USRE40241E1 - Communication system - Google Patents

Communication system Download PDF

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USRE40241E1
USRE40241E1 US09/244,037 US24403799A USRE40241E US RE40241 E1 USRE40241 E1 US RE40241E1 US 24403799 A US24403799 A US 24403799A US RE40241 E USRE40241 E US RE40241E
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Prior art keywords
signal
level
transmission
data
digital
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US09/244,037
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Mitsuaki Oshima
Seiji Sakashita
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Cancer Therapeutics Ltd
Panasonic Corp
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Panasonic Corp
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Priority to JP6279891 priority Critical
Priority to JP9581391 priority
Priority to JP15565091 priority
Priority to JP18223691 priority
Priority to JP6073992 priority
Priority to US85762792A priority
Priority to JP13298493 priority
Priority to JP26161293 priority
Priority to JP34997293 priority
Priority to JP7966894A priority patent/JPH07264148A/en
Priority to US08/240,521 priority patent/US5600672A/en
Priority to US09/244,037 priority patent/USRE40241E1/en
Application filed by Panasonic Corp filed Critical Panasonic Corp
Assigned to CANCER THERAPEUTICS LIMITED reassignment CANCER THERAPEUTICS LIMITED ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: IMPERIAL CANCER RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY LIMITED
Priority claimed from US09/662,695 external-priority patent/USRE39890E1/en
Priority claimed from US10/133,347 external-priority patent/USRE39956E1/en
Priority claimed from US10/783,588 external-priority patent/USRE39927E1/en
Publication of USRE40241E1 publication Critical patent/USRE40241E1/en
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Priority claimed from US12/622,780 external-priority patent/USRE42643E1/en
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Abstract

At the transmitter side, carrier waves are modulated according to an input signal for producing relevant signal points in a signal space diagram. The input signal is divided into, two, first and second, data streams. The signal points are divided into signal point groups to which data of the first data stream are assigned. Also, data of the second data stream are assigned to the signal points of each signal point group. A difference in the transmission error rate between first and second data streams is developed by shifting the siganl points to other positions in the space diagram expressed at least in the polar coordinate system. At the receiver side, the first and/or second data streams can be reconstructed from a received signal. In TV broadcast service, a TV signal is divided by a transmitter into low and high frequency band components which are designated as first and second data streams respectively. Upon receiving the TV signal, a receiver can reproduce only the low frequency band component or both the low and high frequency band components, depending on its capability. Furthermore, a communication system based on an OFDM system is utilized for data transmission of a plurality of subchannels, wherein the subchannels are differentiated by changing the length of a guard time slot or a carrier wave interval of a symbol transmission time slot, or changing the transmission electric power of the carrier.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 07/857,627, filed Mar. 25, 1992, pending.

This is a reissue application of U.S. Pat. No. 5,600,672, issued Feb. 4, 1997, which is a Continuation-In-Part of application Ser. No. 07/857,627, filed Mar. 25, 1992 now abandoned. Further reissue divisional applications have been filed, all of which are reissues of U.S. Pat. No. 5,600,672. These further applications are: Ser. Nos. 09/662,695, filed Sep. 15, 2000; 09/677,421, filed Oct. 5, 2000; 09/678,014, filed Oct. 5, 2000; 09/677,420, filed Oct. 5, 2000; 09/680,177, filed Oct. 5, 2000; 09/680,176, filed Oct. 5, 2000; 09/686,467, filed Oct. 12, 2000; 09/686,463, filed Oct. 12, 2000; 09/686,466, filed Oct. 12, 2000; 09/688,028, filed Oct. 12, 2000; 09/686,464, filed Oct. 12, 2000; 09/686,465, filed Oct. 12, 2000; 09/666,012, filed Sep. 19, 2000; 09/667,525, filed Sep. 21, 2000; 09/667,438, filed Sep. 21, 2000; 09/668,068, filed Sep. 25, 2000; 09/669,916, filed Sep. 25, 2000; 09/672,948, filed Sep. 29, 2000; 09/672,946, filed Sep. 29, 2000; 09/672,947, filed Sep. 29, 2000; 10/133,347, filed Apr. 29, 2002; 10/133,364, filed Apr. 29, 2002; 10/692,469, filed Oct. 24, 2003;10/693,526, filed Oct. 27, 2003; 10/635,468, filed Aug. 7, 2003; 10/690,297, filed Oct. 27, 2003; 10/860,666, filed Jun. 4, 2004; 10/782,411, filed Feb. 20, 2004; 10/783,588, filed Feb. 23, 2004; 10/773,811, filed Feb. 9, 2004; 10/882,126, filed Jun. 30, 2004; 10/885,572, filed Jul. 7, 2004; 10/911,680, filed Aug. 5, 2004; and 11/038,006, filed Jan. 19, 2006.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a communication system for transmission and reception of a digital signal through modulation of its carrier wave and demodulation of the modulated signal.

2. Description of the Prior Art

Digital signal communication systems have been used in various fields. Particularly, digital video signal transmission techniques have been improved remarkably.

Among them is a digital TV signal transmission method. So far, such digital TV signal transmission systems are in particular use for transmission between TV stations. They will soon be utilized for terrestrial and/or satellite broadcast service in every country of the world.

The TV broadcast systems including HDTV, PCM music, FAX, and other information services are now demanded to increase desired data in quantity and quality for satisfying millions of sophisticated viewers. In particular, the data has to be increased in a given bandwidth of frequency allocated for TV broadcast service. The data to be transmitted is always abundant and provided as much as handled with up-to-date techniques of the time. It is ideal to modify or change the existing signal transmission system corresponding to an increase in the data amount with time.

However, the TV broadcast service is a public business and cannot go further without considering the interests and benefits of viewers. It is essential to have any new service compatible with existing TV receivers and displays. More particularly, the compatibility of a system is much desired for providing both old and new services simultaneously or one new service which can be intercepted by both the existing and advanced receivers.

It is understood that any new digital TV broadcast system to be introduced has to be arranged for data extension in order to respond to future demands and technological advantages and also, for compatibility to allow the existing receivers to receive transmissions.

The expansion capability and compatible performance of the prior art digital TV system will be explained.

A digital satellite TV system is known in which NTSC TV signals compressed to an about 6 Mbps are muitiplexed multiplexed by time division modulation of 4 PSK and transmitted on 4 to 20 channels while HDTV signals are carried on a signal channel. Another digital HDTV system is provided in which HDTV video data compressed to as small as 15 Mbps are transmitted on a 16 or 32 QAM signal through ground stations.

Such a known satellite system permits HDTV signals to be carried on the channel by a conventional manner, thus occupying a band of frequencies equivalent to the same channels of NTSC signals. This causes the corresponding NTSC channels to be unavailable during the transmission of the HDTV signal. Also, the compatibility between NTSC and HDTV receivers or displays is hardly concerned and data expansion capability needed for matching a future advanced mode is utterly disregarded.

Such a common terrestrial HDTV system offers an HDTV service on conventional 16 or 32 QAM signals without any modification. In any analogue TV broadcast service, there are developed a lot of signal attenuating or shadow regions within its service area due to structural obstacles, geographical inconveniences, or signal interference from a neighbor station. When the TV signal is an analogue from form, it can be intercepted more or less at such signal attenuating regions although its reproduced picture is low in quality. If the TV signal is a digital form, it can rarely be reproduced at an acceptable level within the regions. This disadvantage is critically hostile to the development of any digital TV system.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention, for solving the foregoing disadvantages, to provide a communication system arranged for compatible use for both the existing NTSC and newly introduced HDTV broadcast services, particularly via satellite and also, for minimizing signal attenuating or shadow region of its service area on the grounds ground.

A communication system according to the present invention intentionally varies signal points, which used to be disposed at uniform intervals, to perform the signal transmission and reception. For example, if applied to a QAM signal, the communication system comprises two major sections: a transmitter having a signal input circuit, a modulator circuit for producing m numbers of signal points, in a signal vector field through modulation of a plurality of out-of-phase carrier waves using an input signal supplied from the input circuit, and a transmitter circuit for transmitting a resultant modulated signal; and a receiver having an input circuit for receiving the modulated signal, a demodulator circuit for demodulating one-bit signal points of a QAM carrier wave, and an output circuit.

In operation, the input signal containing a first data stream of n values and a second data stream is fed to the modulator circuit of the transmitter where a modified m-bit QAM carrier wave is produced representing m signal points in a vector field. The m signal points are divided into n signal point groups to which the n values of the first data stream are assigned respectively. Also, data of the second data stream are assigned to m/n signal points or sub groups of each signal point group. Then, a resultant transmission signal is transmitted from the transmitter circuit. Similarly, a third data stream can be propagated.

At the p-bit demodulator circuit, p>m, of the receiver, the first data stream of the transmission signal if is first demodulated through dividing p signal points in a signal space diagram into n signal point groups. Then, the second data stream is demodulated through assigning p/n values to p/n signal points of each corresponding signal point group for reconstruction of both the first and second data streams. If the receiver is at P=n, the n signal point groups are reclaimed and assigned the n values for demodulation and reconstruction of the first data stream.

Upon receiving the same transmission signal from the transmitter, a receiver equipped with a large sized antenna and capable of large-data modulation can reproduce both the first and second data streams. A receiver equipped with a small sized antenna and capable of small-data modulation can reproduce the first data stream only. Accordingly, the compatibility of the signal transmission system will be ensured. When the first data stream is an NTSC TV signal or low frequency band component of an HDTV signal and the second data stream is a high frequency band component of the HDTV signal, the small-data modulation receiver can reconstruct the NTSC TV signal and the large-data modulation receiver can reconstruct the HDTV signal. As understood, a digital NTSC/HDTV simultaneous broadcast service will be feasible using the compatibility of the signal transmission system of the present invention.

More specifically, the communication system of the present invention comprises: a transmitter having a signal input circuit, a modulator circuit for producing m signal point, points in a signal vector field through modulation of a plurality of out-of-phase carrier waves using an input signal supplied from the input, and a transmitter circuit for transmitting a resultant modulated signal, in which the main procedure includes receiving an input signal containing a first data stream of n values and a second data stream, dividing the m signal points of the signal into n signal point groups, assigning the n values of the first data stream to the n signal point groups respectively, assigning data of the second data stream to signal points of each signal point group respectively, and transmitting the resultant modulated signal; and a receiver having an input circuit for receiving the modulated signal, a demodulator circuit for demodulating p signal points of a QAM carrier wave, and an output circuit, in which the main procedure includes dividing the p signal points into n signal point groups, demodulating the first data stream of which n values are assigned to the n signal point groups respectively, and demodulating the second data stream of which p/n values are assigned to p/n signal points of each signal point group respectively. For example, a transmitter produces a modified m-bit QAM signal of which first, second, and third data streams, each carrying n values, are assigned to relevant signal point groups with a modulator. The signal can be intercepted and the first data stream only reproduced by a first receiver, both the first and second data streams can be reproduced by a second receiver, and all the first, second, and third streams can be reproduced by a third receiver.

More particularly, a receiver capable of demodulation of n-bit data can reproduce n bits from a multiple-bit modulated carrier wave carrying m-bit data where m>n, thus allowing the communication system to have compatibility and capability of future extension. Also, a multi-level signal transmission will be possible by shifting the signal points of QAM so that a nearest signal point to the origin point of I-axis and Q-axis coordinates is spaced nf from the origin where f is the distance of the nearest point from each axis and n is more than 1.

Accordingly, a compatible digital satellite broadcast service for both the NTSC and HDTV systems will be feasible when the first data stream carries an NTSC signal and the second data stream carries a difference signal between NTSC and HDTV. Hence, the capability of corresponding to an increase in the data amount to be transmitted will be ensured. Also, on the ground, the service area will be increased while signal attenuating areas are decreased.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the entire arrangement of a signal transmission system showing a first embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a transmitter of the first embodiment;

FIG. 3 is a vector diagram showing a transmission signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 4 is a vector diagram showing a transmission signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 5 is a view showing an assignment of binary codes to signal points according to the first embodiment;

FIG. 6 is a view showing an assignment of binary codes to signal point groups according to the first embodiment;

FIG. 7 is a view showing an assignment of binary codes to signal points in each signal point group according to the first embodiment;

FIG. 8 is a view showing another assignment of binary codes to signal point groups and their signal points according to the first embodiment;

FIG. 9 is a view showing threshold values of the signal point groups according to the first embodiment;

FIG. 10 is a vector diagram of a modified 16 QAM signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 11 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between antenna radius r2 and transmission energy ratio n according to the first embodiment;

FIG. 12 is view showing the signal points of a modified 64 QAM signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 13 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between antenna radius r3 and transmission energy ratio n according to the first embodiment;

FIG. 14 is a vector diagram showing signal point groups and their signal points of the modified 64 QAM signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 15 is an explanatory view showing the relationship between A1 and A2 of the modified 64 QAM signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 16 is a graph diagram showing the relationship between antenna radius r2 and r3 and transmission energy ratio n16 and n64 respectively according to the first embodiment;

FIG. 17 is a block diagram of a digital transmitter of the first embodiment;

FIG. 18 is a signal space diagram of a 4 PSK modulated signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 19 is a block diagram of a first receiver of the first embodiment;

FIG. 20 is a signal space diagram of a 4 PSK modulated signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 21 is a block diagram of a second receiver of the first embodiment;

FIG. 22 is a vector diagram of a modified 16 QAM signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 23 is a vector diagram of a modified 64 QAM signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 24 is a flowchart showing the operation of the first embodiment;

FIG. 25(a) and 25(b) are vector diagrams respectively showing an 8 and a 16 QAM signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 26 is a block diagram of a third receiver of the first embodiment;

FIG. 27 is a view showing signal points of the modified 64 QAM signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 28 is a flowchart showing another the operation of the first embodiment;

FIG. 29 is a schematic view of the entire arrangement of a signal transmission system showing a third embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 30 is a block diagram of a first video encoder of the third embodiment;

FIG. 31 is a block diagram of a first video decoder of the third embodiment;

FIG. 32 is a block diagram of a second video decoder of the third embodiment;

FIG. 33 is a block diagram of a third video decoder of the third embodiment;

FIG. 34 is an explanatory view showing a time multiplexing of D1, D2, and D3 signals according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 35 is an explanatory view showing another time multiplexing of D1, D2, and D3 signals according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 36 is an explanatory view showing a further time multiplexing of D1, D2, and D3 signals according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 37 is a schematic view of the entire arrangement of a signal transmission system showing a fourth embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 38 is a vector diagram of a modified 16 QAM signal of the third embodiment;

FIG. 39 is a vector diagram of the modified 16 QAM signal of the third embodiment;

FIG. 40 is a vector diagram of a modified 64 QAM signal of the third embodiment;

FIG. 41 is a diagram of assignment of data components on a time base according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 42 is a diagram of assignment of data components on a time base in TDMA action according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 43 is a block diagram of a carrier reproducing circuit of the third embodiment;

FIG. 44 is a diagram showing the principle of carrier wave reproduction according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 45 is a block diagram of a carrier reproducing circuit for reverse modulation of the third embodiment;

FIG. 46 is a diagram showing an assignment of signal points of the 16 QAM signal of the third embodiment;

FIG. 47 is a diagram showing an assignment of signal points of the 64 QAM signal of the third embodiment;

FIG. 48 is a block diagram of a carrier reproducing circuit for 16× multiplication of the third embodiment;

FIG. 49 is an explanatory view showing a time multiplexing of DV1, DH1, DV2, DH2, DV3, and DH3 signals according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 50 is an explanatory view showing a TDMA time multiplexing of DV1, DH1, DV2, DH2, DV3, and DH3 signals according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 51 is an explanatory view showing another TDMA time multiplexing of the DV1, DH1, DV2, DH2, DV3, and DH3 signals according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 52 is a diagram showing a signal interference region in a known transmission method according to the fourth embodiment;

FIG. 53 is a diagram showing signal interference regions in a multi-level signal transmission method according to the fourth embodiment;

FIG. 54 is a diagram showing signal attenuating regions in the known transmission method according to the fourth embodiment;

FIG. 55 is a diagram showing signal attenuating regions in the multi-level signal transmission method according to the fourth embodiment;

FIG. 56 is a diagram showing a signal interference region between two digital TV stations according to the fourth embodiment;

FIG. 57 is a diagram showing an assignment of signal points of modified 4 ASK signal of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 58 is a diagram showing another assignment of signal points of the modified 4 ASK signal of the fifth embodiment;

FIGS. 59(a) and 59(b) are diagrams showing assignment of signal points of the modified 4 ASK signal of the fifth embodiment of FIGS. 59(c) and 59(d) are diagrams respectively showing the slice levels of the modulated 4 ASK signal in subchannels 1 and 2;

FIG. 60 is a diagram showing another assignment of signal points of the modified 4 ASK signal of the fifth embodiment when the C/N rate is low;

FIG. 61 shows a 4- and 8-level VSB transmitter according to the fifth embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 62(a) is a wave spectrum diagram of the ASK signal, i.e., a multi-value VSB signal before filtering, in the fifth embodiment of the invention and FIG. 62(b) is a wave spectrum diagram showing the characteristics of the filtered VSB signal;

FIG. 63 is a block diagram of a 4-, 8-, and 16-level VSB receiver in the fifth embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 64 is a block diagram of a video signal transmitter of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 65 is a block diagram of a TV receiver of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 66 is a block diagram of another TV receiver of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 67 is a block diagram of a satellite-to-ground TV receiver of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 68(a) is an 8-level VSB constellation map in the fifth and sixth embodiments of the invention;

FIG. 68(b) is an 8-level VSB constellation map in the fifth and sixth embodiments of the invention;

FIG. 68(c) is an 8-level VSB signal-time waveform diagram in the fifth and sixth embodiments of the invention;

FIG. 69 is a block diagram of a video encoder of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 70 is a block diagram of a video encoder of the fifth embodiment containing one divider circuit;

FIG. 71 is a block diagram of a video decoder of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 72 is a block diagram of a video decoder of the fifth embodiment containing one mixer circuit;

FIG. 73 is a diagram showing a time assignment of data components of a transmission signal according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 74(a) is a block diagram of a video decoder of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 74(b) is a diagram showing another time assignment of data components of the transmission signal according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 75 is a diagram showing a time assignment of data components of a transmission signal according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 76 is a diagram showing a time assignment of data components of a transmission signal according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 77 is a diagram showing a time assignment of data components of a transmission signal according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 78 is a block diagram of a video decoder of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 79 is a diagram showing a time assignment of data components of a three-level transmission signal according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 80 is a block diagram of another video decoder of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 81 is a diagram showing a time assignment of data components of a transmission signal according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 82 is a block diagram of a video decoder for D1 signal of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 83 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between frequency and time of a frequency modulated signal according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 84 is a block diagram of a magnetic record/playback apparatus of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 85 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between C/N and level according to the second embodiment;

FIG. 86 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between C/N and transmission distance according to the second embodiment;

FIG. 87 is a block diagram of a transmissiontransmitter of the second embodiment;

FIG. 88 is a block diagram of a receiver of the second embodiment;

FIG. 89 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between C/N and error rate according to the second embodiment;

FIG. 90 is a diagram showing signal attenuating regions in the three-level transmission of the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 91 is a diagram showing signal attenuating regions in the four-level transmission of athe sixth embodiment;

FIG. 92 is a diagram showing the four-level transmission of the sixth embodiment;

FIG. 93 is a block diagram of a divider of the sixth embodiment;

FIG. 94 is a block diagram of a mixer of the sixth embodiment;

FIG. 95 is a diagram showing another four-level transmission of the sixth embodiment;

FIG. 96 is a view of signal propagation of a known digital TV broadcast system;

FIG. 97 is a view of signal propagation of a digital TV broadcast system according to the sixth embodiment;

FIG. 98 is a diagram showing a four-level transmission of the sixth embodiment;

FIG. 99 is a vector diagram of a 16 SRQAM signal of the third embodiment;

FIG. 100 is a vector diagram of a 32 SRQAM signal of the third embodiment;

FIG. 101 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between C/N and error rakerate according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 102 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between C/N and error rate according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 103 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between shift distance n and C/N needed for transmission according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 104 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between shift distance n and C/N needed for transmission according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 105 is a graphic diagram showing the relationship between signal level and distance from a transmitter antenna in terrestrial broadcast service according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 106 is a diagram showing a service area of the 32 SRQAM signal of the third embodiment;

FIG. 107 is a diagram showing a service area of the 32 SRQAM signal of the third embodiment;

FIG. 108(a) is a diagram showing a frequency distribution profile of a conventional TV signal;

FIG. 108(b) is a diagram showing a frequency distribution profile of a conventional two-layer TV signal;

FIG. 108(c) is a diagram showing threshold values of the third embodiment;

FIG. 108(d) is a diagram showing a frequency distribution profile of two-layer OFDM carriers of the ninth embodiment, and FIG. 108(e) is a diagram showing threshold values for three-layer OFDM of the ninth embodiment;

FIG. 109 is a diagram showing a time assignment of the TV signal of the third embodiment;

FIG. 110 is a diagram showing a principle of C-CDM of the third embodiment;

FIG. 111 is a view showing an assignment of codes according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 112 is a view showing an assignment of an extended 36 QAM according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 113 is a view showing a frequency assignment of a modulation signal according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 114 is a block diagram showing a magnetic recording/playback apparatus according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 115 is a block diagram showing a transmitter/receiver of a portable telephone according to the eighth embodiment;

FIG. 116 is a block diagram showing base stations according to the eighth embodiment;

FIG. 117 is a view illustrating communication capacities and traffic distribution of a conventional system;

FIG. 118 is a view illustrating communication capacities and traffic distribution according to the eighth embodiment;

FIG. 119(a) is a diagram showing a time slot assignment of a conventional system;

FIG. 119(b) is a diagram showing a time slot assignment according to the eighth embodiment;

FIG. 120(a) is a diagram showing a time slot assignment of a conventional TDMA system;

FIG. 120(b) is a diagram showing a time slot assignment according to a TDMA system of the eighth embodiment;

FIG. 121 is a block diagram showing a one-level transmitter/receiver according to the eighth embodiment;

FIG. 122 is a block diagram showing a two-level transmitter/receiver according to the eighth embodiment;

FIG. 123 is a block diagram showing an OFDM type transmitter/receiver according to the ninth embodiment;

FIG. 124 is a view illustrating a principle of the OFDM system according to the ninth embodiment;

FIG. 125(a) is a view showing a frequency assignment of a modulation signal of a conventional system;

FIG. 125(b) is a view showing a frequency assignment of a modulation signal according to the ninth embodiment;

FIG. 126(a) is a view showing a frequency assignment of an OFDM signal of the ninth embodiment, wherein no weighting is applied;

FIG. 126(b) is a view showing a frequency assignment of an OFDM signal of the ninth embodiment, wherein two channels of two-layer OFDM are weighted by transmission electric power;

FIG. 126(c) is a view showing a frequency assignment of an OFDM signal of the ninth embodiment, wherein carrier intervals are doubled by weighting;

FIG. 126(d) is a view showing a frequency assignment of an OFDM signal of the ninth embodiment, wherein carrier intervals are not weighted;

FIG. 127 is a block diagram showing a transmitter/receiver according to the ninth embodiment;

FIG. 128(a) is a block diagram of a trellis encoder (ratio ½) in embodiments 2, 4, and 5,

FIG. 128(b) is a block diagram of a trellis encoder (ratio ⅔) in embodiments 2, 4, and 5,

FIG. 128(c) is a block diagram of a trellis encoder (ratio ¾) in embodiments 2, 4, and 5,

FIG. 128(d) is a block diagram of a trellis decoder (ratio ½) in embodiments 2, 4, and 5,

FIG. 128(e) is a block diagram of a trellis decoder (ratio ⅔) in embodiments 2, 4, and 5,

FIG. 128(f) is a block diagram of a trellis decoder (ratio ¾) in embodiments 2, 4, and 5;

FIG. 129 is a view showing a time assignment of effective symbol periods and guard intervals according to the ninth embodiment;

FIG. 130 is a graphic diagram showing a relationship between C/N rate and error rate according to the ninth embodiment;

FIG. 131 is a block diagram showing a magnetic recording/playback apparatus according to the fifth embodiment;

FIG. 132 is a view showing a recording format of track on the magnetic tape and a travellingtraveling of a head;

FIG. 133 is a block diagram showing a transmitter/receiver according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 134 is a diagram showing a frequency assignment of a conventional broadcasting;

FIG. 135 is a diagram showing a relationship between service area and picture quality in a three-level signal transmission system according to the third embodiment;

FIG. 136 is a diagram showing a frequency assignment in case the multi-level signal transmission system according to the third embodiment is combined with FDM;

FIG. 137 is a block diagram showing a transmitter/receiver according to the third embodiment, in which Trellis encoding is adopted;

FIG. 138 is a block diagram showing a transmitter/receiver according to the ninth embodiment, in which a part of low frequency band signal is transmitted by OFDM;

FIG. 139 is a diagram showing an assignment of signal points of the 8-PS-APSK signal of the first embodiment;

FIG. 140 is a diagram showing an assignment of signal points of the 16-PS-APSK signal of the first embodiment;

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