US729413A - Automatic firearm. - Google Patents

Automatic firearm. Download PDF

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Publication number
US729413A
US729413A US1902151538A US729413A US 729413 A US729413 A US 729413A US 1902151538 A US1902151538 A US 1902151538A US 729413 A US729413 A US 729413A
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
breech
bolt
gas
chamber
forwardly
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Joseph Joachim Reifgraber
Original Assignee
Joseph Joachim Reifgraber
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Publication date
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A5/00Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock
    • F41A5/18Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock gas-operated
    • F41A5/20Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock gas-operated using a gas piston arranged concentrically around the barrel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/12Bolt action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being parallel to the barrel axis
    • F41A3/14Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively
    • F41A3/16Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively the locking elements effecting a rotary movement about the barrel axis, e.g. rotating cylinder bolt locks
    • F41A3/26Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively the locking elements effecting a rotary movement about the barrel axis, e.g. rotating cylinder bolt locks semi-automatically or automatically operated, e.g. having a slidable bolt-carrier and a rotatable bolt
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A5/00Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock
    • F41A5/18Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock gas-operated
    • F41A5/24Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock gas-operated by direct action of gas pressure on bolt or locking elements

Description

A N0.`729,413. A

J. J. RBIFGRA-BER.- AUTOMATIC FIRE'ARM.

. APMIUATIOr1- ED'MALZE. 1902. .BENEW'BD' APR. '1, 1903. No MODEL. s SHEETS-SHEET 1.

affifa LWN PATBNTED MAY 26,1903.A

No. 729,413. 'PATENTED MAY-26, 1903.. J. if. REIFGRABER. AUTOMATIC FIREARM.-

.. APPLICATION FILED MAB. 25, 1902.v BEWED APB.. 7, 1903. F0 MODEL. I 3 SHEETS-SHEBTZ.

No MODEL.

3 SHEETS-SHEET s.

A PATBNTBD MAY 26, 1903'.l I. J. REIPGRABER. AUTOMATIC P\11 'LAR1\A.

APPLAUATIONIILBD MAB.. 25, 1902. BBNEWBD APR. 7,' 1963.

Unirse @raras Patented May 26, 190e.

PATENT erica.

apreciarse meenam;

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 729,413,

dated May 2e, 1 eos.

Application led March 25, 19'02. Renewed April 7, 1903. Serial No. 151,538. (No model.)

To a/ZZ whom it muy concern.:

Beit known that I, JOSEPH JOACHIM REIF- GRABER, of the city of St. Louis, State of Missouri, have invented certain new anduseful improvements in, Automatic Firearms, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming-appart hereof.

My invention relates to automatic magazine-firearms; and it consists of the novel construction, combination, and arrangement of parts hereinafter shown, described, and claimed.

Myobject is to construct an automatic magazine-iirearm-that is to say, a firearm that will by the mere act of pulling the trigger and holding it discharge one at a timo every care tridge in the magazine.

Theprincipal features of my invention are applicable to machine-guus, infantry-rifles, pistols, and all firearms in which cartridges are used successively from a magazine.

A further object of my invention is to make a firearm of the class described which is simplein construction and operation and in which the recoil is reduced to a minimum.

Figure l is a longitudinal vertical section of an automatic magazine infautry-1ie constructed in accordance with the principles of my invention, parts being broken away to economize space. Fig. 2 is a perspective of thev stock for the purpose of illustrating the connection between the stock and the harrel. Fig. is a perspective of the barrel for the purpose of illustrating its connection to the stock. Fig. iis a sectional detail of the firing-pin and iiring-pin hook. Fig. 5 is a perspective of the firing-pin hook. Fig. G is a perspective of the breech-bolt with its operating-arms, piston, piston-Wings, and firing-pin hook. Fig. 7 is a perspective of the barrel, illustrating the construction of the gas-chamber in which the piston shown in Fig. U is placed. Fig. S is an enlarged detail showing the parts shown in Fig. G and Fig. 7 assembled in operative position. Fig. J is a perspective of the trigger. Fig. 10 is a perspective of the scar. Fig. 1 is a longitudinal vertical section of an automatic quickiiring machine-gun. Fig. 2 is a sectional perspective through the magazine aud'breechboltichambcr, taken ou the line 2"' of Fig.

1. Fig. 3 is a front end View of the breechbolt. Fig. 4 is a perspective of thc cam.

Referring to the drawings in detail, the barrel 10 has a bore 11 to receive the cartridge 12 and through which the bullet 13 is discharged. The casing 1-1 is mounted around the breech end of the barrel l() to form the gas-chamber 15. The gas-ports 1li connect the forward end of the boro IllV to the gasv chamber 15, the rear ends of said ports discharging laterally from the lugs 17, as shown in Fig. S. The breech-bolt casing comprises the cylindrical portion 18 of thc forward end of the stock l) and the extension 20, extending backwardly from the casing 14, thus forming the breech-bolt chamber 2l. 'lhc brcechbolt 22 is slidingly mounted in this chamber. The arms extend forwardly from the breecl1-boltoueon eachsideot' its center. The piston 21 connects the forward ends of said arms, and the wings 25 project forwardlyfrom said piston and normally occupy positions beside the lug 17, as shown in Fig. 8, so that pressure coming through the ports 1G will force said wings laterally to rotate the breechbolt 22, then press said piston 24 backwardly. An opening 25 is formed longitudinally at the top of the extension 2O of the casing 14 for the ad mission of cartridges, and the magazine 2G extends downwardly from the projection 20, the opening 27 of said magazine being in alinemcnt with the opening 25, so that clips of cartridges may be passed downwardly through the opening 25 into the magazine.

A spring 2S is mounted in front of the magazine and extends into the magazine, and

near its free end is a curved plate 2f), in which the lower cartridge rests, vthe tension of the spring being exerted to raise the cartridges, so that they may slide into the bore of the barrel one by one by the operation of the breeclrbolt. The handleSOextends upwardly from thc forward ond of the breech-bolt 22 through the opening 25, and when the breech-bolt is in its normal psition the handie 30 is tipped laterally into the lockingnoteh 31, extending from the forward end of the opening 25. The expansive coil-spring 32 is mounted inthe breech-holt chamber 21, is connected to the rear end of the breechbolt 22 and to the stock, vso that the tension-l of said spring is exerted to slide the breechbolt forwardly and to rotate or move said breech-bolt laterally, as required to bring the handle l into the notch 3l and lock the breech-bolt in its normal position, said spring having a tension laterally as well as expansively.,

The firing-pin 3 3 is slidingly mounted in the center of the breech-bolt 22, said firingpin being fixed upon the forward end ofl a sleeve 34, which slides through the stop-plate 35. The expansive coil-spring 3G is placed around the sleeve 34.- between the firing-pin and the stop-plale 35, as required to snap the firing-pin forwardly to explode the cartridge, and a plug 37 is placed in the rear end of the sleeve e 'and has a squared opening in which the stem 33, carrying the secondary "hammer 3f), is slidingly mounted and held against rotation.

The scar-shoulder 40 is fixed upon the rear end of the stem 38, said Sear-shoulder being cone -shaped with its point toward the rear andV there being a releasing-notch 4l formed in said Sear-shoulder.

The trigger 42 is mounted upon the pivot 43 at the rear end of the breech-bolt chamber, and the sear 44: is mounted upon said pivot beside theftrigger, said scar being held yieldingly in ils hooked position by the expansive spring 45. A lug 46 projects from the sear 4J: and engages the rear side of the trigger, so that when the trigger is pulled the scar is operated. A stop 47 projects backwardly from the trigger to engage the stock and limit v the backward motion of the trigger, so that the sear may swing backwardly farther than the trigger swings.4 When the breech-bolt moves rearwardly, the beveled rear face of the scar-shoulder -iLO will engage the beveled forward face of the scar -zi-t and cause said scar to swing downwardly against the tension of the spriug45 until said scar and scar-shoulder interlock. The parts are so assembled that pulling the trigger will not pull the scar 44 out of engagement with the scar-shoulder 40 except when the sear 44 may pass through the slot 41, and the parts are s().assembled i that the slot 4l is in line for the sear 44 to pass through it only when the breech-bolt i has been rotated laterally into its locked position, so that the tiring-pin cannotbe released to discharge a cartridge except when the breech-bolt is locked. between the trigger and the sear 4t allows the seal" Al t to pass over the scar-shoulder 4() and lock, but will not allow the trigger to pull the scar i-l out of engagement with the scar-Shoulder i() except through the Slot 4l.

An extractor Ai8 is incascd in the forward upper pal-tot the breech-bolt and extends forwardly and downwardly to engage thev rim of the cartridge, said extractor being springactuated. An enlarged ring 4f) extends forwardly from the cylindrical casing i8 to reccive thc roar cud of the projection :20, and pins 50 project inwardly from said ring to form bayonet-joints, with the slots 5l in the real' enel of the projection 20. v

A slip connection The trigger-guard 52 is rigidly attachedat its rear end to the stock, extends downwardly and forwardly around the trigger through the guard 53, and snaps into the seat 5t at the rear of the magazine 26. A slide 55 is mounted in the guard in position to slide up in front of the breech-bolt 22 when the magazine is empty, said slide being moved .upwardly by the free end of thetspring 2S, thus locking the breech-bolt in its rear position, as required to allow the insertion of a new clip of cartridges. 'A handle 56 extends outwardly from the slide 55 for manually operating the same. Abeveled lug forming the cartridge-stop 57 extends backwardly from the piston 2t into thc piston-chamber l5.

The operation is as follows: The handle 30 is manually engaged and moved laterally to unlock the breech-bolt by moving the said handle out of the notch 3l.' Then the breechbolt is moved rearwardly against the tension of the spring 32 until the spring 28 snaps the slide 55 upwardly in front ofthe breech-bolt, thus holding the breech-bolt in its rearward position. Their a clip of cartridges is inserted through the opening 25" into the magazine, thus depressing the spring 28, allowing the slide 55 to fall downwardly to its normal position. When thebrecch-bolt is moved backwardly, the scar-shoulder 40 interlocks with the sear 44, and when the breech-bolt moves forwardly the tiring-pin 33 is held against the tension of the spring 3U and cocked ready to be released when it is desired to discharge the gun. The expansive tension of the spring 32 'moves the breechbolt forwardly, the handle 30 sliding along. the right-hand edge of the opening 25 until the notch il is reached, aud then the lateral tension of the spring 52 rotates the-breechbolt, bringing the handle 30 into the notch 31. and locking the breech-bolt in the firing position. \Vhen the breech-bolt rotates to its locked position, the notch ll is brought into line with the scar 4l, and when the trigger is pulled the scar t-L will pass through the notch 4l, thus releasing the liring-pin. 'lhe firingpin snaps forwardly and discharges the cartridge. 'lhe bullet is dischargedthrough the bore 11 until the muzzle is reached. 'lhcn thc gas passes through the ports 1G to the wings 25, moving said wings laterally until the handle 30 is unlocked from the notch 3l. rlhcn the gas enters the gaschamber l5, presses the IIO piston 24 backward ly, thus'moving thc brecchtiring-pin. At thisv time the breech-bolt is moving forwardly, and the point of. the cart'ridge will be pressed into the chamber 1l.

The rear end of the chamber is larger than the bullet and is daring, so that the cartridge will find its way into the cham ber by the prescontact with the beveled'lug 57, thus holding the .cartridges from being thrown out of the magazine, and as the breech-bolt moves forwardly the upper cartridge is moved into the barrel, and as the breech-bolt moves laterally into its locked position the sear 44 passes through the slot yil, releasing the tiring-pin and discharging the cartridge, and this operation is repeated as long as the trigger is held and until the cartridges have been exhausted from the magazine.

In Figs. la., 2a., 3, and t the construction is slightly modified. The magazine 5S is mounted by the side of and above the breech-bolt chamber, and the cartridges are fed from the indicated by 62,

magazine into the barrel by the escapoment mechanism 59. The inner surface of the forward half of the breech-bolt chamber is provided with a broken screw-thread 60, and the periphery of the breech-bolt is provided with corresponding broken scrcw-threads 6l, said breech-bolt being longitudinally slotted, as to allow the breech-bolt to slide forwardly with the screw-threads G0 in the slots 62, and then when the breech-bolt is moved laterally or rotated the screw-threads interlock with the screw-threads G1, thus g providing a stronger locking device than that shown in Figi. The cartridges are fed downwardly into the gnu by gravity through the escapement mechanism, as above suggested, and the empty shells are discharged downwardly and forwardly. The breech-bolt is moved forwardly and laterally into its locked position by ahandlc connected to the cam 63; said cam having teeth Ut to mesh with the screw-threads 6l and an arm 05 to engage in the slot (35 in the lower rear end of the breech.- holt and having worm-teeth or screw-threads 67Vto engage in corresponding threads (58 upon the rear lower face of the breeclrbolt, so that as the handle is pushed forwardly the. cam is ritated yin the direction indicated by the arrow. The teeth 54 engage the screw-threads nl, which-move the breech-bolt forwardly. '.lhe arm G5 engages the slot (iti. The teeth Ult disengage the teeth G1, and the wornrteeth (57 engage the teeth GS to rotate the breech-bolt linto its locked position. 'lhe operation ot' the modified construction is identical with that of the preferred construction except in theparticulars mentioned, the spring being, ofcourse, omitted as unnecessary. Then the breech-bolt is carried forwardly, thus car- Py/ingthe pist-on forwardly in the piston chamber, the piston acts as a pump to force the gas and air forwardly through iheports into the bore of the gun, thus cleaning out the ports and bore and cooling the gun. The backward action of the breech-bolt inA the pressure of the gas through the ports serves to lessen the recoil. The larger the breechbolt in proportion to the size of the gun the more the recoil is reduced.

l claiml. An automatic magazine firearm comprising a suitable framework; a barrel having a bore in which the cartridge is exploded and 'through which the bullet is discharged; a casing forming a gas-chamber around the breech end ot' said barrel; ports connecting thegas-chainber to the forward end of thel barrel-bore, said ports discharging laterally into said gas-chamber; a breech-bolt casing extending backwardly from the gas-chamber casing and communicating therewith; a breech-bolt slidingly mounted in the breechbolt casing; arms projectingforwardly from the breech-bolt into the gas-chamber; a piston attached to the forwztrd ends of said arms and operating in said gas-chamber; Wings extending from said piston to receive the lateral pressure from said gas-ports to rotate the breech-bolt; means of locking the breechbolt in its forward position by lateral motion, the lateral motion given said Wings by the gas-pressure serving to unlock the breechbolt and the pressure of the gas upon said piston serving to remove tno breech-bolt backwardly to expel the empty shell, said gas-pressure coming from the cartridgeeX- plosion through said gas-ports; means of mov- 'ing the breech-bolt forwardly and rotatingit to its locked position thereby inserting a new cartridge and cooking the tiring-pin, a firingpin slidingly mounted in the breeclrbolt; a spring for snapping the firing-pin forwardly to explode the cartridge; a scar-shoulder on .the firing-pin; atrigger; asearyieldingly connected to the said trigger to engage the searshoulder to cock thefiring-pin, said scar and seai-shoulder interlocking so that-.the firingpin cannot be released except by rotating the breech-bolt into its locked position; a cartridge-magazine; and means of feeding the cartridges one at a time,l to the barrel, substantially as specified.

2. Inan automaticniagazine-firearin, a barrel having a bore in which the cartridge is exploded; a casing forming a gas chamber around the breechend of the barrel; ports connecting the gas-chamber to the barrelbore, said ports discharging laterally into the gas-chamber5 a breeclrbolt easing extending backwardly from the gas-chamber casing, and communicating therewith; a breech-bolt slidingly mounted in the' breech-bolt casing; a piston extending from the brooch-bolt into the gas-chamber; wings extending forwardly from the piston to receive the lateral impact of the gas; means of. rotating the breecl1-holt IOC IIO

IZO

into its locked position, the lateral pressure of said gas serving to unlock the breech-holt, substantially as specified.

3. ln an automaticniagazine-rearm, a harrel having a bore in which the cartridge is exploded, and through which the bullet, is discharged; a casing forming a gras chamber around lhe'breech end of `Lhe barrel; ports connecting the gas-chamber to `the forward end of the barrel-here; said ports discharging laterally into said gas-chamber; a breech-holla easing extending vbackwardly from the gaschamber and communica-Ling therewith; a breech-bolt slidingly mounted in the breechbolt casing; arms projecting forwardly from the breech-bolt into the gas-chamber; a piston attached to the forward ends of said arms, and operabingin said gas-chamber; wings exvardly; and means of feeding cartridges into the bore in front of the breech-holt, substantially as specified.

[n testimony whereo` I ailix my signature in presence of lwo wibnesses.

W i messes ALFRED A. lnls, H. G. lnlosf.

pif-Lon serving;r tonnwe Lhc hreech-holt-back--

US729413A 1902-03-25 1902-03-25 Automatic firearm. Expired - Lifetime US729413A (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2464409A (en) * 1943-08-25 1949-03-15 Mossberg & Sons O F Gas-operated firearm
US2775920A (en) * 1950-05-01 1957-01-01 Paul H Dixon Bolt spline
US2782688A (en) * 1954-01-11 1957-02-26 Remington Arms Co Inc Machine gun
US3032768A (en) * 1958-04-21 1962-05-08 Lamoureux Roland Safety means for nail guns
US4703826A (en) * 1985-02-04 1987-11-03 Red Eye Arms, Inc. Polymer gun
US4947730A (en) * 1985-02-04 1990-08-14 Red Eye Arms, Inc. Firing mechanism for polymer weapon apparatus
US20080307954A1 (en) * 2005-12-23 2008-12-18 Norbert Fluhr Gas bleed assemblies for use with firearms
US8528458B2 (en) 2011-07-27 2013-09-10 Bernard T. Windauer Pressure-regulating gas block

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2464409A (en) * 1943-08-25 1949-03-15 Mossberg & Sons O F Gas-operated firearm
US2775920A (en) * 1950-05-01 1957-01-01 Paul H Dixon Bolt spline
US2782688A (en) * 1954-01-11 1957-02-26 Remington Arms Co Inc Machine gun
US3032768A (en) * 1958-04-21 1962-05-08 Lamoureux Roland Safety means for nail guns
US4703826A (en) * 1985-02-04 1987-11-03 Red Eye Arms, Inc. Polymer gun
WO1989003969A1 (en) * 1985-02-04 1989-05-05 Redeye Arms, Inc. Polymer gun
US4947730A (en) * 1985-02-04 1990-08-14 Red Eye Arms, Inc. Firing mechanism for polymer weapon apparatus
US20080307954A1 (en) * 2005-12-23 2008-12-18 Norbert Fluhr Gas bleed assemblies for use with firearms
US7621210B2 (en) * 2005-12-23 2009-11-24 Heckler & Koch, Gmbh Gas bleed assemblies for use with firearms
US8528458B2 (en) 2011-07-27 2013-09-10 Bernard T. Windauer Pressure-regulating gas block

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