US9012261B2 - High productivity combinatorial screening for stable metal oxide TFTs - Google Patents

High productivity combinatorial screening for stable metal oxide TFTs Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US9012261B2
US9012261B2 US14/094,379 US201314094379A US9012261B2 US 9012261 B2 US9012261 B2 US 9012261B2 US 201314094379 A US201314094379 A US 201314094379A US 9012261 B2 US9012261 B2 US 9012261B2
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
deposition
layer
printing
atomic
plasma
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
US14/094,379
Other versions
US20140273340A1 (en
Inventor
Jeroen Van Duren
Sang Lee
Minh Huu Le
Sandeep Nijhawan
Teresa B. Sapirman
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Intermolecular Inc
Original Assignee
Intermolecular Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201361778986P priority Critical
Application filed by Intermolecular Inc filed Critical Intermolecular Inc
Priority to US14/094,379 priority patent/US9012261B2/en
Assigned to INTERMOLECULAR, INC. reassignment INTERMOLECULAR, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: SAPIRMAN, TERESA B., NIJHAWAN, SANDEEP, LEE, SANG, VAN DUREN, JEROEN, LE, MINH HUU
Publication of US20140273340A1 publication Critical patent/US20140273340A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US9012261B2 publication Critical patent/US9012261B2/en
Application status is Active legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/302Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to change their surface-physical characteristics or shape, e.g. etching, polishing, cutting
    • H01L21/306Chemical or electrical treatment, e.g. electrolytic etching
    • H01L21/30604Chemical etching
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02104Forming layers
    • H01L21/02365Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate
    • H01L21/02518Deposited layers
    • H01L21/02521Materials
    • H01L21/02565Oxide semiconducting materials not being Group 12/16 materials, e.g. ternary compounds
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02104Forming layers
    • H01L21/02365Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate
    • H01L21/02612Formation types
    • H01L21/02617Deposition types
    • H01L21/02631Physical deposition at reduced pressure, e.g. MBE, sputtering, evaporation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/3205Deposition of non-insulating-, e.g. conductive- or resistive-, layers on insulating layers; After-treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/321After treatment
    • H01L21/3213Physical or chemical etching of the layers, e.g. to produce a patterned layer from a pre-deposited extensive layer
    • H01L21/32133Physical or chemical etching of the layers, e.g. to produce a patterned layer from a pre-deposited extensive layer by chemical means only
    • H01L21/32134Physical or chemical etching of the layers, e.g. to produce a patterned layer from a pre-deposited extensive layer by chemical means only by liquid etching only
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/34Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies not provided for in groups H01L21/0405, H01L21/0445, H01L21/06, H01L21/16 and H01L21/18 with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/46Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/428
    • H01L21/461Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/428 to change their surface-physical characteristics or shape, e.g. etching, polishing, cutting
    • H01L21/465Chemical or electrical treatment, e.g. electrolytic etching
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/70Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components formed in or on a common substrate or of parts thereof; Manufacture of integrated circuit devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/702Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components formed in or on a common substrate or of parts thereof; Manufacture of integrated circuit devices or of parts thereof of thick-or thin-film circuits or parts thereof
    • H01L21/707Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components formed in or on a common substrate or of parts thereof; Manufacture of integrated circuit devices or of parts thereof of thick-or thin-film circuits or parts thereof of thin-film circuits or parts thereof
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/02Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier
    • H01L27/12Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. an insulating body
    • H01L27/1214Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. an insulating body comprising a plurality of TFTs formed on a non-semiconducting substrate, e.g. driving circuits for AMLCDs
    • H01L27/1222Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. an insulating body comprising a plurality of TFTs formed on a non-semiconducting substrate, e.g. driving circuits for AMLCDs with a particular composition, shape or crystalline structure of the active layer
    • H01L27/1225Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. an insulating body comprising a plurality of TFTs formed on a non-semiconducting substrate, e.g. driving circuits for AMLCDs with a particular composition, shape or crystalline structure of the active layer with semiconductor materials not belonging to the group IV of the periodic table, e.g. InGaZnO
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/02Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier
    • H01L27/12Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. an insulating body
    • H01L27/1214Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. an insulating body comprising a plurality of TFTs formed on a non-semiconducting substrate, e.g. driving circuits for AMLCDs
    • H01L27/1259Multistep manufacturing methods
    • H01L27/1262Multistep manufacturing methods with a particular formation, treatment or coating of the substrate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/40Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/43Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by the materials of which they are formed
    • H01L29/45Ohmic electrodes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66007Multistep manufacturing processes
    • H01L29/66969Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies not comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/68Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable by only the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/78Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate
    • H01L29/786Thin film transistors, i.e. transistors with a channel being at least partly a thin film
    • H01L29/7869Thin film transistors, i.e. transistors with a channel being at least partly a thin film having a semiconductor body comprising an oxide semiconductor material, e.g. zinc oxide, copper aluminium oxide, cadmium stannate

Abstract

Methods for HPC techniques are applied to the processing of site-isolated regions (SIR) on a substrate to form at least a portion of a TFT device used in display applications. The processing may be applied to at least one of gate electrode deposition, gate electrode patterning, gate dielectric deposition, gate dielectric patterning, metal-based semiconductor material (e.g. IGZO) deposition, metal-based semiconductor material (e.g. IGZO) patterning, etch stop deposition, etch stop patterning, source/drain deposition, source/drain patterning, passivation deposition, or passivation patterning. The SIRs may be defined during the deposition process with uniform deposition within each SIR or the SIRs may be defined subsequent to the deposition of layers wherein the layers are deposited with a gradient in one or more properties across the substrate.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/778,986 filed on Mar. 13, 2013, which is herein incorporated by reference for all purposes.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present disclosure relates generally to methods of screening materials and processes for use in thin film transistors (TFTs) used in display applications.

BACKGROUND

TFTs are employed as switching and/or driving devices in many electronic circuits. As an example, TFTs are used as control devices for pixels in display applications such as flat panel displays (FPD), whether based on active-matrix-liquid-crystal displays (AMLCD), or active-matrix-organic-light-emitting-displays (AMOLED). These FPD are used in televisions, computer monitors, smart phones, tablets, etc. Traditionally, TFTs based on amorphous silicon technology (a-Si) have been used due to the low cost and ease of manufacture. However, a-Si-based TFTs have a number of issues such as low mobility, low ON/OFF current ratios (e.g. higher power), and limited durability. Additionally, TFTs based on a-Si are not transparent, thereby limiting the size of the TFT within the pixel so that the display characteristics are not compromised. With the market moving to higher resolution, higher refresh rate, lower power consumption, lower cost, and larger displays, there is a need to replace a-Si.

Metal-based semiconductor materials (e.g. metal oxides, metal oxy-nitrides, metal oxy-chalcogenides, metal chalcogenides) are candidates for replacing a-Si in display applications. The metal-based semiconductor materials may be amorphous, crystalline, or polycrystalline. Some examples of metal oxide materials include those based on In—Ga—Zn—O (IGZO) and related materials, like In—Zn—O (IZO), Zn—Sn—O (ZTO), Hf—In—Zn—O (HIZO), and Al—Zn—Sn—O (AZTO). Some examples of metal oxy-nitrides include Zn—O—N (ZnON), In—O—N (InON), Sn—O—N (SnON). Examples of crystalline metal-based semiconductor materials include c-axis aligned crystalline (CAAC) materials like CAAC-IGZO, or polycrystalline materials like ZnO and In—Ga—O (IGO). In addition to the application of these materials into TFTs, these materials are also being considered for memory (e.g. non-volatile random access memory (RAM)), sensor applications (e.g. image sensors), and central processing units (CPU). Some of these materials exhibit stable amorphous phases, high mobility (e.g. >5 cm2/Vs), low threshold voltage (close to zero, e.g. in a range of −1.0V to +2.0V), low carrier concentrations (e.g. 1016-1017 cm−3), high ON/OFF current ratios (e.g. >106), and high durability (e.g. negative bias temperature illumination stress NBTIS with threshold voltage shift in a range of −1.5V to +0.5V). However, since these materials are multinary compounds (e.g. three or more elements), their performance and properties are sensitive to factors such as composition, concentration gradients, deposition parameters, post-deposition treatments, interactions with adjacent materials, and the like. Further, since the electrical, physical, and chemical behavior of these materials is difficult or impossible to model, much of the development and optimization must be accomplished empirically. Comprehensive evaluation of the entire composition range and deposition parameter space for the formation of a TFT device utilizing these materials requires thousands or millions of experiments. There is a need for methods and apparatus to efficiently develop metal-based semiconductor materials for use in TFTs.

SUMMARY

The following summary of the disclosure is included in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects and features of the invention. This summary is not an extensive overview of the invention and as such it is not intended to particularly identify key or critical elements of the invention or to delineate the scope of the invention. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts of the invention in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented below.

In some embodiments, High Productivity Combinatorial (HPC) techniques are applied to the processing of site-isolated regions (SIR) on a substrate to form at least a portion of an electronic device (e.g. TFT, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), dynamic random access memory (DRAM), non-volatile oxide-semiconductor random access memory (NOSRAM), Image sensors. CPU, etc.). The SIRs may be defined during the deposition using masks, by scribing regions through a layer(s) that are formed with gradients in the materials, or may be formed as a result of the patterning of a top layer (e.g. a top electrode). In some embodiments, materials are deposited on a substrate such that a gradient in at least one of the material properties of the material is formed in at least one direction (e.g. length or width) across the substrate. In some embodiments, the gradient is formed in both directions (e.g. length and width) across the substrate. Examples of material properties that can be varied across the substrate (either in discrete SIRs or in a gradient fashion) include composition, thickness, density, resistivity, carrier concentration, mobility, dopants, dopant concentration, recombination centers, optical properties, electrical properties, crystal orientation, crystal size distribution, number of phases, and the like. The processing may be directed to at least one of gate electrode deposition, gate electrode patterning, gate dielectric deposition, gate dielectric patterning, metal-based semiconductor layer deposition, metal-based semiconductor layer patterning, etch stop deposition, etch stop patterning, source/drain deposition, source/drain patterning, passivation layer deposition, passivation layer patterning, interconnect deposition, interconnect deposition patterning, surface treatment (e.g., cleaning, or implantation), and/or thermal treatments.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

To facilitate understanding, identical reference numerals have been used, where possible, to designate identical elements that are common to the figures. The drawings are not to scale and the relative dimensions of various elements in the drawings are depicted schematically and not necessarily to scale.

The techniques of the present invention can readily be understood by considering the following detailed description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram for implementing combinatorial processing and evaluation.

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram for illustrating various process sequences using combinatorial processing and evaluation.

FIG. 3 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating an integrated high productivity combinatorial (HPC) system.

FIG. 4 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating an exemplary sputter processing chamber according to some embodiments.

FIG. 5 is a simplified cross-sectional view of a TFT according to some embodiments.

FIG. 6 is a table illustrating some of the manufacturing steps that can be investigated using HPC techniques.

FIG. 7 is a table illustrating some of the processing variables that can be investigated using HPC techniques.

FIG. 8 is a flow chart illustrating the steps of a method according to some embodiments.

FIG. 9 is a flow chart illustrating the steps of a method according to some embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

A detailed description of one or more embodiments is provided below along with accompanying figures. The detailed description is provided in connection with such embodiments, but is not limited to any particular example. The scope is limited only by the claims and numerous alternatives, modifications, and equivalents are encompassed. Numerous specific details are set forth in the following description in order to provide a thorough understanding. These details are provided for the purpose of example and the described techniques may be practiced according to the claims without some or all of these specific details. For the purpose of clarity, technical material that is known in the technical fields related to the embodiments has not been described in detail to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the description.

It must be noted that as used herein and in the claims, the singular forms “a,” “and” and “the” include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to “a layer” includes two or more layers, and so forth.

Where a range of values is provided, it is understood that each intervening value, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit unless the context clearly dictates otherwise, between the upper and lower limit of that range, and any other stated or intervening value in that stated range, is encompassed within the invention. The upper and lower limits of these smaller ranges may independently be included in the smaller ranges, and are also encompassed within the invention, subject to any specifically excluded limit in the stated range. Where the stated range includes one or both of the limits, ranges excluding either or both of those included limits are also included in the invention. Where the modifier “about” or “approximately” is used, the stated quantity can vary by up to 10%. Where the modifier “substantially equal to” or “substantially the same” is used, the two quantities may vary from each other by no more than 5%.

The term “horizontal” as used herein will be understood to be defined as a plane parallel to the plane or surface of the substrate, regardless of the orientation of the substrate. The term “vertical” will refer to a direction perpendicular to the horizontal as previously defined. Terms such as “above”, “below”, “bottom”, “top”, “side” (e.g. sidewall), “higher”, “lower”, “upper”, “over”, and “under”, are defined with respect to the horizontal plane. The term “on” means there is direct contact between the elements. The term “above” will allow for intervening elements.

As used herein, a material (e.g. a dielectric material or an electrode material) will be considered to be “crystalline” if it exhibits greater than or equal to 30% (e.g. by volume) crystallinity as measured by a technique such as x-ray diffraction (XRD).

Those skilled in the art will appreciate that each of the layers discussed herein and used in the TFT may be formed using any common formation technique such as physical vapor deposition (PVD) (i.e. sputtering), atomic layer deposition (ALD), plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD), atomic vapor deposition (AVD), ultraviolet assisted atomic layer deposition (UV-ALD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), or evaporation. Generally, because of the structure and size of the display devices, PVD or PECVD are preferred methods of formation. However, any of these techniques are suitable for forming each of the various layers discussed herein. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the teachings described herein are not limited by the technology used for the deposition process.

In FIG. 5, a TFT stack is illustrated using a simple inverted-staggered, bottom-gate, with etch-stopper island, device structure. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the description and teachings herein can be readily applied to any simple or complex TFT structure, including inverted-staggered, bottom-gate, back-channel-etch device structures, co-planar device structures, inverted-staggered, bottom-gate, etch-stopper contact (via) hole device structures, self-aligned, inverted-staggered, bottom-gate, etch-stopper island device structures, and various device structures based on top-gate, bottom-gate, staggered, inverted-staggered, co-planar, back-channel-etch, single-gate, or double-gate features. The drawings are for illustrative purposes only and do not limit the application of the present disclosure.

As used herein, the phrase “site-isolated region” (SIR) will be understood to refer to one or more regions on a substrate that are separated and used for the evaluation of different materials, interface, device, or process parameters. The SIRs can be formed using many different methods such as scribing, deposition through a shadow mask, deposition using isolated deposition heads, lithography, and the like. Additionally, the SIRs may be defined as a result of the patterning of a top layer (e.g. a top electrode in a simple two terminal device), without the physical definition of underlying layers. The present disclosure is not limited by the method used to form the SIRs.

As used herein, the notation “(IIIA)” will be understood to represent the sum of the concentrations of all Group-IIIA elements. This notation will be used herein in calculations of the composition ratios of various elements. This notation will be understood to extend to each of the other Groups of the periodic table respectively (e.g. “(IA)”, “(IIA)”, “(IVA)”, “(VIA)”, “(IB)”, “(IIB)”, etc.).

As used herein, the notation “In—Ga—Zn—O” will be understood to include a material containing these elements in any ratio. This notation will be shortened to “IGZO” for brevity. Where a specific composition is discussed, the atomic or weight concentrations (or ranges) will be provided. The notation is extendable to other materials and other elemental combinations.

As used herein, the notation “InxGayZnzOw” will be understood to include a material containing these elements in a specific ratio given by x, y, z, and w (e.g. In33Ga33Zn33 contains 33 atomic % In, 33 atomic % Ga, and 33 atomic % Zn). The notation is extendable to other materials and other elemental combinations.

As used herein, the notation “(In,Ga)x(Zn,Cd)y(O,Se,S,Te)z” will be understood to include a material containing a total amount of Group-IIIA elements (i.e. In plus Ga, etc.) in a ratio given by “x”, a total amount of Group-IIB elements (i.e. Zn plus Cd, etc.), etc. in a ratio given by “y”, and a total amount of Group-VIA elements (i.e. O plus Se plus S plus Te, etc.) in a ratio given by “z”. The notation is extendable to other materials and other elemental combinations.

As used herein, the terms “film” and “layer” will be understood to represent a portion of a stack. They will be understood to cover both a single layer as well as a multilayered structure (i.e. a nanolaminate). As used herein, these terms will be used synonymously and will be considered equivalent.

As used herein, “substrate” will be understood to generally be one of float glass, low-iron glass, borosilicate glass, display glass, alkaline earth boro-aluminosilicate glass, fusion drawn glass, flexible glass, specialty glass for high temperature processing, polyimide, plastics, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), etc. for either applications requiring transparent or non-transparent substrate functionality. For substrates with no need for transparency, substrates like aluminum foil, stainless steel, carbon steel, paper, cladded foils, etc. can be utilized.

The typical materials in a TFT stack consist of a substrate, a diffusion barrier layer, a gate electrode, source electrode, drain electrode, gate insulator, and a semiconducting channel layer, in addition to an optional etch stopper and/or passivation layer. As used herein, “metal-based semiconductor layer”, and “metal-based semiconductor material”, etc. will be understood to be equivalent and be understood to refer to a layer and/or material related to the channel layer. This disclosure will describe methods and apparatus for forming and evaluating at least portions of TFT devices based on metal-based semiconductor materials. The metal-based semiconductor materials may include at least one of metal oxides, metal oxy-nitrides, metal oxy-chalcogenides, or metal chalcogenides. In—Ga—Zn—O (IGZO), will be used as an example of a metal oxide semiconductor material for purposes of illustration, but this is not intended to be limiting. Those skilled in the art will understand that the present disclosure can be applied to any suitable metal-based semiconductor material applicable to TFT devices.

The manufacture of semiconductor devices (e.g. TFT displays) entails the integration and sequencing of many unit processing steps. As an example, semiconductor manufacturing typically includes a series of processing steps such as cleaning, surface preparation, deposition, conversion, patterning, etching, thermal annealing, and other related unit processing steps. The precise sequencing and integration of the unit processing steps enables the formation of functional devices meeting desired performance metrics such as threshold voltage, ON/OFF current ratio, off currents, on currents, field-effect mobility, sub-threshold swing, reliability, and the like.

As part of the discovery, optimization and qualification of each unit process, it is desirable to be able to i) test different materials, ii) test different processing conditions within each unit process module, iii) test different sequencing and integration of processing modules within an integrated processing tool, iv) test different sequencing of processing tools in executing different process sequence integration flows, and combinations thereof in the manufacture of devices such as semiconductor devices. In particular, there is a need to be able to test i) more than one material, ii) more than one processing condition, iii) more than one sequence of processing conditions, iv) more than one process sequence integration flow, and combinations thereof, collectively known as “combinatorial process sequence integration,” on a single substrate without the need to consume the equivalent number of monolithic substrates per material(s), processing condition(s), sequence(s) of processing conditions, sequence(s) of processes, and combinations thereof. This can greatly improve both the speed and reduce the costs associated with the discovery, implementation, optimization, and qualification of material(s), process(es), and process integration sequence(s) required for manufacturing.

Systems and methods for High Productivity Combinatorial (HPC) processing are described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,544,574 filed on Feb. 10, 2006, U.S. Pat. No. 7,824,935 filed on Jul. 2, 2008, U.S. Pat. No. 7,871,928 filed on May 4, 2009, U.S. Pat. No. 7,902,063 filed on Feb. 10, 2006, and U.S. Pat. No. 7,947,531 filed on Aug. 28, 2009, the entireties of which are all herein incorporated by reference. Systems and methods for HPC processing are further described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/352,077 filed on Feb. 10, 2006, claiming priority from Oct. 15, 2005, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/419,174 filed on May 18, 2006, claiming priority from Oct. 15, 2005, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/674,132 filed on Feb. 12, 2007, claiming priority from Oct. 15, 2005, and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/674,137 filed on Feb. 12, 2007, claiming priority from Oct. 15, 2005, the entireties of which are all herein incorporated by reference.

HPC processing techniques have been successfully adapted to wet chemical processing such as etching, texturing, polishing, cleaning, etc. HPC processing techniques have also been successfully adapted to deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition (PVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD), and chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

FIG. 1 illustrates a schematic diagram, 100, for implementing combinatorial processing and evaluation using primary, secondary, and tertiary screening. The schematic diagram, 100, illustrates that the relative number of combinatorial processes run with a group of substrates decreases as certain materials and/or processes are selected. Generally, combinatorial processing includes performing a large number of processes during a primary screen, selecting promising candidates from those processes, performing the selected processing during a secondary screen, selecting promising candidates from the secondary screen for a tertiary screen, and so on. In addition, feedback from later stages to earlier stages can be used to refine the success criteria and provide better screening results. Furthermore, metrology and processing are typically less involved and less time consuming compared to the metrology and processing in a later screening stage.

For example, thousands of materials are evaluated during a materials discovery stage, 102. Materials discovery stage, 102, is also known as a primary screening stage performed using primary screening techniques. Primary screening techniques may include dividing substrates into coupons and depositing materials using varied processes. At the primary stage, some examples of the selection criteria for the materials may include basic materials and processing properties such as composition, dielectric constant, resistivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient, crystallinity, crystal orientation, mobility, layer stability, adhesion, layer thickness, layer deposition rate, layer uniformity, and the like. Those skilled in the art will understand that this is not intended to be an exhaustive list and that other material properties and/or processing properties may be used as selection criteria during the primary screening phase. The materials are then evaluated, and promising candidates are advanced to the secondary screen, or materials and process development stage, 104. Evaluation of the materials is performed using metrology tools such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray reflectometry, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy (transmission, absorption, reflection), ellipsometry, stylus measurements, hall measurements, resistivity measurements, atomic force microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, optical microscopy, interferometry, confocal microscope, reflectometry, raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, electronic testers and imaging tools (i.e., microscopes).

The materials and process development stage, 104, may evaluate hundreds of materials (i.e., a magnitude smaller than the primary stage) and may focus on the processes used to deposit or develop those materials. At the secondary stage, some examples of the selection criteria for the materials may include simple device properties (e.g. from simple two terminal devices) such as capacitance, current-voltage (I-V) performance, capacitance-voltage (C-V) performance, leakage current density, transconductance, and the like. Those skilled in the art will understand that this is not intended to be an exhaustive list and that other device properties may be used as selection criteria during the secondary screening phase. Promising materials and processes are again selected, and advanced to the tertiary screen or process integration stage, 106, where tens of materials and/or processes and combinations are evaluated. The tertiary screen or process integration stage, 106, may focus on integrating the selected processes and materials with other processes and materials. At the tertiary stage, some examples of the selection criteria for the materials may include device properties (e.g. from more complex devices) such as capacitance, current-voltage (I-V) performance, capacitance-voltage (C-V) performance, leakage current density, transconductance, and the like. Those skilled in the art will understand that this is not intended to be an exhaustive list and that other device properties may be used as selection criteria during the tertiary screening phase.

The most promising materials and processes from the tertiary screen are advanced to device qualification, 108. In device qualification, the materials and processes selected are evaluated for high volume manufacturing, which normally is conducted on full substrates within production tools, but need not be conducted in such a manner. The results are evaluated to determine the efficacy of the selected materials and processes. If successful, the use of the screened materials and processes can proceed to pilot manufacturing, 110.

The schematic diagram, 100, is an example of various techniques that may be used to evaluate and select materials and processes for the development of new materials and processes. The descriptions of primary, secondary, etc. screening and the various stages, 102-110, are arbitrary and the stages may overlap, occur out of sequence, be described and be performed in many other ways.

FIG. 2 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a general methodology for combinatorial process sequence integration that includes site isolated processing and/or conventional processing in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. In one embodiment, the substrate is initially processed using conventional process N. In one exemplary embodiment, the substrate is then processed using site isolated process N+1. During site isolated processing, an HPC module may be used, such as the HPC module described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/352,077 filed on Feb. 10, 2006. The substrate can then be processed using site isolated process N+2, and thereafter processed using conventional process N+3. Testing is performed and the results are evaluated. The testing can include physical, chemical, mechanical, acoustic, magnetic, electrical, optical, etc. tests. From this evaluation, a particular process from the various site isolated processes (e.g. from steps N+1 and N+2) may be selected and fixed so that additional combinatorial process sequence integration may be performed using site isolated processing for either process N or N+3. For example, a next process sequence can include processing the substrate using site isolated process N, conventional processing for processes N+1, N+2, and N+3, with testing performed thereafter.

It will be appreciated that various other combinations of conventional and combinatorial processes can be included in the processing sequence with regard to FIG. 2. That is, the combinatorial process sequence integration can be applied to any desired segments and/or portions of an overall process flow. Characterization, including physical, chemical, mechanical, acoustic, magnetic, electrical, optical, etc. testing, can be performed after each process operation, and/or series of process operations within the process flow as desired. The feedback provided by the testing is used to select certain materials, processes, process conditions, and process sequences and eliminate others. Furthermore, the above flows can be applied to entire monolithic substrates, or portions of monolithic substrates such as coupons.

Under combinatorial processing operations the processing conditions at different regions can be controlled independently. Consequently, process material amounts, reactant species, processing temperatures, processing times, processing pressures, processing flow rates, processing powers, processing reagent compositions, the rates at which the reactions are quenched, deposition order of process materials, process sequence steps, hardware details, etc., can be varied from region to region on the substrate. Thus, for example, when exploring materials, a processing material delivered to a first and second region can be the same or different. If the processing material delivered to the first region is the same as the processing material delivered to the second region, this processing material can be offered to the first and second regions on the substrate at different concentrations. In addition, the material can be deposited under different processing parameters. Parameters which can be varied include, but are not limited to, process material amounts, reactant species, processing temperatures, processing times, processing pressures, processing flow rates, processing powers, processing duty cycles, processing pulse times, processing frequencies, processing amplitudes, processing reagent compositions, the rates at which the reactions are quenched, atmospheres in which the processes are conducted, an order in which materials are deposited, processing temperature ramp rates, processing temperature cooldown rates, hardware details of the gas distribution assembly, etc. It will be appreciated that these process parameters are exemplary and not meant to be an exhaustive list as other process parameters commonly used in semiconductor manufacturing may be varied.

FIG. 3 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating an integrated high productivity combinatorial (HPC) system in accordance with some embodiments of the invention. The HPC system includes a frame 300 supporting a plurality of processing modules. It will be appreciated that frame 300 may be a unitary frame in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, the environment within frame 300 is controlled. A load lock 302 provides access into the plurality of modules of the HPC system. A robot 314 provides for the movement of substrates (and masks) between the modules and for the movement into and out of the load lock 302. Modules 304-312 may be any set of modules and preferably include one or more combinatorial modules. For example, module 304 may be an orientation/degassing module, module 306 may be a clean module, either plasma or non-plasma based, modules 308 and/or 310 may be combinatorial/conventional dual purpose modules. Module 312 may provide conventional clean or degas as necessary for the experiment design.

Any type of chamber or combination of chambers may be implemented and the description herein is merely illustrative of one possible combination and not meant to limit the potential chamber or processes that can be supported to combine combinatorial processing or combinatorial plus conventional processing of a substrate or wafer. In some embodiments, a centralized controller, i.e., computing device 316, may control the processes of the HPC system. Further details of one possible HPC system are described in U.S. application Ser. Nos. 11/672,478 and 11/672,473, the entire disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference. In a HPC system, a plurality of methods may be employed to deposit material upon a substrate employing combinatorial processes.

In some embodiments, a process chamber for combinatorial processing of a substrate is provided that includes one or more sputter targets (such as sputter guns); a power source (e.g. RF, DC, pulsed, or the like) coupled to the one or more sputter guns; a substrate support; a power source (e.g. RF, DC, pulsed, or the like) coupled to the substrate support; and a grounded shield comprising an aperture disposed between the substrate support and the one or more sputter guns to form a dark-space gap between the substrate support and the aperture. The aperture may be configured to allow sputter deposition or plasma processing of a site-isolated region on the substrate.

The process chamber may further include a plasma confinement ring between the substrate support and the grounded shield. The plasma confinement ring may be thicker than the substrate. The plasma confinement ring fills the dark-space gap between the substrate support and the grounded shield.

The process chamber may further include a dielectric material in the dark-space gap. The dielectric material may be coated with a metal layer for grounding and RF shielding. The dark-space gap may be between about 1 mm and about 3 mm.

In some embodiments, the process chamber includes other deposition or surface treatment processes discussed previously. Examples of deposition processes include ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, PLD, or evaporation. Examples of surface treatment processes include ion sputtering, ion cleaning, plasma treatment, reactive ion etching (RIE), plasma doping, and the like.

The process chamber may further include a controller to selectively apply power to the one or more sputter guns from the power source and apply power to bias the substrate support from a power source. The controller may be configured to control the power source to perform one or both of plasma processing and PVD deposition on a site-isolated region on the substrate. In some embodiments, other sputter mechanisms can be used instead of the sputter guns.

In some embodiments, a semiconductor processing system for combinatorial processing of a substrate is provided that includes a process chamber having a dark-space region configured to prevent plasma leaks in a region adjacent the substrate. The process chamber can be configured to perform both plasma processing and deposition (e.g. sputter deposition) on a site-isolated region on the substrate. The process chamber may include a dielectric material in the dark-space gap. The dark-space region may be between about 1 mm and about 3 mm.

The process chamber may include a plasma confinement ring positioned around the substrate to prevent plasma leak in a region adjacent the substrate. The plasma confinement ring may be thicker than the substrate. The plasma confinement ring may be a conductive material or ceramic material which may or may not be partially coated with a metal layer.

In some embodiments, a method of combinatorial processing of a substrate is provided in which site-isolated deposition and plasma processing are performed in the same process chamber. The site-isolated deposition may include site-isolated co-sputtering deposition. Cleaning, site-isolated sputter deposition, and plasma processing may be performed in the same process chamber. Cleaning, site-isolated sputter deposition, and plasma processing, and full wafer sputter deposition may be performed in the same process chamber.

In some embodiments, a method of combinatorial processing of a substrate is provided in which sputter deposition and plasma processing are performed in the same process chamber. The sputter deposition may include co-sputtering deposition. Cleaning, sputter deposition, and plasma processing may be performed in the same process chamber. The sputter deposition may result in a gradient in material properties across the length and/or width of the substrate. Physical methods such as scribing or lithography may be used to define the SIRs after the deposition. Alternatively, the SIRs may be defined by patterning a top layer (e.g. a top electrode in a two terminal device).

FIG. 4 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating an exemplary process chamber 400 configured to perform combinatorial processing and full substrate processing in accordance with some embodiments of the invention. It will be appreciated that the processing chamber shown in FIG. 4 is merely exemplary and that other process or deposition chambers may be used with the invention. Further details on exemplary deposition chambers that can be used with the invention can be found in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/965,689, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,039,052, entitled “Multi-region Processing System and Heads”, filed Dec. 27, 2007, and claiming priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/970,500 filed on Sep. 6, 2007, and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/027,980, entitled “Combinatorial Process System”, filed Feb. 7, 2008 and claiming priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/969,955 filed on Sep. 5, 2007, the entireties of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

The processing chamber 400 includes a bottom chamber portion 402 disposed under a top chamber portion 418. A substrate support 404 is provided within the bottom chamber portion 402. The substrate support 404 is configured to hold a substrate 406 disposed thereon and can be any known substrate support, including but not limited to a vacuum chuck, electrostatic chuck or other known mechanisms. In some embodiments, the substrate support includes additional functionality to rapidly heat and/or rapidly cool the substrate before, during, or after processing.

The substrate 406 may be a conventional 200 mm and 300 mm wafers, or any other larger or smaller size. In some embodiments, substrate 406 may be a square, rectangular, or other shaped substrate. The substrate 406 may be a blanket substrate, a coupon (e.g., partial wafer), or even a patterned substrate having predefined regions. In some embodiments, substrate 406 may have regions defined through site-isolated processing as described herein.

The top chamber portion 418 of the chamber 400 includes a process kit shield 412, which defines a confinement region over a portion of the substrate 406. As shown in FIG. 4, the process kit shield 412 includes a sleeve having a base (optionally integrated with the shield) and an optional top. It will be appreciated, however, that the process kit shield 412 may have other configurations. The process kit shield 412 is configured to confine plasma generated in the chamber 400 by sputter guns 416. The positively-charged ions in the plasma strike a target and dislodge atoms from the target. The sputtered particles are deposited on an exposed surface of substrate 406. In some embodiments, the process kit shield 412 may be partially moved in and out of chamber 400, and, in other embodiments, the process kit shield 412 remains in the chamber for both full substrate and combinatorial processing. When used in the full substrate configuration, a gradient in the material properties can be introduced across the length and/or width of the substrate.

The base of process kit shield 412 includes an aperture 414 through which a surface of substrate 406 is exposed for deposition processing. The chamber may also include an aperture shutter 420 which is moveably disposed over the base of process kit shield 412. The aperture shutter 420 slides across a bottom surface of the base of process kit shield 412 in order to cover or expose aperture 414. In some embodiments, the aperture shutter 420 is controlled by an arm extension (not shown) which moves the aperture shutter to expose or cover aperture 414.

As shown in FIG. 4, the chamber 400 includes two sputter guns 416. While two sputter guns are illustrated, any number of sputter guns may be included, e.g., one, three, four or more sputter guns may be included. Where more than one sputter gun is included, the plurality of sputter guns may be referred to as a cluster of sputter guns.

The sputter guns 416 are moveable in a vertical direction so that one or both of the guns may be lifted from the slots of the shield. In some embodiments, sputter guns 416 are oriented or angled so that a normal reference line extending from a planar surface of the target of the process gun is directed toward an outer periphery of the substrate in order to achieve good uniformity for full substrate deposition film. The target/gun tilt angle depends on the target size, target-to-substrate spacing, target material, process power/pressure, etc. and the tilt angle may be varied.

The chamber may also include a gun shutter 422, which seals off the sputter gun 416 when it is not needed during processing. The gun shutter 422 allows one or more of the sputter guns 416 to be isolated from certain processes as needed. It will be appreciated that the gun shutter 422 may be integrated with the top of the process kit shield 412 to cover the opening as the process gun 416 is lifted or individual gun shutter 422 can be used for each process gun 416.

The sputter guns 416 may be fixed to arm extensions 416 a to vertically move sputter guns 416 toward or away from top chamber portion 418. The arm extensions 416 a may be attached to a drive, e.g., lead screw, worm gear, etc. The arm extensions 416 a may be pivotally affixed to sputter guns 416 to enable the sputter guns to tilt relative to a vertical axis. In some embodiments, sputter guns 416 tilt toward aperture 414 when performing combinatorial processing and tilt toward a periphery of the substrate being processed when performing full substrate processing. It will be appreciated that sputter guns 416 may alternatively tilt away from aperture 414.

The chamber 400 also includes power sources 424 and 426. Power source 424 provides power for sputter guns 416, and power source 426 provides power to bias the substrate support 404. In some embodiments, the output of the power source 426 is synchronized with the output of power source 424. The power source, 424, may output a direct current (DC) power supply, a direct current (DC) pulsed power supply, a radio frequency (RF) power supply or a DC-RF imposed power supply. The power sources 424 and 426 may be controlled by a controller (not shown) so that both deposition and etch can be performed in the chamber 400, as will be described in further detail hereinafter.

The chamber 400 may also include an auxiliary magnet 428 disposed around an external periphery of the chamber 400. The auxiliary magnet 428 is located between the bottom surface of sputter guns 416 and proximity of a substrate support 404. The auxiliary magnet may be positioned proximate to the substrate support 404, or, alternatively, integrated within the substrate support 404. The magnet 428 may be a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. In some embodiments, the auxiliary magnet 428 improves ion guidance as the magnetic field above substrate 406 is re-distributed or optimized to guide the metal ions. In some other embodiments, the auxiliary magnet 428 provides more uniform bombardment of ions and electrons to the substrate and improves the uniformity of the film being deposited.

The substrate support 404 is capable of both rotating around its own central axis 408 (referred to as “rotation” axis), and rotating around an exterior axis 410 (referred to as “revolution” axis). Such dual rotary substrate supports can be advantageous for combinatorial processing using site-isolated mechanisms. Other substrate supports, such as an XY table, can also be used for site-isolated deposition. In addition, substrate support 404 may move in a vertical direction. It will be appreciated that the rotation and movement in the vertical direction may be achieved through one or more known drive mechanisms, including, for example, magnetic drives, linear drives, worm screws, lead screws, differentially pumped rotary feeds, and the like.

Through the rotational movement of the process kit shield 412 and the corresponding aperture 414 in the base of the process kit shield, in combination with the rotational movement of substrate support 404, any region of a substrate 406 may be accessed for combinatorial processing. The dual rotary substrate support 404 allows any region (i.e., location or site) of the substrate 406 to be placed under the aperture 414; hence, site-isolated processing is possible at any location on the substrate 406. It will be appreciated that removal of the aperture 414 and aperture shutter 420 from the chamber 400 or away from the substrate 406 and enlarging the bottom opening of the process kit shield 412 allows for processing of the full substrate.

As described above, embodiments of the invention allow for both sputter deposition and plasma etch to be performed in the same process chamber (e.g., chamber 400). In some embodiments, reactive gases (e.g. O2, N2, N2O, etc.) may be introduced so that reactive sputtering processes may be employed. In some embodiments of the invention, the chamber 400 is configured so that both sputter deposition and plasma etch can be performed in the chamber 400, and, in particular, the chamber 400 is configured to allow for both site-isolated sputter deposition and plasma etch to be performed in the chamber. It will be appreciated that full wafer sputter deposition and plasma etch may also be performed in the chamber 400 by removing the aperture 414 away from the chamber 400 or moving the aperture 414 away from the substrate 406 and enlarging the bottom opening of the process kit shield 412.

In particular, plasma etch may be performed in the chamber 400 by applying RF power from the power source 426 to bias the substrate support (e.g., an electrostatic chuck) 404 with or without DC plasma near the sputter target. Plasma is then ignited on top of the substrate 406, which is confined by the aperture 414 and shield 412 above the substrate 406 so that site-isolated plasma etch of the substrate 406 can occur in the chamber 400. Sputter deposition may similarly be performed in the chamber 400 by applying DC power from the power source 424 to the sputter gun(s) 416. Three modes of processing can be performed in chamber 400: sputter deposition only, simultaneous sputter deposition and plasma etch, and plasma etch only.

In some embodiments, the RF power density may be any value or range of values between about 2 W/cm2 and about 100 W/cm2. In some embodiments, RF, DC, or pulsed DC power applied to sputter sources can have peak powers as high as 10 kW, for example, for high metal ionization in sputter deposition. The RF power frequency may be any value or range of values between about 40 kHz and about 60 MHz. It will be appreciated that the RF power frequency may be less than about 40 kHz or greater than about 60 MHz.

In chamber 400, plasma etch can be used to clean the substrate 406. An exemplary process according to some embodiments of the invention may begin by cleaning the substrate, performing site-isolated sputter deposition, performing site-isolated plasma etch, performing full substrate sputter deposition and then performing a subsequent full substrate plasma etch, all within the same chamber (e.g., chamber 400). Another exemplary process according to some embodiments of the invention may begin by cleaning the substrate, performing a full substrate sputter deposition, performing site-isolated sputter deposition, performing site-isolated plasma etch, performing full substrate sputter deposition, and performing a subsequent full substrate plasma etch, all within the same chamber (e.g., chamber 400). It will be appreciated that the above processes are merely exemplary and that processes according to the invention may include fewer steps or additional steps and that the order of the steps may vary.

FIG. 5 is a simplified cross-sectional view of a TFT according to some embodiments. Bottom gate electrode, 504, is formed above substrate, 502. As discussed previously, the substrate may be any commonly used substrate for display devices such as one of float glass, low-iron glass, borosilicate glass, display glass, alkaline earth boro-aluminosilicate glass, fusion drawn glass, flexible glass, specialty glass for high temperature processing, polyimide, plastics, PET, etc. for either applications requiring transparent or non-transparent substrate functionality. For substrates with no need for transparency, substrates like aluminum foil, stainless steel, carbon steel, paper, cladded foils, etc. can be utilized. The substrate optionally is covered by a diffusion barrier, (e.g. silicon oxide, silicon nitride, or silicon oxy-nitride). The bottom gate electrode, 504, is typically formed by a deposition process followed by a patterning process. Optionally, an anneal step is implemented prior to patterning, post patterning, or both. A typical deposition method involves sputter deposition. Patterning is typically performed by photolithography. The photolithography most commonly relies on wet etching, yet dry etching (e.g. reactive ion etching) can be used as well. Wet etch chemistries are most commonly aqueous, and include a mixture of inorganic acids, optionally organic acids, and optionally an oxidizer like hydrogen peroxide, or nitric acid, and optionally other chemicals, either as stabilizers, to control critical dimension loss, taper angle, or etch selectivity. The gate electrode is most commonly a stack of two or more layers. Examples of suitable materials for the bottom gate electrode include a stack of Cu and a Cu-alloy, a stack of Cu and Mo, a stack of Cu and Ti, a stack of Cu and Mo—Ti alloy, a stack of Cu and Mo—Ta alloy, Cu, Mo, Al, a stack of Al and Mo, a stack of Al and Ti, or a stack of Al and Mo—Ti alloy. It should be noted that Al can contain a small concentration of Neodymium (Nd). It should be understood that the Cu in the Cu stacks, and Al in the Al stacks are thicker than the adjacent layers (e.g. Cu-alloy, or Mo—Ti alloy). Furthermore, the stacks can be a bi-layer of Cu and Cu-alloy, or a tri-layer of Cu-alloy/Cu/Cu-alloy, or Mo/Al/Mo. Typical Cu-alloys include Cu—Mg—Al, and Cu—Mn, wherein the Cu-alloys can also contain small concentrations of phosphides, Mg, or Ca. For some transparent TFTs, the gate electrode consists of a transparent conductive oxide, (e.g. In—Sn—O (ITO), In—Zn—O (IZO)), and related materials. The performance of the gate electrode can be sensitive to composition and process parameters. The same holds for the diffusion barrier layer underneath the gate electrode. Therefore, the optimization of the deposition of the gate electrode, 504, and the diffusion barrier layer, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously.

Gate dielectric, 506, is formed above bottom gate electrode, 504. Examples of suitable materials for the gate dielectric include silicon oxide and silicon nitride, a stack of silicon nitride and silicon oxide, a mixture, multi-layer, or combination thereof of a high bandgap (e.g. silicon oxide, or aluminum oxide) and high-k dielectric material (e.g. hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, titanium oxide), a high bandgap material (e.g. silicon oxide, or aluminum oxide) or high-k dielectric material (e.g. hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, titanium oxide). The gate dielectric, 506, is typically formed by a deposition process followed by a patterning process. Optionally, an anneal step is implemented prior to patterning, post patterning, or both. The gate dielectric, 506, may be formed using deposition techniques such as PVD, ALD, or PECVD, or a combination thereof. The performance of the gate dielectric can be sensitive to composition and process parameters. Therefore, the optimization of the deposition of the gate dielectric, 506, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously. The gate dielectric, 506, may be patterned using either wet techniques such as chemical etching, or dry techniques such as reactive ion etching (RIE). In both of these techniques, parameters such as the uniformity, etch rate, selectivity, critical dimension loss, taper angle, cost, throughput, etc. are sensitive to the process parameters of the etch process. Therefore, the optimization of the patterning (either wet or dry) of the gate dielectric, 506, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously.

Semiconductor layer, 508, is formed above gate dielectric, 506. The semiconductor layer, 508, is typically formed by a deposition process followed by a patterning process. Optionally, an anneal step is implemented prior to patterning, post patterning, or both. The anneal step may occur just below atmospheric pressure, at atmospheric pressure, or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Typical anneal ambient atmospheres contain at least one of oxygen, ozone, water, hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, or a combination thereof. In addition, the semiconductor layer may be treated prior to etch stopper or source/drain deposition with a plasma containing O2 or N2O. The semiconductor layer, 508, may be formed using deposition techniques such as PVD, MOCVD, or wet depositions, (e.g. based on sol-gels). The performance of the semiconductor layer can be sensitive to composition and process parameters. Therefore, the optimization of the deposition of the semiconductor layer, 508, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously. Examples of suitable materials for the semiconductor layer include indium gallium zinc oxide (In—Ga—Zn—O or IGZO), amorphous silicon, low-temperature polysilicon, In—Zn—O (IZO), Zn—Sn—O (ZTO), Hf—In—Zn—O (HIZO), and Al—Zn—Sn—O (AZTO), oxy-nitrides such as Zn—O—N (ZnON), In—O—N (InON), Sn—O—N (SnON), c-axis aligned crystalline (CAAC) materials such as CAAC-IGZO, or polycrystalline materials such as ZnO or In—Ga—O (IGO). Indium in these materials might be partially or completely replaced by Sn, or Sb. Gallium in these materials might be partially or completely replaced by one or more of Al, Hf, In, Nb, Si, Sn, Ta, Ti, Zn, or Zr. Oxygen in these materials might be partially or completely replaced by one or more of C, N, P, S, Se, Si, or Te. Other potential candidates as active channel (semiconductor) materials are refractory metal chalcogenides, (e.g. molybdenum sulfides). It should be noted that it is possible to deposit a bi-, or tri-layer, where each layer has a composition optimized for its functionality, the latter being contact layer with the gate insulator, bulk active channel layer, and contact layer with the source and drain electrodes and etch stopper or passivation layers. Furthermore, the active (semiconducting) channel layer might have a continuous change in composition (e.g. a gradient) through the thickness of the film. Common extrinsic (n-type) dopants for ZnO-based semiconductors are Al, B, Cr, Ga, H, In and Li. Furthermore, the metal cations in IGZO may be partially or completely replaced by Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Tl. Other dopants of interest include halogens like Cl and F. The semiconductor layer, 508, may be patterned using either wet techniques such as chemical etching, or dry techniques such as RIE. In both of these techniques, parameters such as the uniformity, etch rate, selectivity, critical dimension loss, taper angle, cost, throughput, etc. are sensitive to the process parameters of the etch process. Therefore, the optimization of the patterning (either wet or dry) of the semiconductor layer, 508, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously. This disclosure will use IGZO as an example, but this is not meant to be limiting. The HPC techniques described herein can be applied to any material suitable as a semiconductor layer for display applications.

Etch stopper, 510, is formed above semiconductor layer, 508. The etch stopper, 510, is typically formed by a deposition process followed by a patterning process. Optionally, an anneal step is implemented prior to patterning, post patterning, or both. The etch stopper, 510, may be formed using deposition techniques such as PVD, ALD, PECVD, or by wet coating techniques. The performance of the etch stopper can be sensitive to composition and process parameters. Therefore, the optimization of the deposition of the etch stopper, 510, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously. Examples of suitable materials for the etch stopper include silicon oxide, silicon nitride, a stack of silicon nitride and silicon oxide, a mixture, multi-layer, or combination thereof of a high bandgap material (e.g. silicon oxide, or aluminum oxide) and high-k dielectric material (e.g. hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, titanium oxide), a high bandgap (e.g. silicon oxide, or aluminum oxide) or high-k dielectric material (e.g. hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, titanium oxide). In addition to these inorganic materials, various organic materials may be used as etch stopper materials as well. Examples of organic etch stopper materials include photoresist, organic polymers, UV-curable polymers, and heat-curable polymers. The etch stopper, 510, may be patterned using either wet techniques such as chemical etching, or dry techniques such as RIE. In both of these techniques, parameters such as the uniformity, etch rate, selectivity, critical dimension loss, taper angle, cost, throughput, etc. are sensitive to the process parameters of the etch process. Therefore, the optimization of the patterning (either wet or dry) of the etch stopper, 510, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously.

Source and drain electrodes, 512 and 514, are formed above etch stopper, 510 and exposed regions of the semiconductor layer, 508. The source and drain electrodes, 512 and 514, are typically formed by a deposition process followed by a patterning process. Optionally, an anneal step is implemented prior to patterning, post patterning, or both. The source and drain electrodes, 512 and 514, may be formed using deposition techniques such as PVD, wet deposition (e.g. plating), or MOCVD (for TCOs). Typically, the deposition steps involve sputter deposition. Patterning is commonly performed by photolithography. The photolithography most commonly relies on wet etching, yet dry etching (e.g. reactive ion etching) can be used as well. Wet etch chemistries are most commonly aqueous, and include a mixture of inorganic acids, optionally organic acids, and optionally an oxidizer like hydrogen peroxide, or nitric acid, and optionally other chemicals, either as stabilizers, to control critical dimension loss, taper angle, or etch selectivity. The performance of the source and drain electrodes can be sensitive to composition and process parameters. Therefore, the optimization of the deposition of the source and drain electrodes, 512 and 514, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously. The gate electrode is most commonly a stack of two or more layers. Examples of suitable materials for the bottom gate electrode include a stack of Cu and a Cu-alloy, a stack of Cu and Mo, a stack of Cu and Ti, a stack of Cu and Mo—Ti alloy, a stack of Cu and Mo—Ta alloy, Cu, Mo, Al, a stack of Al and Mo, a stack of Al and Ti, or a stack of Al and Mo—Ti alloy. It should be noted that Al can contain a small concentration of Neodymium (Nd). It should be understood that the Cu in the Cu stacks, and Al in the Al stacks are thicker than the adjacent layers (e.g. Cu-alloy, or Mo—Ti alloy). Furthermore, the stacks can be a bi-layer of Cu and Cu-alloy, or a tri-layer of Cu-alloy/Cu/Cu-alloy, or Mo/Al/Mo. Typical Cu-alloys include Cu—Mg—Al, and Cu—Mn, wherein the Cu-alloys can also contain small concentrations of phosphides, Mg, or Ca. For some transparent TFTs, the gate electrode consists of a transparent conductive oxide, (e.g. In—Sn—O (ITO), In—Zn—O (IZO)), and related materials. The source and drain electrodes, 512 and 514, may be patterned using either wet techniques such as chemical etching, or dry techniques such as RIE. In both of these techniques, parameters such as the uniformity, etch rate, selectivity, critical dimension loss, taper angle, cost, throughput, etc. are sensitive to the process parameters of the etch process. Therefore, the optimization of the patterning (either wet or dry) of the source and drain electrodes, 512 and 514, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously.

Passivation layer, 516, is formed above source and drain electrodes, 512 and 514. The passivation layer, 516, is typically formed by a deposition process followed by a patterning process. Optionally, an anneal step is implemented prior to patterning, post patterning, or both. The passivation layer, 516, may be formed using deposition techniques such as PVD, ALD, or PECVD, or by wet coating techniques. The performance of the passivation layer can be sensitive to composition and process parameters. Therefore, the optimization of the deposition of the passivation layer, 516, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously. Examples of suitable materials for the passivation layer include silicon oxide and silicon nitride, a stack of silicon nitride and silicon oxide, a mixture, multi-layer, or combination thereof of a high bandgap (e.g. silicon oxide, or aluminum oxide) and high-k dielectric material (e.g. hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, titanium oxide), a high bandgap material (e.g. silicon oxide, or aluminum oxide) or high-k dielectric material (e.g. hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, titanium oxide). The passivation layer, 516, may be patterned using either wet techniques such as chemical etching, or dry techniques such as RIE. In both of these techniques, parameters such as the uniformity, etch rate, selectivity, critical dimension loss, taper angle, cost, throughput, etc. are sensitive to the process parameters of the etch process. Therefore, the optimization of the patterning (either wet or dry) of the passivation layer, 516, is a candidate for the application of the HPC techniques discussed previously.

In some embodiments, between one or more of the deposition and patterning steps discussed previously (e.g. the formation of the gate electrode layer, the gate dielectric layer, the metal-based semiconductor layer, the etch stopper layer, the source/drain electrode layers, or the passivation layer), the surface of the deposited film may be subjected to a treatment process before the patterning step. Examples of treatment processes include degas steps to remove adsorbed moisture due to exposure to ambient, anneal treatments, surface cleaning treatments (either wet or dry), and plasma treatments (e.g. exposure to plasma generated species of Ar, H2, N2, N2O, O2, O3, etc.).

FIG. 6 is a table illustrating some of the manufacturing steps that can be investigated using either conventional (“Cony”) or HPC (“HPC”) techniques. The steps from “gate electrode deposition” through the “passivation layer patterning” can each be completed using either conventional, full substrate processing or HPC processing as discussed previously. As discussed previously, the HPC processing may be directed to full substrates or to coupons (e.g. cleaved sub-sections of a full substrate). As indicated in the table, there are at least twelve steps in the manufacture of a TFT that would benefit from development and optimization through the application of HPC techniques. As discussed with respect to FIG. 2, each step in the manufacturing process can be completed using either conventional or HPC processing techniques. Those skilled in the art will understand that this represents a potential of at least 4,096 possible trajectories through the TFT manufacturing process using combinations of conventional and HPC processing techniques.

In some embodiments, HPC techniques are applied to the development and optimization of the metal-based semiconductor layer used in the manufacture of TFTs used in display devices. In some embodiments, the metal-based semiconductor layer is based on an IGZO material. Some of the requirements for the semiconductor layer used in these TFTs include controlled morphology (e.g. remain amorphous, or controlled polycrystallinity, or controlled c-axis-aligned crystal structure) throughout the processing of the TFT, a high field effect mobility (e.g. μFE>5 cm2/Vs), a low threshold voltage (close to zero, e.g. in a range of −1.0V to +2.0V), a low carrier concentration (e.g. 1016-1017 cm−3), a high ON/OFF current ratio (e.g. >106), a small sub-threshold swing (e.g. <0.4V), durability (e.g. negative bias temperature illumination stress NBTIS with threshold voltage shift in a range of −1.5V to +0.5V), and the like. IGZO (and the other metal-based semiconductor materials discussed previously) is a multinary compound and presents several challenges. The performance of IGZO-based semiconductor layers is sensitive to factors such as composition, composition uniformity (e.g. gradients and/or multiple phases), interfacial reactions with neighboring layers, process parameters, defect concentrations and distribution, thermal treatments, and the like.

It is convenient to present the concentration of each of the metallic components of the material as a ratio against the total metallic concentration (e.g. In =(In/(In+Ga+Zn)); Ga=(Ga/(In+Ga+Zn)); Zn=(Zn/(In+Ga+Zn))). Conventional processing systems employ PVD chambers with a single target including a specific composition of IGZO (e.g. a fully oxidized target with a defined metallic composition). The deposition of the IGZO semiconductor layer is typically accomplished using reactive sputtering wherein oxygen is introduced to the sputtering gas to ensure that the deposited film is fully oxidized. The composition of the deposited film can be varied over a very small range by varying process parameters such as power and pressure. Due to small differences in the sputtering yield of the various components of the target, small differences in the composition of the deposited layer can be realized. Therefore, a thorough investigation of the complete composition range of the IGZO material would require many targets with varying compositions to be used in a conventional processing system. This increases the cost and increases the time to fully characterize the IGZO material. Although IGZO has been used as an example for this discussion, those skilled in the art will understand that the same principles hold for each of the other metal-based semiconductor materials listed previously.

In some embodiments, the composition of the metal-based semiconductor layer (e.g. IGZO) can be varied using an HPC PVD system such as discussed with respect to FIG. 4. Many types of targets can be used in an HPC PVD chamber to investigate a wide range of compositions for the IGZO semiconductor layer. Some examples include, IGZO targets of varying compositions, binary metal oxide targets of the various components (e.g. indium oxide, gallium oxide, zinc oxide, or other metal oxides), metallic targets, or any combination thereof. The power applied to each target can be controlled independently, leading to a wide range of potential compositions. Further, as discussed previously, multiple SIRs formed on a single substrate (either through a shadow mask, by scribing a film with a controlled lateral gradient, or by definition of a top layer) allow the investigation of many compositions in a single deposition step. This reduces the cost and shortens the time to fully characterize the metal-based semiconductor material.

In some embodiments, other elements are added to or substituted for all or some of the components of the IGZO material. As an example, Sn can be substituted for some or all of the In. As an example, one or more of Al, Hf, Si, or Zr, can be substituted for some or all of the Ga. As an example, one or more of N, S, Se, or Te can be substituted for some or all of the O. Applying the HPC techniques discussed previously would greatly increase the efficiency of the investigation of this expanded material system.

FIG. 7 is a table illustrating some of the processing variables that can be investigated using HPC techniques. The “# of levels” shown in the table are for illustration purposes only and are not meant to be limiting. Those skilled in the art will understand that for each variable, a smaller or larger number of levels may be selected during the development of the “design of experiments” (DOE) and still fall within the teachings of the present disclosure. The concentration of each of the primary metal components of the metal-based semiconductor layer (e.g. IGZO) can be evaluated over at least three levels. As discussed previously, there are at least nine elements that can be used as dopants and/or substitutes for at least one of the components of the metal-based semiconductor layer. The dopants may be n-type or p-type. The composition of each of these dopants can be evaluated over at least three levels. Deposition parameters such as power, pressure, and gas composition can be evaluated over at least three levels. Annealing parameters such as temperature, time, and ambient can be evaluated over at least three levels. The composition gradient of each of the primary metal components through the thickness of the metal-based semiconductor layer can be evaluated over at least three levels. Those skilled in the art will understand that this simple list of processing variables and levels represents a full factorial experimental design that approaches five million experiments. Further, similar lists can be created for each of the twelve steps that were identified as being potential candidates for HPC evaluation in FIG. 6.

FIG. 8 is a flow chart illustrating the steps of a method according to some embodiments. FIG. 8 presents a method, 800, including at least three steps. Those skilled in the art will understand that there may be additional steps that are not listed for brevity. Those skilled in the art will also understand that each of the steps may actually include several operations.

In step 802, at least a first site-isolated region (SIR) on a substrate is processed using a first set of process parameters. As discussed previously, the SIRs may be defined during deposition, defined by patterning of a layer that includes a gradient in the layer, or by patterning of a top layer (e.g. a top electrode layer) that is formed above a blanket layer. Some examples of the process include the twelve candidates listed in the table in FIG. 6 and discussed previously (e.g. gate electrode deposition, gate electrode patterning, gate dielectric deposition, gate dielectric patterning, metal-based semiconductor layer (e.g. IGZO) deposition, metal-based semiconductor layer (e.g. IGZO) patterning, etch stop deposition, etch stop patterning, source/drain deposition, source/drain patterning, passivation deposition, and passivation patterning).

In step 804, at least a second SIR on the substrate is processed using a second set of process parameters. As in step 802, some examples of the process include the twelve candidates listed in the table in FIG. 6 and discussed previously (e.g. gate electrode deposition, gate electrode patterning, gate dielectric deposition, gate dielectric patterning, metal-based semiconductor layer (e.g. IGZO) deposition, metal-based semiconductor layer (e.g. IGZO) patterning, etch stop deposition, etch stop patterning, source/drain deposition, source/drain patterning, passivation deposition, and passivation patterning). Those skilled in the art will also understand that the concepts illustrated in steps 802 and 804 can be extended to any number of SIRs that might be present on the substrate.

After all of the SIRs present on the substrate have been processed, the results of the processing (e.g. the performance of the TFT) are evaluated for each of the SIRs in step 806. Examples of the types of evaluations include layer thickness, thickness uniformity, carrier mobility (from Hall measurements), composition, crystal structure, sheet resistance, optical properties, stress, and the like. If the materials processed within the SIRs are further processed to form simple devices, then additional types of device-based evaluations such as current-voltage behavior, capacitance-voltage behavior, determination of threshold voltage, determination of ON/OFF current ratios, transconductance, and the like, can be applied to the simple devices.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the deposition of a gate electrode material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the patterning of a gate electrode material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a vacuum-based process such as plasma etching, reactive ion etching, ion milling, and the like. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a solution-based process such as chemical etching.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the deposition of a gate dielectric material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the patterning of a gate dielectric material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a vacuum-based process such as plasma etching, reactive ion etching, ion milling, and the like. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a solution-based process such as chemical etching.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the deposition of a metal-based semiconductor material (e.g. IGZO) that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes. In some embodiments, the metal oxide semiconductor material includes In—Ga—Zn—O. In some embodiments, the metal-based semiconductor material includes at least one of Sn, Al, Zr, Hf, Si, N, S, Se, or Te.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the patterning of a metal-based semiconductor material (e.g. IGZO) that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a vacuum-based process such as plasma etching, reactive ion etching, ion milling, and the like. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a solution-based process such as chemical etching.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the deposition of an etch stop material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the patterning of an etch stop material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a vacuum-based process such as plasma etching, reactive ion etching, ion milling, and the like. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a solution-based process such as chemical etching.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the deposition of a source/drain material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the patterning of a source/drain material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a vacuum-based process such as plasma etching, reactive ion etching, ion milling, and the like. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a solution-based process such as chemical etching.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the deposition of a passivation material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes.

In some embodiments, the first process, 802, and the second process, 804, (and additional processes as discussed previously) include the patterning of a passivation material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a vacuum-based process such as plasma etching, reactive ion etching, ion milling, and the like. In some embodiments, the patterning process is a solution-based process such as chemical etching.

FIG. 9 is a flow chart illustrating the steps of a method according to some embodiments. FIG. 9 presents a method, 900, including at least three steps. Those skilled in the art will understand that there may be additional steps that are not listed for brevity. Those skilled in the art will also understand that each of the steps may actually include several operations.

In some embodiments, step, 902, (and additional processes as discussed previously) includes the deposition of a material that could be used in a TFT device. Some examples of the process include the deposition candidates listed in the table in FIG. 6 and discussed previously (e.g. gate electrode deposition, gate dielectric deposition, metal-based semiconductor material (e.g. IGZO) deposition, etch stop deposition, source/drain deposition, and passivation deposition). The deposition process (either vacuum-based or solution-based) is performed such that a gradient in at least one of the material properties of the material is formed in at least one direction (e.g. length or width) across the substrate. In some embodiments, the gradient is formed in both directions (e.g. length and width) across the substrate. Examples of material properties that can be varied across the substrate include composition, thickness, resistivity, optical properties, crystal orientation, and the like.

In step 904, site-isolated regions (SIR) are defined on the substrate by removing the material between the SIRs. Examples of methods that can be used to define the SIRs include scribing and lithography. Alternatively, the SIRs may be defined by patterning a subsequent layer (e.g. either by deposition through a shadow mask or by conventional lithography steps) to form isolated structures.

After all of the SIRs present on the substrate have been defined, the results of the processing are evaluated for each of the SIRs in step 906. Examples of the types of evaluations include layer thickness, thickness uniformity, carrier mobility, composition, crystal structure, sheet resistance, optical properties, stress, and the like. If the materials present within the SIRs are further processed to form simple devices, then additional types of device-based evaluations such as current-voltage behavior, capacitance-voltage behavior, determination of threshold voltage, determination of ON/OFF current ratios, transconductance, and the like, can be applied to the simple devices.

In some embodiments, the step, 902, (and additional processes as discussed previously) includes the deposition of a gate electrode material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes.

In some embodiments, the step, 902, (and additional processes as discussed previously) includes the deposition of a gate dielectric material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes.

In some embodiments, the step, 902, (and additional processes as discussed previously) includes the deposition of a metal oxide semiconductor (e.g. IGZO) material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes. In some embodiments, the metal oxide semiconductor material includes In—Ga—Zn—O. In some embodiments, the metal oxide semiconductor material includes at least one of Sn, Al, Zr, Hf, Si, N, S, Se, or Te.

In some embodiments, the step, 902, (and additional processes as discussed previously) includes the deposition of an etch stop material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes.

In some embodiments, the step, 902, (and additional processes as discussed previously) includes the deposition of a source/drain material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes.

In some embodiments, the step, 902, (and additional processes as discussed previously) includes the deposition of a passivation material that could be used in a TFT device. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a vacuum-based process such as PVD, ALD, PE-ALD, AVD, UV-ALD, CVD, PECVD, or evaporation. In some embodiments, the deposition process is a solution-based process such as printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, wet chemical depositions, or from sol-gel methods, such as the coating, drying, and firing of polysilazanes.

Although the foregoing examples have been described in some detail for purposes of clarity of understanding, the invention is not limited to the details provided. There are many alternative ways of implementing the invention. The disclosed examples are illustrative and not restrictive.

Claims (20)

What is claimed:
1. A method for forming a plurality of thin film transistors on a substrate in a combinatorial manner, the method comprising:
providing the substrate, wherein the substrate comprises a plurality of site-isolated regions;
depositing a gate electrode layer above each of the site-isolated regions;
patterning each of the gate electrode layers;
depositing a gate dielectric layer above each gate electrode layer;
patterning the gate dielectric layer deposited above each gate electrode layer;
depositing a metal-based semiconductor material layer above each gate dielectric layer;
patterning the metal-based semiconductor material layer deposited above each gate dielectric layer;
depositing an etch stop layer above each metal-based semiconductor material layer;
patterning the etch stop layer deposited above each metal-based semiconductor material layer;
depositing a source/drain layer above each etch stop layer;
patterning the source/drain layer deposited above each etch stop layer;
depositing a passivation layer above each source/drain layer; and
patterning the passivation layer deposited above each source/drain layer;
wherein at least one of depositing the gate electrode layer, patterning the gate electrode layer, depositing the gate dielectric layer, patterning the gate dielectric layer, depositing the metal-based semiconductor material layer, patterning the metal-based semiconductor material layer, depositing the etch stop layer, patterning the etch stop layer, depositing the source/drain layer, patterning the source/drain layer, depositing the passivation layer, or patterning the passivation layer is varied in a combinatorial manner between at least two of the plurality of site-isolated regions.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the metal-based semiconductor material layer comprises indium, gallium, zinc, and oxygen.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the metal-based semiconductor material layer comprises at least one of Sn, Al, Zr, Hf, Si, N, S, Se, or Te.
4. The method of claim 1 further comprising evaluating the performance of the thin film transistors formed within each site-isolated region.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the deposition of the gate electrode layers comprises at least one of physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, atomic vapor deposition, ultra-violet atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical layer deposition, evaporation, printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, or wet chemical depositions.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the deposition of the gate dielectric layers comprises at least one of physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, atomic vapor deposition, ultra-violet atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical layer deposition, evaporation, printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, or wet chemical depositions.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein the deposition of the metal-based semiconductor material layers comprises at least one of physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, atomic vapor deposition, ultra-violet atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical layer deposition, evaporation, printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, or wet chemical depositions.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the deposition of the etch stop layers comprises at least one of physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, atomic vapor deposition, ultra-violet atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical layer deposition, evaporation, printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, or wet chemical depositions.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the deposition of the source/drain layers comprises at least one of physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, atomic vapor deposition, ultra-violet atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical layer deposition, evaporation, printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, or wet chemical depositions.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein the deposition of the passivation layers comprises at least one of physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, atomic vapor deposition, ultra-violet atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical layer deposition, evaporation, printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, or wet chemical depositions.
11. A method for forming a plurality of thin film transistors on a substrate in a combinatorial manner, the method comprising:
providing the substrate;
depositing a gate electrode layer above each site-isolated region;
depositing a gate dielectric layer above the gate electrode layer;
depositing a metal oxide semiconductor layer above the gate dielectric layer;
depositing an etch stop layer above the metal-based semiconductor material layer;
depositing a source/drain layer above the etch stop layer; and
depositing a passivation layer above the etch stop layer;
wherein at least one of depositing the gate electrode layer, depositing the gate dielectric layer, depositing the metal-based semiconductor material layer, depositing the etch stop layer, depositing the source/drain layer, or depositing the passivation layer, is varied such that a gradient in at least one property of the material is formed in at least one direction across the substrate.
12. The method of claim 11 wherein the metal-based semiconductor material layer comprises indium, gallium, zinc, and oxygen.
13. The method of claim 11 wherein the metal-based semiconductor material layer comprises at least one of Sn, Al, Zr, Hf, Si, N, S, Se, or Te.
14. The method of claim 11 further comprising defining a plurality of site-isolated regions on the substrate by removing at least one of the layers between the site-isolated regions.
15. The method of claim 14 wherein the defining comprises at least one of scribing or lithography.
16. The method of claim 14 further comprising evaluating the performance of the thin film transistors formed within each site-isolated region.
17. The method of claim 11 wherein the deposition of the gate dielectric layer comprises at least one of physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, atomic vapor deposition, ultra-violet atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical layer deposition, evaporation, printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, or wet chemical depositions.
18. The method of claim 11 wherein the deposition of the metal-based semiconductor material layer comprises at least one of physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, atomic vapor deposition, ultra-violet atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical layer deposition, evaporation, printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, or wet chemical depositions.
19. The method of claim 11 wherein the deposition of the etch stop layer comprises at least one of physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, atomic vapor deposition, ultra-violet atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical layer deposition, evaporation, printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, or wet chemical depositions.
20. The method of claim 11 wherein the deposition of the source/drain layer comprises at least one of physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, atomic vapor deposition, ultra-violet atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical layer deposition, evaporation, printing or spraying of inks, screen printing, inkjet printing, slot die coating, gravure printing, or wet chemical depositions.
US14/094,379 2013-03-13 2013-12-02 High productivity combinatorial screening for stable metal oxide TFTs Active US9012261B2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201361778986P true 2013-03-13 2013-03-13
US14/094,379 US9012261B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-02 High productivity combinatorial screening for stable metal oxide TFTs

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/094,379 US9012261B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-02 High productivity combinatorial screening for stable metal oxide TFTs

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20140273340A1 US20140273340A1 (en) 2014-09-18
US9012261B2 true US9012261B2 (en) 2015-04-21

Family

ID=51523482

Family Applications (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14/094,379 Active US9012261B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-02 High productivity combinatorial screening for stable metal oxide TFTs
US14/132,383 Expired - Fee Related US8961814B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-18 High-selectivity wet patterning of source-drain electrodes over TAOS for a BCE device structure
US14/133,421 Expired - Fee Related US9034690B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-18 Methods for forming back-channel-etch devices with copper-based electrodes
US14/134,678 Active 2034-05-29 US9299571B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-19 Compositional graded IGZO thin film transistor
US14/136,000 Abandoned US20140264321A1 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-20 Method of Fabricating IGZO by Sputtering in Oxidizing Gas

Family Applications After (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14/132,383 Expired - Fee Related US8961814B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-18 High-selectivity wet patterning of source-drain electrodes over TAOS for a BCE device structure
US14/133,421 Expired - Fee Related US9034690B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-18 Methods for forming back-channel-etch devices with copper-based electrodes
US14/134,678 Active 2034-05-29 US9299571B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-19 Compositional graded IGZO thin film transistor
US14/136,000 Abandoned US20140264321A1 (en) 2013-03-13 2013-12-20 Method of Fabricating IGZO by Sputtering in Oxidizing Gas

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (5) US9012261B2 (en)
WO (1) WO2014165005A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20150177311A1 (en) * 2013-12-19 2015-06-25 Intermolecular, Inc. Methods and Systems for Evaluating IGZO with Respect to NBIS
US9214340B2 (en) 2014-02-05 2015-12-15 Applied Materials, Inc. Apparatus and method of forming an indium gallium zinc oxide layer

Families Citing this family (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AU2011302575A1 (en) * 2010-09-16 2013-05-02 Specmat, Inc. Method, process and fabrication technology for high-efficency low-cost crytalline silicon solar cells
US9853053B2 (en) 2012-09-10 2017-12-26 3B Technologies, Inc. Three dimension integrated circuits employing thin film transistors
US9175389B2 (en) * 2012-12-21 2015-11-03 Intermolecular, Inc. ALD process window combinatorial screening tool
US9466508B2 (en) * 2013-04-23 2016-10-11 Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc. Liquid composition used in etching multilayer film containing copper and molybdenum, manufacturing method of substrate using said liquid composition, and substrate manufactured by said manufacturing method
KR20150012874A (en) * 2013-07-26 2015-02-04 삼성디스플레이 주식회사 Thin-film transistor, and method of manufacturing thereof, and method of manufacturing back plane of flat panel display
TWI646690B (en) 2013-09-13 2019-01-01 半導體能源研究所股份有限公司 Semiconductor device and manufacturing method
JP2015079946A (en) * 2013-09-13 2015-04-23 株式会社半導体エネルギー研究所 Semiconductor device manufacturing method
JP6082912B2 (en) * 2013-10-03 2017-02-22 株式会社Joled Method for manufacturing thin film transistor substrate
JP6386323B2 (en) * 2013-10-04 2018-09-05 株式会社半導体エネルギー研究所 Semiconductor device
US9362413B2 (en) * 2013-11-15 2016-06-07 Cbrite Inc. MOTFT with un-patterned etch-stop
US9136355B2 (en) * 2013-12-03 2015-09-15 Intermolecular, Inc. Methods for forming amorphous silicon thin film transistors
TWI559555B (en) * 2014-03-13 2016-11-21 Univ Nat Taiwan Normal Thin film transistor and manufacturing method thereof
US9337030B2 (en) * 2014-03-26 2016-05-10 Intermolecular, Inc. Method to grow in-situ crystalline IGZO using co-sputtering targets
US20150279671A1 (en) * 2014-03-28 2015-10-01 Industry-Academic Cooperation Foundation, Yonsei University Method for forming oxide thin film and method for fabricating oxide thin film transistor employing germanium doping
US9868902B2 (en) * 2014-07-17 2018-01-16 Soulbrain Co., Ltd. Composition for etching
WO2016043748A1 (en) 2014-09-18 2016-03-24 Intel Corporation Wurtzite heteroepitaxial structures with inclined sidewall facets for defect propagation control in silicon cmos-compatible semiconductor devices
US9276092B1 (en) * 2014-10-16 2016-03-01 Micron Technology, Inc. Transistors and methods of forming transistors
US10026822B2 (en) * 2014-11-14 2018-07-17 Elwha Llc Fabrication of nanoscale vacuum grid and electrode structure with high aspect ratio dielectric spacers between the grid and electrode
CN104900654B (en) * 2015-04-14 2017-09-26 深圳市华星光电技术有限公司 The preparation method and its structure of dual gate oxide semiconductor TFT substrate
CN104867870B (en) * 2015-04-14 2017-09-01 深圳市华星光电技术有限公司 The preparation method and its structure of dual gate oxide semiconductor TFT substrate
CN104752343B (en) * 2015-04-14 2017-07-28 深圳市华星光电技术有限公司 Double-gate structure and manufacturing method of an oxide semiconductor substrate tft
US10211327B2 (en) * 2015-05-19 2019-02-19 Intel Corporation Semiconductor devices with raised doped crystalline structures
US10388777B2 (en) 2015-06-26 2019-08-20 Intel Corporation Heteroepitaxial structures with high temperature stable substrate interface material
US9412590B1 (en) 2015-08-31 2016-08-09 United Microelectronics Corp. Manufacturing method of oxide semiconductor device
KR20170036876A (en) * 2015-09-18 2017-04-03 삼성디스플레이 주식회사 Organic light emitting device and display device having the same
TWI542715B (en) * 2015-09-21 2016-07-21 Au Optronics Corp A method for manufacturing a semiconductor indium gallium zinc oxide layer and a crystalline thin film transistor
CN105304468B (en) * 2015-09-21 2018-01-19 西安交通大学 A kind of amorphous IGZO transparent oxide films of N2 processing and preparation method thereof
KR101788929B1 (en) * 2015-09-25 2017-11-15 아주대학교산학협력단 Method of controlling electric conductivity of metal oxide thin film and thin film transistor including the metal oxide thin film having the controlled electric conductivity
CN105304652B (en) * 2015-11-25 2018-04-03 深圳市华星光电技术有限公司 The preparation method of array base palte, display and array base palte
CN105655354A (en) * 2016-01-22 2016-06-08 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Thin film transistor, array substrate and preparation method thereof and display device
CN105720198B (en) * 2016-03-08 2018-05-15 中国计量学院 A kind of organic heterojunction photosensitive field-effect transistor of temp control switch and preparation method thereof
KR20170112886A (en) * 2016-03-28 2017-10-12 동우 화인켐 주식회사 Etching solution composition for copper-based metal layer, manufacturing method of an array substrate for crystal display using the same
US10332753B2 (en) * 2017-01-13 2019-06-25 International Business Machines Corporation Wet etching of samarium selenium for piezoelectric processing
US10340391B2 (en) 2017-06-29 2019-07-02 United Microelectronics Corp. Semiconductor device and method for fabricating the same
US10403743B2 (en) 2017-07-20 2019-09-03 United Microelectronics Corp. Manufacturing method of oxide semiconductor device
CN107564809A (en) * 2017-08-04 2018-01-09 深圳市华星光电半导体显示技术有限公司 The etching solution and its engraving method of IGZO film layers
US10290710B2 (en) 2017-09-05 2019-05-14 United Microelectronics Corp. Semiconductor device and method for forming the same

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100224870A1 (en) * 2007-12-13 2010-09-09 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Field effect transistor
US20100276685A1 (en) * 2008-01-08 2010-11-04 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Amorphous oxide and field effect transistor
US20140093902A1 (en) * 2009-08-31 2014-04-03 Tufts University Silk transistor devices
US20140179112A1 (en) * 2012-12-26 2014-06-26 Globalfoundries High Productivity Combinatorial Techniques for Titanium Nitride Etching

Family Cites Families (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP4097521B2 (en) 2002-12-27 2008-06-11 株式会社半導体エネルギー研究所 Method for manufacturing semiconductor device
US7514363B2 (en) * 2003-10-23 2009-04-07 Dupont Air Products Nanomaterials Llc Chemical-mechanical planarization composition having benzenesulfonic acid and per-compound oxidizing agents, and associated method for use
CN100466182C (en) 2007-01-04 2009-03-04 北京京东方光电科技有限公司;京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Manufacturing method of plain conductor, electrode and thin-film transistor array substrate
JP5588597B2 (en) * 2007-03-23 2014-09-10 富士フイルム株式会社 Manufacturing method and manufacturing apparatus of conductive material
US7682882B2 (en) 2007-06-20 2010-03-23 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method of manufacturing ZnO-based thin film transistor
WO2009066750A1 (en) * 2007-11-22 2009-05-28 Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. Etching solution composition
US8143093B2 (en) 2008-03-20 2012-03-27 Applied Materials, Inc. Process to make metal oxide thin film transistor array with etch stopping layer
KR101461127B1 (en) * 2008-05-13 2014-11-14 삼성디스플레이 주식회사 Semiconductor device and method for manufacturing the same
JP5497417B2 (en) * 2009-12-10 2014-05-21 富士フイルム株式会社 Thin film transistor, manufacturing method thereof, and apparatus having the thin film transistor
JP5776192B2 (en) * 2010-02-16 2015-09-09 株式会社リコー Field effect transistor, display element, image display apparatus and system
KR101867272B1 (en) 2010-03-05 2018-06-15 가부시키가이샤 한도오따이 에네루기 켄큐쇼 Semiconductor device and manufacturing method thereof
US20140151682A1 (en) * 2010-07-15 2014-06-05 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Circuit board, display device, and process for production of circuit board
US8546892B2 (en) * 2010-10-20 2013-10-01 Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd. Semiconductor device and method for manufacturing semiconductor device
CN102157565A (en) * 2011-01-18 2011-08-17 北京大学深圳研究生院 Manufacturing method of thin-film transistor
US8878174B2 (en) * 2011-04-15 2014-11-04 Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd. Semiconductor element, memory circuit, integrated circuit, and driving method of the integrated circuit
WO2013005400A1 (en) * 2011-07-06 2013-01-10 出光興産株式会社 Sputtering target
WO2013015322A1 (en) * 2011-07-26 2013-01-31 三菱瓦斯化学株式会社 Etchant for copper/molybdenum-based multilayer thin film
JP5927602B2 (en) 2011-10-06 2016-06-01 株式会社Joled Manufacturing method of display device
US8901556B2 (en) * 2012-04-06 2014-12-02 Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd. Insulating film, method for manufacturing semiconductor device, and semiconductor device
CN102709239B (en) * 2012-04-20 2014-12-03 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Display device, array substrate and production method of array substrate

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100224870A1 (en) * 2007-12-13 2010-09-09 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Field effect transistor
US20100276685A1 (en) * 2008-01-08 2010-11-04 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Amorphous oxide and field effect transistor
US20140093902A1 (en) * 2009-08-31 2014-04-03 Tufts University Silk transistor devices
US20140179112A1 (en) * 2012-12-26 2014-06-26 Globalfoundries High Productivity Combinatorial Techniques for Titanium Nitride Etching

Non-Patent Citations (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Hosono; Ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors: Material design, carrier transport, and device application; 2006; Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids; Elsevier B.V.; pp. 851-858.
Iwasaki, et al.; Combinatorial approach to thin-film transistors using multicomponent semiconductor channels: An application to amorphous oxide semiconductors in In-Ga-Zn-O system; Jun. 15, 2007; Applied Physics Letters; American Institute of Physics; pp. 242114-1-242114-3.
Iwasaki, et al.; Combinatorial approach to thin-film transistors using multicomponent semiconductor channels: An application to amorphous oxide semiconductors in In—Ga—Zn—O system; Jun. 15, 2007; Applied Physics Letters; American Institute of Physics; pp. 242114-1-242114-3.
Kamiya, et al.; Present status of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors; Sep. 10, 2010; IOP Publishing; Science and Technology of Advanced Materials; National Institute for Materials Science; pp. 1-23.
Kamiya, et al.; Present status of amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin-film transistors; Sep. 10, 2010; IOP Publishing; Science and Technology of Advanced Materials; National Institute for Materials Science; pp. 1-23.
Kwon, et al.; Review Paper: Transparent Amorphous Oxide Semiconductor Thin Film Transistor; Mar. 27, 2011; Electronic Materials Letters, vol. 7, No. 1; Kim and Springer; pp. 1-11.
Nomura, et al.; Stability and high-frequency operation of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors with various passivation layers; 2012; Thin Solid Films; Elsevier B.V.; pp. 3778-3782.
Nomura, et al.; Stability and high-frequency operation of amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin-film transistors with various passivation layers; 2012; Thin Solid Films; Elsevier B.V.; pp. 3778-3782.
Ohta, et al.; Frontier of transparent oxide semiconductors; 2003; Solid-State Electronics; Elsevier Ltd.; pp. 2261-2267.
Park, et al.; Review of recent developments in amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistor devices; 2012; Thin Solid Films; Elsevier B.V.; pp. 1679-1693.
Robertson; High dielectric constant oxides; Dec. 2, 2004; The European Physical Journal Applied Physics; pp. 265-291.
Shih, et al.; Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors instability and stress evaluation by Stretched-Exponential model; May 5, 2012; Solid-State Electronics; Elsevier Ltd.; pp. 74-77.
Shih, et al.; Amorphous indium—gallium—zinc oxide thin-film transistors instability and stress evaluation by Stretched-Exponential model; May 5, 2012; Solid-State Electronics; Elsevier Ltd.; pp. 74-77.
Sundholm, et al.; Passivation of Amorphous Oxide Semiconductors Utilizing a Zinc-Tin-Silicon-Oxide Barrier Layer; Jun. 2012; IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 33, No. 6; IEEE; pp. 836-838.
Sundholm, et al.; Passivation of Amorphous Oxide Semiconductors Utilizing a Zinc—Tin—Silicon—Oxide Barrier Layer; Jun. 2012; IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 33, No. 6; IEEE; pp. 836-838.
Ye, et al.; High mobility amorphous zinc oxynitride semiconductor material for thin film transistors; Oct. 13, 2009; Journal of Applied Physics; American Institute of Physics; pp. 074512-1-074512-8.

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20150177311A1 (en) * 2013-12-19 2015-06-25 Intermolecular, Inc. Methods and Systems for Evaluating IGZO with Respect to NBIS
US9214340B2 (en) 2014-02-05 2015-12-15 Applied Materials, Inc. Apparatus and method of forming an indium gallium zinc oxide layer

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2014165005A1 (en) 2014-10-09
US20140264321A1 (en) 2014-09-18
US9034690B2 (en) 2015-05-19
US20140264320A1 (en) 2014-09-18
US20140273340A1 (en) 2014-09-18
US8961814B2 (en) 2015-02-24
US9299571B2 (en) 2016-03-29
US20140273341A1 (en) 2014-09-18
US20140264155A1 (en) 2014-09-18

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Fortunato et al. Oxide semiconductor thin‐film transistors: a review of recent advances
Park et al. Review of recent developments in amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistor devices
US8779419B2 (en) Semiconductor device, polycrystalline semiconductor thin film, process for producing polycrystalline semiconductor thin film, field effect transistor, and process for producing field effect transistor
JP5118810B2 (en) Field effect transistor
US7432201B2 (en) Hybrid PVD-CVD system
US7691715B2 (en) Method of fabricating oxide semiconductor device
KR100973124B1 (en) Field-effect transistor having a channel comprising an oxide semiconductor material including indium and zinc
KR100889796B1 (en) Field effect transistor employing an amorphous oxide
TWI459474B (en) Capping layers for metal oxynitride tfts
Ohara et al. 21.3: 4.0 In. QVGA AMOLED Display Using In‐Ga‐Zn‐Oxide TFTs with a Novel Passivation Layer
US8143115B2 (en) Method for manufacturing thin film transistor using oxide semiconductor and display apparatus
JP5137146B2 (en) Semiconductor device and manufacturing method thereof
EP1984954B1 (en) Field effect transistor using oxide film for channel and method of manufacturing the same
KR101460869B1 (en) Thin-film transistor and method for manufacturing the thin-film transistor
KR101312774B1 (en) Semiconductor thin film and method for manufacturing same, and thin film transistor
JP2018026591A (en) Semiconductor device
US7935964B2 (en) Oxide semiconductors and thin film transistors comprising the same
JP2008199005A (en) Thin film transistor and manufacturing method of the same
CN100544031C (en) Semiconductor device having channel including multicomponent oxide
JP6033907B2 (en) Oxide semiconductor film and semiconductor device
JP2010080936A (en) Amorphous oxide semiconductor and thin film transistor using the same
JP5508555B2 (en) Display
JP4560502B2 (en) Field effect transistor
TWI422034B (en) Oxide semiconductor device including insulating layer and display apparatus using the same
JP5718052B2 (en) Thin film transistor using thin film semiconductor material

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: INTERMOLECULAR, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:VAN DUREN, JEROEN;LEE, SANG;LE, MINH HUU;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20131105 TO 20131124;REEL/FRAME:031700/0527

STCF Information on status: patent grant

Free format text: PATENTED CASE