US447836A - maxim - Google Patents

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US447836A US447836DA US447836A US 447836 A US447836 A US 447836A US 447836D A US447836D A US 447836DA US 447836 A US447836 A US 447836A
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    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/64Mounting of breech-blocks; Accessories for breech-blocks or breech-block mountings


4 sheets- Sheet 1.
vNo Model.)
N. 447,836. Patented Mar. 1o 1891.
(No Model.) 4sheens-sh4'aet 4.
` H. SfMAXIM.)
[ Patellted Maf; 1,0., 189Lv ilu/1111,
SPEClFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 447,836, dated March 10, 1891. Original application led December Z8, 1886, Serial No. 222,849. Divided and this application filed October 18, 1889. Serial No.
327.458. (No mbaei.)
Patented in France .Tune 19, 1885,110. 169,647, and Febrly 12, 1887, No. 181,516, in England June-1, 1886, No. 7,354; in Germany January 20, 1887, No. 41,870; in Belgium September'Z, 1887, No. 79,005; in Italy November 26, 1887,1l`ol 22,500, and in Austria-Hungary April 2l, 1888, No. 34,166.
. To all whom it may concern,.-
` Beit known that I, HiRAa/i STEVENS MAXIM, mechanical engineer, a citizen of .the United States,andaresidentof London,England,have
invented certain newand useful Improve' ments in Automatic Guns, (for which I have obtained patents in the following countries: in Great Britain, No. 7,354, dated June 1,1886; in France, No; 169,647, dated June 19, 1885, certiiicate of addition to No. 169,647, dated October 15, 1886, andNo. 181,516, dated February 12, 1887; in Belgium, No. 7 9,005, dated September 26, 1887; in Germany, No. 41,870, dated January 20, 1887 5 in Italy, No. 22,500, dated November 26, 1887, and in Austria-Hungary, No. 84,166, dated April 21, 1888,) of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings. 4
The following speciiication is a full, clear, and exact description of my said improvements, reference being had to the drawings` accompanying-the same.
This application is a division of an application iiled by me December 28, 1886, Serial No. 222,849.- 1
In my Said application above referred to I y have shown and described a foi-m of automatic gun characterized by the following general features of construction and mode of operation: The barrel and breech -block are both capable of a certain range of longitudirestrained against forward movement, or by `its momentum continues for a short distance its recoil and is then locked. Some device of storing the energy of the recoil of these parts is utilized to restore the barrel to its position, and another and similar device- ,rel ofthe said gun. view of the said barrel.
connection with the breech-block, which `is released and permitted to move forward when. the barrel has reached its forward position,I
or nearly so. These movements or changes of position of the parts l have utilized in ef-'qi fecting automatically the operations of loadf` ing and ring the gun-that is to say, the recoil of the barrel withdraws a cartridge from a suitable feed mechanism and leaves it in` position to be subsequently dropped'or forced into line with the breech-block and breech. The operation of the breech-block and barrel extracts the empty shell from the Y latter and permits the loaded shell to move into line with the barrel. lThe forward movement of the .breech-block drives-the shell y ho'nie'an'd tips the hammer previously cocked by Someof the moving parts.`
My present vform of iire-arm contains de-l .7 vention relates, however, more particularlyadapta-tion of the general principle to suchV arms.
In the accompanying drawings I have illus.- trated these improvements as applied to short guns and pistols.
Figure 1 is a vertical longitudinal central section on the line :c or, Fig; 1. Fig. 5-isa lvation, partly in vertical longitudinal central section, showing the forward part of the said rifle. Fig. l0 is a transverse section on the vline .e e, Fig. 9. Figs. 10 to 17, inclusive, are drawn to an enlarged scale. Fig. 1l is a plan showing a lever, hereinafter described, for transferringlthe cartridges from the maga.-
'section of a sporting-gun embodying the in.- K' 'vention. Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the bar= Fig. 8 is an under side- Fig. 4. is atransversej :similar section through the barrel only. Fig. E6 is a vertical longitudinal central sectiony ofY 4fa pistol` constructed according to .-rny inven. Fig. 7 isa-plan, partly in he'srzontal'- section', and Fig. 8 a vertical longitudinal central section, of a military rifle with lmy invention applied thereto.y Fig. 9 is a side ele- 5o such as a spring-is similarly employed in zine intothe\gun-. Figs. 12, 13, 14, and 'I5 1o -6o thehammer H, pivoted at E, andacted upon `by a spring pawls project through .magazine J. Retaining-pawls 7 are provided are transverse sections on the lines e e' z3 z3, anda"1 s4 of Fig. 8,respectively. Fig'. 16 is a Vertical longitudinal central section of the breech-block detached. Fig. 17 is a vertical longitudinal central Vsection of the innel` frame, hereinafter described, detached.
A is a metal casing, hereinafter designated the outer frame, that incloses the operative parts ofthe breech mechanism' and is secured to Athe stock A. B is the barrel, and B an extension thereof, which is hereinafter designated the inner frame,bctl1 being-'arranged to slide back and forth in frame A.
C is the breech-block inner frameB.
A tubular magazine J is arranged beneath the barrel, and a seriesl of spring-pawls J are attached tothe barrel, so that in each recoil of the latter the said pawls will move the cartridges in the magazine toward thebreech of the gun through a distance equal or about .fitted to slide in the 'equal to the length of a'cartridge. .The
said cartridges are thus pushed successively 'in a chamber A below the breech, whence they-are raised by the sprin-gs a' as required into position in front of the breech-block. To effectually insure the proper working of this device, I prefer toarrange the pawls J .alternately on either side ofthe axis of the barrel, as shown more clearly in Fig. 3. lhese apertures J in the for .preventing forward movement of the cartridges in the magazine.
In'the gun shown in Fig. 1 the inner frame B' is an extension of. the barrel B. Itis consaid plunger. 5
- plunger b in plunger nectedbylinks B with a hollow or tubular b, fitted to slide toiand froin a tubular chamber in .the stock A,iu which chamber is -placed `th e spring .'E, for effecting the .forward or return movement of the barrel and inner frame. Thespring D, foreffecting the forward or return movement of the breech-- block, is placed inthe said hollow plunger b and bears at its 'lower end against the said plunger and at its upper end againsta shoulder or iiange upon a rod a', iitted to slide in the `he rod c. is oonnectedwith the breeclrblock by means of links pled at one end to the pivoted bar `or strut C and at thevother end to the rod ot. The spring E is in this case made considerably stronger than the spring-D, so that' after the recoil the.
be further compressed by the lthe forward movement of the barrel and-inner frame.
A scar I is pivoted at I tothe outer frame A and is acted'upon by a spring l', whereby it. is caused to engage with the bent H of spring D -will Di.k This sear extends upward,
sothat when the breech-block has nearly terminated its forward movement a projection Mis the-trigger, which is pivotea a M'to 'with the shoulder or bent H the outer frame A-and is acted upon by a spring M, whereby it is caused Ato engage of the hammer and is held in engagement therewith until it is pulled to fire the gun. When the trigger is pulled to fire the gun, a projection 0r extension F of the trigger is moved upinto position to engage with the hook F of the bar C', when the latter is depressed by the arm F, and thus holds back the breech-block.'
The spring lt also servesto disengage the projection or extension'F of the trigger from v the hook F when the trigger is released.
E is a buffer, of leather, india-rubber, or
other suitable material, for diminishing the shock producedby the recoil of the inner frame and parts carried thereby.
l The gun in Fig. 1 is shown in condition to be fired by pulling the trigger M.v The discharge causes the barrel to .recoil and carry the breech-block`0 back with it, the latter being locked lto thebarrel by the engagement of the shoulder c on thestrut C with ashoull der c on the inner frame B'. The hammer H, before striking Athe tiring-pino", encounters the strut C and insures its engagement with the frame B. The recoil of the breechblock and barrel compresses springs D Eand stores the energy therein that effects the return of these parts. The breech-block also encounters and cocks the hammer H by caus- 'ing vitto engage with the scar I; When the rear end of the strut C encounters the `part F, the hook F engages with' the arm "F, which is elevated by the pressure upon the trigger, and the strut is disengaged from the frame B". The barrelvtherefore returns to its forward position, the empty shell is withdrawn, and a fresh cartridge forced up into 'line with the barrel.
Then the trigger is released, the spring M"disengages the "arm vl? from the strut C and shifts't-he-trigger, caus-l ing it to engage with the hammer H; The breech-block is returned to position by the spring D. v
In the modification of my invention illustrate'd in Figs. 7 to 17 the breech-block, in-
stead of vbeing providedwith a pivoted bar or strut, as hereinbefore described, is soarranged 1n the inner frame' B that-it is free to 'move vertically therein upon or about its forward end as a pivoter fulcrum. It hasa'shoulder. or projection c, which is adapted to engage with the shoulder c' on the inner frame B to Ico' noM
lock the said block therein-when the breech is. y
closed. The reaend ofthe breech-block has an inclined upper-surfaced and a hook or projection F on its under side. An arm F" is pi'votedat itsrearendfto the' frame A and is pressed down bya spring; so thatwhen the barrel and other parts have nearly terminated their recoil the inclined surface d of the breech-block will strike the under side of the said armFi, and the breech-block will thereby be moved downward and disengaged from the shoulder c on'the frame B'. The breech-block is then". 4 held back, as hereinafter described, while the `vr`vl`ing the return of the barrel and breech-block barrel and inner frame move forward. The spring D is arranged within the chamber L and is attached at its forward end to a stop L', fixed within the said chamber, and at its rear end to a rod D. This rod is coupled to an extension d of the breech-block C, so that in the recoil of 'the barrel and other parts the said spring will be extended and will be kept extended so long as the breeelrblock is held back. As soon as the breech-block is released the said spring will react to effect the forward orreturn movement thereof. The spring E is also arranged within the said chamber L and presses at its rear end against the stop L and at its forward end against plunger L", fitted to slide in the said chamber. This plunger is firmly secured to the barrel-B by means of the ring or annular piece Z. In the recoil of the barrel and other parts the spring E is compressed. The said spring then reacts to effect or assist in eedting the return movement of the said frame and parts carried thereby. To diminish the shock produced by the recoil of the said vinner frame and parts carried thereby, I provide a supplementary spring Z', which is firmly attached to the frame A and extends upward, so that in the latter part of such recoil the inner frame will strike the said spring'au'd compress the same. The
said spring by its reaction assists inV effecting the forward or return movement of the barrel and inner frame, while the breech-block is held back', and thus effectually insures the starting of the empty cartridge-shells from the barrel, 'as above specified.
- The empty shells are ej ected by projections c on the inner frame B', which projections slide in grooves e in the breeeh-block, and which in the latter part of the forward movement of the said frame strike the base of the lcartridge-shell and throw the said shell upthe breech-block until the barrel has been -`1noved forward through a sufficient distance to start the same from the empty cartridgeshell. f By this means l provide for preventtogether7 which would otherwise-occur if the f trigger were released whilean empty ear- `tridge-shell was firmly held in the barrel. 'A 6o rihe breech-block is, moreover, provided with surfaces f, which hold down the hammer un til the said` block is moved forward to close the breech.
N is a hooked leverfwhich is pivotedatN' to the frame A and is adapted to engage with an extension Ma of the trigger. after the lat, ter has been pulled to re the gun, and thus 'p'rojectionsF from the hook F.
hold-the said trigger, so that its projections, F are in position to engage with the hook F' of the breech-block.- A spring m is attached to the trigger ill and bears against a shoulder N on the hooked lever N, so that the said spring tends `to hold the said hooked lever in "engagement with the trigger, and when the said hokedlever is disengaged from the trigger causes the extension m of the .latter (which forms the sear) to engage with the bent vh' of -the hammer and disengages the The trigger is liliade with two finger-pieces, so that should the spring mr fail to cause the release of the breech-block .this operation can be positively eected by force applied to the -forward lingerlpiece. VThe upper end of the hooked lever N extends through an opening in the top .of the gun, so that pressure can be applied to the said lever by the thumb to disengage it from the arm ll of the trigger. The hammer is released to rethe gun by pulling the rear linger-piece of the trigger, and thus disengaging the sear m from the -bent of the hammer. From the foregoing description it will be seen that in this modification of my invention the scar engages with` the bent of t-he hammer when the trigger is released from the hooked lever N to perm-tthe forward movement of .the breech-block, and thatwher.-
the triggeris pulled to fire the gun the projections F are raised into position to engage with the hook F of the breech-block.
A cam 71, is formed on each side of the boss or hub of the hammerll, so that when the hammer is released by the pulling of the trigger the said cams will act 'upon the surfaces 71," of the breech-block and will thus force the rear end thereof upward and lock it in the-inner frame before the hammer strikes the firing-pin.
The magazine J is secured to vthe side of the gun, in'which au aperture is formed to permit the transfer of the cartridges from the said magazine into the loading position.
O isa lever, which is pivoted at the forward end of the magazine upon a pin .or bolt O', secured in the said magazine andV passed through an elongated slot Of in the said lever. This slot extends at right angles to the axis of the barrel. The long arm of the said lever extends rearward within the magazine. The said lever is provided with at-ail-piece 0, against which presses a spring o', attached to the magazine. This spring tends to hold the said lever in such a position that its long arm is clear of the cartridges in the magazine, but is ready to act upon the lowernost cartridge therein to ytransfer it therefrom. The said lever has a projection o, which is acted upon by a shoulder f "on the inner frame B in the forward or return movement of the latter. The said `lever is thus turned on its pivot and transfers the lowermost cartridge from the magazine into position infront of the breechblock, so that it will be thrust into the barrel by the said block in its forward movement.
I Thev said lever 1s provided with a projection 5. f, which, as soon as v the said lever has thus 'transferred a cartridge from the magazine, Iwill strike against the inner frame B so that the lever will. thereby be pushed outward on its pivot O, and its spring -o will cause it to resume the position shown .in Fig. 7. v I thus provide for insuring that the cartridges in .the magazine shall haveample t-ime to descend before the said lever is again operated to transfer. a cartridge from the saidv magazine. v l
Theoperation of the gun shown in'Figs. 7, 8, and 9 is. as follows, viz: The parts 'are shown inthe positions which they occupy when the trigger has -just been ,pulled to fire bari-.el i'sdrawn ofi:l the `thegun, the breech-block being shown in the position which it occupies when it has been moved upward bythe cams Wand .while the hammer strilres the tiring-pin. When a cartridge is exploded in the barrel, the said barrel, lthe inner frame'B', and parts carried thereby recoil and cock the hammer, which is held back by the surfaces or projectionsf on thebreech-block until the said 4 block is disengaged'from `the projection F vandlthe sear m has .engaged with the bent l y In the latter part of the recoil the breech-blclstrikes the arm F", 4and is thereby unlocked from `the inner frame,
' Vand the projections F engage with the hook F of the breech-block and hold back the said block while the barrel and inner frame are. moved forward bythe reaction of the springs 'E-Z. In this forward movement the empty'cartridge-shell. The projections e on the inner frame then' strike the. base of the said shell' and eject the same from thegun. The shoulder f on the inner frame then strikes the projection o of the lever O, and thereby transfers a cartridge from the magazine into position in front .of the breech-block.` The said leveris immediately caused to resume the position shown in Fig. 7 by the strikin'gof its projection f against the innerframe', thus permitting the column of cartridges in the magazine to descend, so that another cartridge is brought into position to be transferred from the mag- .The breech-block is then moved forward` by a'bpuu as apistol. #A
azine into the gun. y\Thehookedlever N mustthen jections F from the hook Ff and to permit the sear te engage with the bent ofl the hammer.
- the reaction of its spring D and pushes the cartridge into the barrel, and the gun is again `ready' for firing. As the trigger, after being pulled to re the gun, must be released to per# mit the diseng ment of v the projectionsF 4from the hookF ,itis obvious that successive shotacannot bered by only once pulling the trigger. l y
`In Fig. 6 I have shown my improvements b e pushed inward to disengage the pro-B tofore-that is to say, by placing a'consider.
able yportion of the weight above the axis ,of the barrel. The magazine is firmly attached to theframe A andv is provided. with spring retaining-pawls j. v.The barrel B is provided with pawls J for feeding the cartridges successively into the chamber Af', as above described with reference to Figs. 1 to'3: The breech block is arranged to turn verticallyupon or about its forward eud, as abovedescribed with reference to Figs. 7 to 17. It is coupled by means of'linksD wit-h a rod or plunger a fitted to slide to and fro in the stock or butt A and. acted upon by the spring Dinserted-thereim The frame B is extended upward, as'at P, 'and `the spring E is fitted within a chamber L behind and in line with the chamber A". In the rear :part of .the chamber L a strong supplementary spring l .is arranged. This spring bears at its 'rear end against one end of the chamber L and at` purposes above specified;
its forward end against a plunger P', fitting y into the spring E and extending forward 'within the same, so that'when the-barrel and The breech-block C, the trigger M are all arranged relatively tov each other substantially as above described with reference to Figs. 7 to 17.
hammer 1I, yand the.-
rc o
A novel feature of the pistol shown in. Fig.
6 is the construction and arrangement of the trigger-guard iii such a manner that it will serve also as the mainspring--that is tov say, the guard P is a spring secured at one end tothe butt. The other end p, of reduced size, bears against thehammer H. f 1
ll. The combination of the outer frame, the stock or handle to whichV it is secured, a barrel and inner frame fixed orformed on the barrel and arranged to slide in the outer frame, a breech-block adapted to slide in the inner frame, and springs placed in the stock for returning the breech-block and barrel atter recoil, as'herein set forth.
2. The 'combination of the outer frame, the
stock or handle towhich it is secured, a sliding barrel, breech-block, and k,breech mechanism connected therewith, adapted to be operated Vby the recoil of the barrel' to reload the same tubular magazine .Tis`
after a discharge, a hammer adapted to be cocked by the movement. or operation of the breech mechanism, and a trigger engaging therewith topre'vent theantomatic discharge of the gamas set forth. f
3. In a lire-arm provided with asliding barrel arranged to recoil at eaeh dischhrge, a.
tubular magazine parallel to said barrel, and pauls or projections from the barrel entering' the magazine and adapted to engage with and move the Cartridges backward to the breech at each discharge, as set forth. l
l. The combination of a sliding barrel arranged'io recoil at each discharge, a frame formed on or attached to said barrel,a tilting breech-block adapted to engage with the frame, whereby it is looked to the barrel, and means for releasing it from the frame,as set forth. J
5. The-combination of the outer the sliding cured thereto and provided With an engagingshoulder e', the movable breech-block C, having a shoulder c, adapted to engage with the shoulder c when the breech-block is in 'its forward position, and the arm F,`seeured to the outer framein position to move the breechblock outl of engagement with the frame ll on their recoil, as set forth.
(3. In a fire-arm, the combination of a sliding barrel, a breech-block normally-locked to frame A,
the barrel, but capable when released of indei pendent movement, a trigger `which when l pulled to tire the gun is brought intola position to engage with the breech-block :at the termination of its recoil, and a catch adapted to engage with the trigger when brought to such position and hold the same until the engagement therewith of the breeelrbloek.
7. In a lire-arm, the combination, with the outer frame and stock, of a barrel and attache-d frame capable of sliding in said outer frame and a breech-block arranged to slide barrel B, the inner frame B', se-
pieces for moving it in the inner frame, springs connected to the barrel and breech-block and the outerfranie, respectively,v and supplemental springs between the rear end ot' the inner frame andthe stock or stationary partI of the gun, as set forth.
8. In a fire-arm, the combination, Wit-h a reciproeating breech-bleek and breeeh mechanism for operatin g the saine, of a-trigger adapted to engage with and lool; the hreeelrbloclc in its rearmost position, the said trigger being provided with forward and rear finger positively in either direction, as set forth.
9. The combination, with the outer frame A, the stock A', the sliding barrel B, the in ner frame B,attached thereto, andthe breeohblock C, movable in frame B, of the spring E, arranged within the gun-stock, the hollow plunger b and links Il", connecting the spring With-the inner frame, the spring D, arranged within said plunger', and rod d and links D', connecting it- With the breech-block, as set forth.
l0. The combination, with the sliding' barrel, of the tubular magazine J, the 'pawls J', extending from the barrel into the magazine, and retaining-pawls plaeed within the'niagazine, as set forth.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto 6 5 y signed my name in the presence ot' two subscribing witnesses.
Witnesses: p
DAvID Yorxe, CIL-xs. ll. Brumm'.
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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2418946A (en) * 1942-08-15 1947-04-15 Remington Arms Co Inc Breech bolt lock for firearms
US3541715A (en) * 1968-07-01 1970-11-24 Nicolaos Lagos Automatic repeating firearm having a magazine transfer port and closure means therefor
US5279202A (en) * 1991-07-29 1994-01-18 Benelli Armi S.P.A. Bolt repositioning device for firearms
US5983549A (en) * 1998-07-24 1999-11-16 O. F. Mossberg & Sons, Inc. Inertial cycling system for firearms
WO2002027258A2 (en) * 2000-08-24 2002-04-04 Armalite, Inc. Light weight weapon operating system and cartridge feed
US6418833B1 (en) * 1999-10-01 2002-07-16 Jeffrey A. Hajjar Recoil spring tube assembly
US20120240760A1 (en) * 2011-02-11 2012-09-27 Jorge Pizano Firearm having an articulated bolt train with transversally displacing firing mechanism, delay blowback breech opening, and recoil damper
US8397623B2 (en) 2009-01-14 2013-03-19 Geoffrey A. Herring Rifle and kit for constructing same

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2418946A (en) * 1942-08-15 1947-04-15 Remington Arms Co Inc Breech bolt lock for firearms
US3541715A (en) * 1968-07-01 1970-11-24 Nicolaos Lagos Automatic repeating firearm having a magazine transfer port and closure means therefor
US5279202A (en) * 1991-07-29 1994-01-18 Benelli Armi S.P.A. Bolt repositioning device for firearms
US5983549A (en) * 1998-07-24 1999-11-16 O. F. Mossberg & Sons, Inc. Inertial cycling system for firearms
US6418833B1 (en) * 1999-10-01 2002-07-16 Jeffrey A. Hajjar Recoil spring tube assembly
WO2002027258A2 (en) * 2000-08-24 2002-04-04 Armalite, Inc. Light weight weapon operating system and cartridge feed
WO2002027258A3 (en) * 2000-08-24 2002-11-28 Armalite Inc Light weight weapon operating system and cartridge feed
US6591535B2 (en) * 2000-08-24 2003-07-15 Armalite, Inc. Light weight weapon operating system and cartridge feed
US20040025393A1 (en) * 2000-08-24 2004-02-12 Reynolds George L. Light weight weapon operating system and cartridge feed
US8397623B2 (en) 2009-01-14 2013-03-19 Geoffrey A. Herring Rifle and kit for constructing same
US20120240760A1 (en) * 2011-02-11 2012-09-27 Jorge Pizano Firearm having an articulated bolt train with transversally displacing firing mechanism, delay blowback breech opening, and recoil damper
US9217614B2 (en) * 2011-02-11 2015-12-22 Jorge Pizano Firearm having an articulated bolt train with transversally displacing firing mechanism, delay blowback breech opening, and recoil damper

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