-03-25 1994-12-27 Visage, Inc. Method of and apparatus for touch-input computer and related display employing touch force location external to the display
US5398310A (en) 1992-04-13 1995-03-14 Apple Computer, Incorporated Pointing gesture based computer note pad paging and scrolling interface
US5442742A (en) 1990-12-21 1995-08-15 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for the manipulation of text on a computer display screen
US5463696A (en) 1992-05-27 1995-10-31 Apple Computer, Inc. Recognition system and method for user inputs to a computer system
US5463388A (en) 1993-01-29 1995-10-31 At&T Ipm Corp. Computer mouse or keyboard input device utilizing capacitive sensors
US5483261A (en) 1992-02-14 1996-01-09 Itu Research, Inc. Graphical input controller and method with rear screen image detection
US5488204A (en) 1992-06-08 1996-01-30 Synaptics, Incorporated Paintbrush stylus for capacitive touch sensor pad
US5495077A (en) 1992-06-08 1996-02-27 Synaptics, Inc. Object position and proximity detector
US5513309A (en) 1993-01-05 1996-04-30 Apple Computer, Inc. Graphic editor user interface for a pointer-based computer system
US5523775A (en) 1992-05-26 1996-06-04 Apple Computer, Inc. Method for selecting objects on a computer display
US5530455A (en) 1994-08-10 1996-06-25 Mouse Systems Corporation Roller mouse for implementing scrolling in windows applications
US5543591A (en) 1992-06-08 1996-08-06 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US5543590A (en) 1992-06-08 1996-08-06 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector with edge motion feature
US5563996A (en) 1992-04-13 1996-10-08 Apple Computer, Inc. Computer note pad including gesture based note division tools and method
US5563632A (en) 1993-04-30 1996-10-08 Microtouch Systems, Inc. Method of and apparatus for the elimination of the effects of internal interference in force measurement systems, including touch - input computer and related displays employing touch force location measurement techniques
US5565658A (en) 1992-07-13 1996-10-15 Cirque Corporation Capacitance-based proximity with interference rejection apparatus and methods
US5579036A (en) 1994-04-28 1996-11-26 At&T Global Information Solutions Company Touch screen device and shielding bracket therefor
US5583946A (en) 1993-09-30 1996-12-10 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for recognizing gestures on a computer system
US5592566A (en) 1992-05-27 1997-01-07 Apple Computer, Incorporated Method and apparatus for computerized recognition
US5596694A (en) 1992-05-27 1997-01-21 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for indicating a change in status of an object and its disposition using animation
US5612719A (en) 1992-12-03 1997-03-18 Apple Computer, Inc. Gesture sensitive buttons for graphical user interfaces
US5631805A (en) 1995-09-27 1997-05-20 Dynapro Systems, Inc. Touch screen enclosure having an insertable graphic sheet
US5633955A (en) 1992-05-27 1997-05-27 Apple Computer, Inc. Method of connecting shapes on a display of a computer system
US5634102A (en) 1995-08-07 1997-05-27 Apple Computer, Inc. Methods and apparatus for a selectable backdrop
US5636101A (en) 1995-09-27 1997-06-03 Dynapro Systems, Inc. Touch screen enclosure system having touch screen pan and hinged rear enclosure section for ease of serviceability
US5642108A (en) 1991-06-28 1997-06-24 Infogrip, Inc. Chordic keyboard system for generating a signal in response to a chord that is assigned using a correlation based on a composite chord-difficulty index
US5644657A (en) 1992-05-27 1997-07-01 Apple Computer, Inc. Method for locating and displaying information in a pointer-based computer system
US5666113A (en) 1991-07-31 1997-09-09 Microtouch Systems, Inc. System for using a touchpad input device for cursor control and keyboard emulation
US5666502A (en) 1995-08-07 1997-09-09 Apple Computer, Inc. Graphical user interface using historical lists with field classes
US5675361A (en) 1995-08-23 1997-10-07 Santilli; Donald S. Computer keyboard pointing device
US5677710A (en) 1993-05-10 1997-10-14 Apple Computer, Inc. Recognition keypad
US5689253A (en) 1991-04-10 1997-11-18 Kinesis Corporation Ergonomic keyboard apparatus
US5729250A (en) 1995-05-08 1998-03-17 International Business Machines Corporation Front cover assembly for a touch sensitive device
US5730165A (en) 1995-12-26 1998-03-24 Philipp; Harald Time domain capacitive field detector
US5736976A (en) 1995-02-13 1998-04-07 Cheung; Nina T. Computer data entry apparatus with hand motion sensing and monitoring
US5741990A (en) 1989-02-17 1998-04-21 Notepool, Ltd. Method of and means for producing musical note relationships
US5745116A (en) 1996-09-09 1998-04-28 Motorola, Inc. Intuitive gesture-based graphical user interface
US5745716A (en) 1995-08-07 1998-04-28 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for tab access and tab cycling in a pen-based computer system
US5748269A (en) 1996-11-21 1998-05-05 Westinghouse Air Brake Company Environmentally-sealed, convectively-cooled active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD)
US5746818A (en) 1995-08-31 1998-05-05 Seiko Epson Corporation Pigment ink composition capable of forming image having no significant bleeding or feathering
US5764222A (en) 1996-05-28 1998-06-09 International Business Machines Corporation Virtual pointing device for touchscreens
US5767842A (en) 1992-02-07 1998-06-16 International Business Machines Corporation Method and device for optical input of commands or data
US5767457A (en) 1995-11-13 1998-06-16 Cirque Corporation Apparatus and method for audible feedback from input device
US5790104A (en) 1996-06-25 1998-08-04 International Business Machines Corporation Multiple, moveable, customizable virtual pointing devices
US5790107A (en) 1995-06-07 1998-08-04 Logitech, Inc. Touch sensing method and apparatus
US5802516A (en) 1993-11-03 1998-09-01 Apple Computer, Inc. Method of controlling an electronic book for a computer system
US5808567A (en) 1993-05-17 1998-09-15 Dsi Datotech Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method of communicating using three digits of a hand
US5809267A (en) 1993-12-30 1998-09-15 Xerox Corporation Apparatus and method for executing multiple-concatenated command gestures in a gesture based input system
US5812698A (en) * 1995-05-12 1998-09-22 Synaptics, Inc. Handwriting recognition system and method
US5821930A (en) 1992-08-23 1998-10-13 U S West, Inc. Method and system for generating a working window in a computer system
US5821690A (en) 1993-08-26 1998-10-13 Cambridge Display Technology Limited Electroluminescent devices having a light-emitting layer
US5823782A (en) 1995-12-29 1998-10-20 Tinkers & Chance Character recognition educational system
US5825352A (en) 1996-01-04 1998-10-20 Logitech, Inc. Multiple fingers contact sensing method for emulating mouse buttons and mouse operations on a touch sensor pad
US5825351A (en) 1994-05-12 1998-10-20 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for noise filtering for an input device
US5854625A (en) 1996-11-06 1998-12-29 Synaptics, Incorporated Force sensing touchpad
US5880411A (en) 1992-06-08 1999-03-09 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US5898434A (en) 1991-05-15 1999-04-27 Apple Computer, Inc. User interface system having programmable user interface elements
US5920309A (en) 1996-01-04 1999-07-06 Logitech, Inc. Touch sensing method and apparatus
US5933134A (en) 1996-06-25 1999-08-03 International Business Machines Corporation Touch screen virtual pointing device which goes into a translucent hibernation state when not in use
US5943044A (en) 1996-08-05 1999-08-24 Interlink Electronics Force sensing semiconductive touchpad
US6002389A (en) 1996-04-24 1999-12-14 Logitech, Inc. Touch and pressure sensing method and apparatus
US6002808A (en) 1996-07-26 1999-12-14 Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America, Inc. Hand gesture control system
US6020881A (en) 1993-05-24 2000-02-01 Sun Microsystems Graphical user interface with method and apparatus for interfacing to remote devices
US6031524A (en) 1995-06-07 2000-02-29 Intermec Ip Corp. Hand-held portable data terminal having removably interchangeable, washable, user-replaceable components with liquid-impervious seal
US6037882A (en) 1997-09-30 2000-03-14 Levy; David H. Method and apparatus for inputting data to an electronic system
US6137908A (en) * 1994-06-29 2000-10-24 Microsoft Corporation Handwriting recognition system simultaneously considering shape and context information
US6323846B1 (en) * 1998-01-26 2001-11-27 University Of Delaware Method and apparatus for integrating manual input
US6378234B1 (en) * 1999-04-09 2002-04-30 Ching-Hsing Luo Sequential stroke keyboard

Patent Citations (103)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3333160A (en) 1964-02-24 1967-07-25 Water Economy And Res Company Proximity responsive system
US3541541A (en) 1967-06-21 1970-11-17 Stanford Research Inst X-y position indicator for a display system
US3662105A (en) 1970-05-21 1972-05-09 Univ Kentucky Res Found Electrical sensor of plane coordinates
US3798370A (en) 1972-04-17 1974-03-19 Elographics Inc Electrographic sensor for determining planar coordinates
US4246452A (en) 1979-01-05 1981-01-20 Mattel, Inc. Switch apparatus
US4734685A (en) 1983-07-28 1988-03-29 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Position control apparatus
US4550221A (en) 1983-10-07 1985-10-29 Scott Mabusth Touch sensitive control device
US4733222A (en) 1983-12-27 1988-03-22 Integrated Touch Arrays, Inc. Capacitance-variation-sensitive touch sensing array system
US4672364A (en) 1984-06-18 1987-06-09 Carroll Touch Inc Touch input device having power profiling
US4672558A (en) 1984-09-25 1987-06-09 Aquila Technologies Group, Inc. Touch-sensitive data input device
US4695827A (en) 1984-11-20 1987-09-22 Hughes Aircraft Company Electromagnetic energy interference seal for light beam touch panels
US4692809A (en) 1984-11-20 1987-09-08 Hughes Aircraft Company Integrated touch paint system for displays
US4771276A (en) 1985-04-15 1988-09-13 International Business Machines Corporation Electromagnetic touch sensor input system in a cathode ray tube display device
US5017030A (en) 1986-07-07 1991-05-21 Crews Jay A Ergonomically designed keyboard
US4788384A (en) 1986-12-18 1988-11-29 Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique Device for two-dimensional localization of events that generate current on a resistive surface
US4746770A (en) 1987-02-17 1988-05-24 Sensor Frame Incorporated Method and apparatus for isolating and manipulating graphic objects on computer video monitor
US4806846A (en) 1987-07-06 1989-02-21 Kerber George L High accuracy direct reading capacitance-to-voltage converter
US5003519A (en) 1988-05-26 1991-03-26 Eta S.A. Fabriques D'ebauches Alarm arrangement for a timepiece
US4968877A (en) 1988-09-14 1990-11-06 Sensor Frame Corporation VideoHarp
US5741990A (en) 1989-02-17 1998-04-21 Notepool, Ltd. Method of and means for producing musical note relationships
US4898555A (en) 1989-03-23 1990-02-06 Bell & Howell Publication Systems Company Display screen bezel and assembly method
US5252951A (en) 1989-04-28 1993-10-12 International Business Machines Corporation Graphical user interface with gesture recognition in a multiapplication environment
US5305017A (en) 1989-08-16 1994-04-19 Gerpheide George E Methods and apparatus for data input
US5189403A (en) 1989-09-26 1993-02-23 Home Row, Inc. Integrated keyboard and pointing device system with automatic mode change
US5241308A (en) 1990-02-22 1993-08-31 Paragon Systems, Inc. Force sensitive touch panel
US5194862A (en) 1990-06-29 1993-03-16 U.S. Philips Corporation Touch sensor array systems and display systems incorporating such
US5224861A (en) 1990-09-17 1993-07-06 Hughes Aircraft Company Training device onboard instruction station
US5666552A (en) 1990-12-21 1997-09-09 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for the manipulation of text on a computer display screen
US5442742A (en) 1990-12-21 1995-08-15 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for the manipulation of text on a computer display screen
US5689253A (en) 1991-04-10 1997-11-18 Kinesis Corporation Ergonomic keyboard apparatus
US5898434A (en) 1991-05-15 1999-04-27 Apple Computer, Inc. User interface system having programmable user interface elements
US5178477A (en) 1991-06-06 1993-01-12 Gambaro Thomas L Ergonomic keyboard input device
US5642108A (en) 1991-06-28 1997-06-24 Infogrip, Inc. Chordic keyboard system for generating a signal in response to a chord that is assigned using a correlation based on a composite chord-difficulty index
US5666113A (en) 1991-07-31 1997-09-09 Microtouch Systems, Inc. System for using a touchpad input device for cursor control and keyboard emulation
US5281966A (en) 1992-01-31 1994-01-25 Walsh A Peter Method of encoding alphabetic characters for a chord keyboard
US5767842A (en) 1992-02-07 1998-06-16 International Business Machines Corporation Method and device for optical input of commands or data
US5483261A (en) 1992-02-14 1996-01-09 Itu Research, Inc. Graphical input controller and method with rear screen image detection
US5376948A (en) 1992-03-25 1994-12-27 Visage, Inc. Method of and apparatus for touch-input computer and related display employing touch force location external to the display
US5563996A (en) 1992-04-13 1996-10-08 Apple Computer, Inc. Computer note pad including gesture based note division tools and method
US5581681A (en) 1992-04-13 1996-12-03 Apple Computer, Inc. Pointing gesture based computer note pad paging and scrolling interface
US5398310A (en) 1992-04-13 1995-03-14 Apple Computer, Incorporated Pointing gesture based computer note pad paging and scrolling interface
US5523775A (en) 1992-05-26 1996-06-04 Apple Computer, Inc. Method for selecting objects on a computer display
US5463696A (en) 1992-05-27 1995-10-31 Apple Computer, Inc. Recognition system and method for user inputs to a computer system
US5633955A (en) 1992-05-27 1997-05-27 Apple Computer, Inc. Method of connecting shapes on a display of a computer system
US5644657A (en) 1992-05-27 1997-07-01 Apple Computer, Inc. Method for locating and displaying information in a pointer-based computer system
US5592566A (en) 1992-05-27 1997-01-07 Apple Computer, Incorporated Method and apparatus for computerized recognition
US5596694A (en) 1992-05-27 1997-01-21 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for indicating a change in status of an object and its disposition using animation
US5710844A (en) 1992-05-27 1998-01-20 Apple Computer Method for searching and displaying results in a pen-based computer system
US5880411A (en) 1992-06-08 1999-03-09 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US5543590A (en) 1992-06-08 1996-08-06 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector with edge motion feature
US5495077A (en) 1992-06-08 1996-02-27 Synaptics, Inc. Object position and proximity detector
US5488204A (en) 1992-06-08 1996-01-30 Synaptics, Incorporated Paintbrush stylus for capacitive touch sensor pad
US5543591A (en) 1992-06-08 1996-08-06 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US5565658A (en) 1992-07-13 1996-10-15 Cirque Corporation Capacitance-based proximity with interference rejection apparatus and methods
US5821930A (en) 1992-08-23 1998-10-13 U S West, Inc. Method and system for generating a working window in a computer system
US5345543A (en) 1992-11-16 1994-09-06 Apple Computer, Inc. Method for manipulating objects on a computer display
US5612719A (en) 1992-12-03 1997-03-18 Apple Computer, Inc. Gesture sensitive buttons for graphical user interfaces
US5513309A (en) 1993-01-05 1996-04-30 Apple Computer, Inc. Graphic editor user interface for a pointer-based computer system
US5463388A (en) 1993-01-29 1995-10-31 At&T Ipm Corp. Computer mouse or keyboard input device utilizing capacitive sensors
US5563632A (en) 1993-04-30 1996-10-08 Microtouch Systems, Inc. Method of and apparatus for the elimination of the effects of internal interference in force measurement systems, including touch - input computer and related displays employing touch force location measurement techniques
US5677710A (en) 1993-05-10 1997-10-14 Apple Computer, Inc. Recognition keypad
US5808567A (en) 1993-05-17 1998-09-15 Dsi Datotech Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method of communicating using three digits of a hand
US6020881A (en) 1993-05-24 2000-02-01 Sun Microsystems Graphical user interface with method and apparatus for interfacing to remote devices
US5821690A (en) 1993-08-26 1998-10-13 Cambridge Display Technology Limited Electroluminescent devices having a light-emitting layer
US5590219A (en) 1993-09-30 1996-12-31 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for recognizing gestures on a computer system
US5594810A (en) 1993-09-30 1997-01-14 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for recognizing gestures on a computer system
US5583946A (en) 1993-09-30 1996-12-10 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for recognizing gestures on a computer system
US5802516A (en) 1993-11-03 1998-09-01 Apple Computer, Inc. Method of controlling an electronic book for a computer system
US5809267A (en) 1993-12-30 1998-09-15 Xerox Corporation Apparatus and method for executing multiple-concatenated command gestures in a gesture based input system
US5579036A (en) 1994-04-28 1996-11-26 At&T Global Information Solutions Company Touch screen device and shielding bracket therefor
US5825351A (en) 1994-05-12 1998-10-20 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for noise filtering for an input device
US6137908A (en) * 1994-06-29 2000-10-24 Microsoft Corporation Handwriting recognition system simultaneously considering shape and context information
US5530455A (en) 1994-08-10 1996-06-25 Mouse Systems Corporation Roller mouse for implementing scrolling in windows applications
US5736976A (en) 1995-02-13 1998-04-07 Cheung; Nina T. Computer data entry apparatus with hand motion sensing and monitoring
US5923319A (en) 1995-05-08 1999-07-13 International Business Machines Corporation Front cover assembly for touch sensitive device
US5729250A (en) 1995-05-08 1998-03-17 International Business Machines Corporation Front cover assembly for a touch sensitive device
US5812698A (en) * 1995-05-12 1998-09-22 Synaptics, Inc. Handwriting recognition system and method
US6031524A (en) 1995-06-07 2000-02-29 Intermec Ip Corp. Hand-held portable data terminal having removably interchangeable, washable, user-replaceable components with liquid-impervious seal
US5790107A (en) 1995-06-07 1998-08-04 Logitech, Inc. Touch sensing method and apparatus
US5745716A (en) 1995-08-07 1998-04-28 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for tab access and tab cycling in a pen-based computer system
US5634102A (en) 1995-08-07 1997-05-27 Apple Computer, Inc. Methods and apparatus for a selectable backdrop
US5666502A (en) 1995-08-07 1997-09-09 Apple Computer, Inc. Graphical user interface using historical lists with field classes
US5675361A (en) 1995-08-23 1997-10-07 Santilli; Donald S. Computer keyboard pointing device
US5746818A (en) 1995-08-31 1998-05-05 Seiko Epson Corporation Pigment ink composition capable of forming image having no significant bleeding or feathering
US5636101A (en) 1995-09-27 1997-06-03 Dynapro Systems, Inc. Touch screen enclosure system having touch screen pan and hinged rear enclosure section for ease of serviceability
US5631805A (en) 1995-09-27 1997-05-20 Dynapro Systems, Inc. Touch screen enclosure having an insertable graphic sheet
US5767457A (en) 1995-11-13 1998-06-16 Cirque Corporation Apparatus and method for audible feedback from input device
US5730165A (en) 1995-12-26 1998-03-24 Philipp; Harald Time domain capacitive field detector
US5823782A (en) 1995-12-29 1998-10-20 Tinkers & Chance Character recognition educational system
US5825352A (en) 1996-01-04 1998-10-20 Logitech, Inc. Multiple fingers contact sensing method for emulating mouse buttons and mouse operations on a touch sensor pad
US5920309A (en) 1996-01-04 1999-07-06 Logitech, Inc. Touch sensing method and apparatus
US6002389A (en) 1996-04-24 1999-12-14 Logitech, Inc. Touch and pressure sensing method and apparatus
US5764222A (en) 1996-05-28 1998-06-09 International Business Machines Corporation Virtual pointing device for touchscreens
US5933134A (en) 1996-06-25 1999-08-03 International Business Machines Corporation Touch screen virtual pointing device which goes into a translucent hibernation state when not in use
US5790104A (en) 1996-06-25 1998-08-04 International Business Machines Corporation Multiple, moveable, customizable virtual pointing devices
US6002808A (en) 1996-07-26 1999-12-14 Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America, Inc. Hand gesture control system
US5943044A (en) 1996-08-05 1999-08-24 Interlink Electronics Force sensing semiconductive touchpad
US5745116A (en) 1996-09-09 1998-04-28 Motorola, Inc. Intuitive gesture-based graphical user interface
US5854625A (en) 1996-11-06 1998-12-29 Synaptics, Incorporated Force sensing touchpad
US5748269A (en) 1996-11-21 1998-05-05 Westinghouse Air Brake Company Environmentally-sealed, convectively-cooled active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD)
US6037882A (en) 1997-09-30 2000-03-14 Levy; David H. Method and apparatus for inputting data to an electronic system
US6323846B1 (en) * 1998-01-26 2001-11-27 University Of Delaware Method and apparatus for integrating manual input
US6378234B1 (en) * 1999-04-09 2002-04-30 Ching-Hsing Luo Sequential stroke keyboard

Non-Patent Citations (83)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
"4-Wire Resistive Touchscreens" obtained from http://www.touchscreens.com/intro-touchtypes-4resistive.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"5-Wire Resistive Touchscreens" obtained from http://www.touchscreens.com/intro-touchtypes-resistive.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"A Brief Overview of Gesture Recognition" obtained from http://www.dai.ed.ac.uk/Cvonline/LOCA_COPIES/COHEN/gesture_overview.html, generated Apr. 20, 2004.
"Capacitive Position Sensing" obtained from http://www.synaptics.com/technology/cps.cfm generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"Capacitive Touchscreens" obtained from http://www.touchscreens.com/intro-touchtypes-capacitive.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"Comparing Touch Technologies" obtained from http://www.touchscreens.com/intro-touchtypes.html generated Oct. 10, 2004.
"FingerWorks-Gesture Guide-Application Switching," obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/gesture_guide_apps.html, generated on Aug. 27, 2004, 1-pg.
"FingerWorks-Gesture Guide-Editing," obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/gesture_guide_editing.html, generated on Aug. 27, 2004, 1 -pg.
"FingerWorks-Gesture Guide-File Operations," obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/gesture_guide_files.html, generated on Aug. 27, 2004, 1 -pg.
"FingerWorks-Gesture Guide-Text Manipulation," obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/gesture_guide_text_manip.html, generated on Aug. 27, 2004, 2 -pg.
"FingerWorks-Gesture Guide-Tips and Tricks," obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/gesture_guide_tips.html, generated Aug. 27, 2004, 2 -pgs.
"FingerWorks-Gesture Guide-Web," obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/gesture_guide_web.html, generated on Aug. 27, 2004, 1 -pg.
"FingerWorks-Guide to Hand Gestures for USB Touchpads," obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/igesture_userguide.html, generated Aug. 27, 2004, 1 -pg.
"FingerWorks-iGesture-Technical Details," obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/igesture_tech.html, generated Aug. 27, 2004, 1-pg.
"FingerWorks-The Only Touchpads with Ergonomic Full-Hand Resting and Relaxation!" obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/resting.html, Copyright 2001, 1 -pg.
"FingerWorks-Tips for Typing on the Mini," obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/mini_typing.html, generated on Aug. 27, 2004, 2 -pgs.
"Gesture Recognition" http://www.fingerworks.com/gesture_recognition.html.
"GlidePoint(R)" obtained from http://www.cirque.com/technology/technology_gp.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"How do touchscreen monitors know where you're touching?" obtained from http://www.electronics.howstuffworks.com/question716.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"How does a touchscreen work?" obtained from http://www.touchscreens.com/intro-anatomy.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"iGesture Pad-the MultiFinger USB TouchPad with Whole-Hand Gestures," obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/igesture.html, generated Aug. 27, 2004, 2 -pgs.
"iGesture Products for Everyone (learn in minutes) Product Overview" FingerWorks.com.
"Infrared Touchscreens" obtained from http://www.touchscreens.com/intro-touchtypes-infrared.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"Mouse Emulation" FingerWorks obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/gesture_guide-mouse.html generated Aug. 30, 2005.
"Mouse Gestures in Opera" obtained from http://www.opera.com/products/desktop/mouse/index.dml generated Aug. 30, 2005.
"Mouse Gestures," Optim oz, May 21, 2004.
"MultiTouch Overview" FingerWorks obtained from http://www.fingerworks.com/multoverview.html generated Aug. 30, 2005.
"Near Field Imaging Touchscreens" obtained from http://www.touchscreens.com/intro-touchtypes-nfi.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"PenTouch Capacitive Touchscreens" obtained from http://www.touchscreens.com/intro-touchtypes-pentouch.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"Surface Acoustic Wave Touchscreens" obtained from http://www.touchscreens.com/intro-touchtypes-saw.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
"Symbol Commander" obtained from http://www.sensiva.com/symbolcomander/, generated Aug. 30, 2005.
"Tips for Typing" FingerWorks http://www.fingerworks.com/mini_typing.html generated Aug. 30, 2005.
"Touch Technologies Overview" 2001, 3M Touch Systems, Massachusetts.
"Wacom Components-Technology" obtained from http://www.wacom-components.com/english/tech.asp generated on Oct. 10, 2004.
"Watershed Algoritm" http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/plugins/watershed.html generated Aug. 5, 2005.
Bier, "Toolglass and Magic Lenses: The see-through interface" In James Kijiya, editor, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '93 Proceedings), vol. 27, pp. 73-80, Aug. 1993.
Douglas et al., The Ergonomics of Computer Pointing Devices (1997).
European Search Report received in EP 1 621 989 @ Beyer Weaver & Thomas, LLP) dated Mar. 27, 2006.
EVB Elektronik "TSOP6238 IR Receiver Modules for Infrared Remote Control Systems" dated Jan. 2004 1 -pg.
Fisher et al., "Repetitive Motion Disorders: The Design of Optimal Rate-Rest Profiles," Human Factors, 35(2):283-304 (Jun. 1993).
Fukumoto and Yoshinobu Tonomura, "Body Coupled Fingering: Wireless Wearable Keyboard," CHI 97, pp. 147-154 (Mar. 1997).
Fukumoto et al., "ActiveClick: Tactile Feedback for Touch Panels," In CHI 2001 Summary, pp. 121-122, 2001.
Hardy, "Fingerworks" Mar. 7, 2002; BBC World On Line.
Hillier and Gerald J. Lieberman, Introduction to Operations Research, (1986).
International Search Report dated Mar. 3, 2006 (PCT/US 05/03325: 119-0052WO).
International Search Report received in corresponding PCT application No. PCT/US2006/008349 dated Oct. 6, 2006.
Jacob et al., "Integrality and Separability of Input Devices," ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1:3-26 (Mar. 1994).
Kinkley et al., "Touch-Sensing Input Devices," in CHI '99 Proceedings, pp. 223-230, 1999.
KIONX "KXP84 Series Summary Data Sheet" copyright 2005, dated Oct. 21, 2005, 4 -pgs.
Lee et al., "A Multi-Touch Three Dimensional Touch-Sensitive Tablet," in CHI '85 Proceedings, pp. 121-128, 2000.
Lee, "A Fast Multiple-Touch-Sensitive Input Device," Master's Thesis, University of Toronto (1984).
Matsushita et al., "Holo Wall: Designing a Finger, Hand, Body and Object Sensitive Wall," In Proceedings of UIST '97, Oct. 1997.
Quantum Research Group "QT510/QWheel(TM) Touch Slider IC" copyright 2004-2005, 14-pgs.
Quek, "Unencumbered Gestural Interaction," IEEE Multimedia, 3:36-47 (Winter 1996).
Radwin, "Activation Force and Travel Effects on Overexertion in Repetitive Key Tapping," Human Factors, 39(1):130-140 (Mar. 1997).
Rekimoto "SmartSkin: An Infrastructure for Freehand Manipulation on Interactive Surfaces" CHI 2002, Apr. 20-25, 2002.
Rekimoto et al., "ToolStone: Effective Use of the Physical Manipulation Vocabularies of Input Devices," In Proc. Of UIST 2000, 2000.
Rubine et al., "Programmable Finger-Tracking Instrument Controllers," Computer Music Journal, vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring 1990).
Rutledge et al., "Force-To-Motion Functions For Pointing," Human-Computer Interaction-INTERACT (1990).
Subatai Ahmad, "A Usable Real-Time 3D Hand Tracker," Proceedings of the 28th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers-Part 2 (of2), vol. 2 (Oct. 1994).
Texas Instruments "TSC2003/12C Touch Screen Controller" Data Sheet SBAS 162, dated Oct. 2001, 20 pgs.
U.S. Appl. No. 11/140,529 filed on May 27, 2005 which is a Reissue of 6,570,557 listed above (see A152).
U.S. Appl. No. 11/278,080 filed on Mar. 30, 2006 entitled "Force Imaging Input Device and System".
U.S. Appl. No. 11/332,861 filed on Jan. 13, 2006 which is a Reissue of 6,677,932 listed above (see A160).
U.S. Appl. No. 11/381,313 filed on May 2, 2006 entitled "Multipoint Touch Surface Controller".
U.S. Appl. No. 11/382,402 filed on May 9, 2006 entitled "Force and Location Sensitive Display" which is a Continuation of 11/278,080 listed above (see C81).
U.S. Appl. No. 11/426,078 filed on Jun. 23, 2006 entitled "Electronic Device Having Display and Surrounding Touch Sensitive Bezel For User Interface and Control" which is a Continuation-In-Part of 2006/0197753 listed above (see A181).
U.S. Appl. No. 11/428,501 filed on Jul. 3, 2006 entitled "Capacitive Sensing Arrangement," which is a Continuation of US 2005/0104867 listed above (see A177).
U.S. Appl. No. 11/428,503 filed on Jul. 3, 2006 entitled "Touch Surface" which is a Continuation of US 2005/0104867 listed above (see A177).
U.S. Appl. No. 11/428,506 filed on Jul. 3, 2006 entitled "User Interface Gestures" which is a Continuation of U.S. 2005/0104867 listed above (see A177).
U.S. Appl. No. 11/428,515 filed on Jul. 3, 2006 entitled "User Interface Gestures" which is a Continuation of U.S. 2005/0104867 listed above (see A177).
U.S. Appl. No. 11/428,521 filed on Jul. 3, 2006 entitled "Identifying Contacts on a Touch Surface" which is a Continuation of U.S. 2005/0104867 listed above (see A177).
U.S. Appl. No. 11/428,522 filed on Jul. 3, 2006 entitled "Identifying Contacts on a Touch Surface" which is a Continuation of U.S. 2005/0104867 listed above (see A177).
U.S. Appl. Ser. No. 10/774,053 filed on Feb. 5, 2004.
U.S. Pat. Appl. No. 10/654,108 filed Sep. 2, 2003 entitled "Ambidextrous Mouse".
U.S. Pat. Appl. No. 10/789,676 filed on Feb. 27, 2004 entitled "Shape Detecting Input Device".
U.S. Pat. Appl. No. 11/380,109 filed on Apr. 25, 2006 entitled "Keystroke Tactility Arrangement On Smooth Touch Surface."
Wellner, "The Digital Desk Calculators: Tangible Manipulation on a Desk Top Display" IN ACM UIST '91 Proceedings, pp. 27-34, Nov. 1991.
Williams, "Applications for a Switched-Capacitor Instrumentation Buiding Block" Linear Technology Application Note 3, Jul. 1985, pp. 1-16.
Yamada et al., "A Switched-Capacitor Interface for Capacitive Pressure Sensors" IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 41, No. 1, Feb. 1992, pp. 81-86.
Yeh et al., "Switched Capacitor Interface Circuit for Capacitive Transducers" 1985 IEEE.
Zhai et al., "Dual Stream Input for Pointing and Scolling," Proceedings of CHI '97 Extended Abstracts(1997).
Zimmerman et al., "Applying Electric Field Sensing to Human-Computer Interfaces," In CHI '85 Proceedings, pp. 280-287, 1995.

Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070177804A1 (en) * 2006-01-30 2007-08-02 Apple Computer, Inc. Multi-touch gesture dictionary
US8068093B2 (en) * 2006-10-10 2011-11-29 Promethean House Duplicate objects
US20100315338A1 (en) * 2006-10-10 2010-12-16 Promethean Limited Duplicate objects
US20160110027A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2016-04-21 Apple Inc. Multi-touch input discrimination
US20080158177A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2008-07-03 Apple Inc. Master/slave mode for sensor processing devices
US20080162967A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2008-07-03 Apple Computer, Inc. Gated power management over a system bus
US9323405B2 (en) 2007-01-03 2016-04-26 Apple Inc. Front-end signal compensation
US20080158175A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2008-07-03 Apple Inc. Minimizing mismatch during compensation
US9311528B2 (en) 2007-01-03 2016-04-12 Apple Inc. Gesture learning
US7848825B2 (en) 2007-01-03 2010-12-07 Apple Inc. Master/slave mode for sensor processing devices
US20080163130A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2008-07-03 Apple Inc Gesture learning
US8049732B2 (en) 2007-01-03 2011-11-01 Apple Inc. Front-end signal compensation
US20080158178A1 (en) * 2007-01-03 2008-07-03 Apple Inc. Front-end signal compensation
US8711129B2 (en) 2007-01-03 2014-04-29 Apple Inc. Minimizing mismatch during compensation
US8405617B2 (en) 2007-01-03 2013-03-26 Apple Inc. Gated power management over a system bus
US8553004B2 (en) 2007-01-03 2013-10-08 Apple Inc. Front-end signal compensation
US9778807B2 (en) * 2007-01-03 2017-10-03 Apple Inc. Multi-touch input discrimination
US20080211766A1 (en) * 2007-01-07 2008-09-04 Apple Inc. Multitouch data fusion
US20090178011A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2009-07-09 Bas Ording Gesture movies
US8413075B2 (en) * 2008-01-04 2013-04-02 Apple Inc. Gesture movies
US9513705B2 (en) 2008-06-19 2016-12-06 Tactile Displays, Llc Interactive display with tactile feedback
US8583421B2 (en) * 2009-03-06 2013-11-12 Motorola Mobility Llc Method and apparatus for psychomotor and psycholinguistic prediction on touch based device
US20100228539A1 (en) * 2009-03-06 2010-09-09 Motorola, Inc. Method and apparatus for psychomotor and psycholinguistic prediction on touch based device
US8352884B2 (en) 2009-05-21 2013-01-08 Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Dynamic reconfiguration of GUI display decomposition based on predictive model
US9448701B2 (en) 2009-05-21 2016-09-20 Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc. Customization of GUI layout based on history of use
US9367216B2 (en) 2009-05-21 2016-06-14 Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc. Hand-held device with two-finger touch triggered selection and transformation of active elements
US8375295B2 (en) 2009-05-21 2013-02-12 Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Customization of GUI layout based on history of use
US8434003B2 (en) 2009-05-21 2013-04-30 Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Touch control with dynamically determined buffer region and active perimeter
US9524085B2 (en) 2009-05-21 2016-12-20 Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc. Hand-held device with ancillary touch activated transformation of active element
US9009588B2 (en) 2009-05-21 2015-04-14 Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Customization of GUI layout based on history of use
US8797283B2 (en) 2010-11-22 2014-08-05 Sony Computer Entertainment America Llc Method and apparatus for performing user-defined macros
US8639494B1 (en) * 2010-12-28 2014-01-28 Intuit Inc. Technique for correcting user-interface shift errors
US8907903B2 (en) 2011-01-13 2014-12-09 Sony Computer Entertainment America Llc Handing control of an object from one touch input to another touch input
US8971572B1 (en) 2011-08-12 2015-03-03 The Research Foundation For The State University Of New York Hand pointing estimation for human computer interaction
US9372546B2 (en) 2011-08-12 2016-06-21 The Research Foundation For The State University Of New York Hand pointing estimation for human computer interaction
US9305229B2 (en) 2012-07-30 2016-04-05 Bruno Delean Method and system for vision based interfacing with a computer
US20140122057A1 (en) * 2012-10-26 2014-05-01 Google Inc. Techniques for input method editor language models using spatial input models

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US6677932B1 (en) 2004-01-13 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6611252B1 (en) Virtual data input device
US7706616B2 (en) System and method for recognizing word patterns in a very large vocabulary based on a virtual keyboard layout
US5847697A (en) Single-handed keyboard having keys with multiple characters and character ambiguity resolution logic
US7319957B2 (en) Handwriting and voice input with automatic correction
US5034989A (en) On-line handwritten character recognition apparatus with non-ambiguity algorithm
US5635958A (en) Information inputting and processing apparatus
US5621641A (en) Computer assisted text system
US5481278A (en) Information processing apparatus
US20050192802A1 (en) Handwriting and voice input with automatic correction
Smithies et al. A handwriting-based equation editor
US20020165873A1 (en) Retrieving handwritten documents using multiple document recognizers and techniques allowing both typed and handwritten queries
US20040201576A1 (en) Software multi-tap input system and method
US6366697B1 (en) Rotationally desensitized unistroke handwriting recognition
Masui An efficient text input method for pen-based computers
US6938220B1 (en) Information processing apparatus
US5596656A (en) Unistrokes for computerized interpretation of handwriting
US20070085835A1 (en) Automatic language selection for improving text accuracy
US20060206313A1 (en) Dictionary learning method and device using the same, input method and user terminal device using the same
US20030007018A1 (en) Handwriting user interface for personal digital assistants and the like
US20130067382A1 (en) Soft keyboard interface
US7088861B2 (en) System and method for chinese input using a joystick
US6348878B1 (en) Data entry keyboard
US5649223A (en) Word based text producing system
US20120119997A1 (en) Keyboard comprising swipe-switches performing keyboard actions
US6307548B1 (en) Reduced keyboard disambiguating system

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: APPLE INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FINGERWORKS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:019856/0474

Effective date: 20070831

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12