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Exhaust manifold device

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Publication number
US6119454A
US6119454A US09101513 US10151398A US6119454A US 6119454 A US6119454 A US 6119454A US 09101513 US09101513 US 09101513 US 10151398 A US10151398 A US 10151398A US 6119454 A US6119454 A US 6119454A
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US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
air
valve
manifold
pressure
engine
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
US09101513
Inventor
Steven Valisko
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Gentech Design Ltd
Original Assignee
Gentech Design Ltd
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Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B27/00Use of kinetic or wave energy of charge in induction systems, or of combustion residues in exhaust systems, for improving quantity of charge or for increasing removal of combustion residues
    • F02B27/04Use of kinetic or wave energy of charge in induction systems, or of combustion residues in exhaust systems, for improving quantity of charge or for increasing removal of combustion residues in exhaust systems only, e.g. for sucking-off combustion gases
    • F02B27/06Use of kinetic or wave energy of charge in induction systems, or of combustion residues in exhaust systems, for improving quantity of charge or for increasing removal of combustion residues in exhaust systems only, e.g. for sucking-off combustion gases the systems having variable, i.e. adjustable, cross-sectional areas, chambers of variable volume, or like variable means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/10Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust
    • F01N3/24Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by constructional aspects of converting apparatus
    • F01N3/30Arrangements for supply of additional air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B37/00Engines characterised by provision of pumps driven at least for part of the time by exhaust
    • F02B37/12Control of the pumps
    • F02B37/16Control of the pumps by bypassing charging air
    • Y02A50/2322
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/14Technologies for the improvement of mechanical efficiency of a conventional ICE
    • Y02T10/144Non naturally aspirated engines, e.g. turbocharging, supercharging
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/14Technologies for the improvement of mechanical efficiency of a conventional ICE
    • Y02T10/146Charge mixing enhancing and kinetic or wave energy of charge outside the combustion chamber, i.e. ICE with external or indirect fuel injection
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/20Exhaust after-treatment
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/7722Line condition change responsive valves
    • Y10T137/7837Direct response valves [i.e., check valve type]
    • Y10T137/7838Plural
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/7722Line condition change responsive valves
    • Y10T137/7837Direct response valves [i.e., check valve type]
    • Y10T137/7847With leak passage
    • Y10T137/7849Bypass in valve casing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/794With means for separating solid material from the fluid
    • Y10T137/8122Planar strainer normal to flow path

Abstract

An exhaust manifold device is provided to allow air to enter an exhaust manifold during normal operation of an engine to prevent exhaust gases being sucked into the cylinders via exhaust valves. Air can be supplied via valves (18 and 21) to the exhaust manifold as required and is supplied to the valve (21) at pressures, above atmospheric pressure, that increase with engine speed.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The invention relates to exhaust manifold devices.

2. Description of the Related Art

The invention relates more particular to devices that are arranged to automatically allow air to enter the exhaust manifold to prevent inter alia exhaust gases being sucked into engine cylinders during the normal operation of the engine. Such devices or aspirators have been disclosed already in, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,455,106 and European Patent 0041831. Devices so far proposed comprise relatively complicated mechanical arrangements and do not operate efficiency at higher engine speeds or at a variety of engine speeds.

It is an object of the invention to overcome or at least reduce these problems,

According to the invention there is provided an aspirator for allowing air automatically to selectively enter an engine exhaust manifold during operation of an internal combustion engine to inhibit exhaust gases being drawn back into the cylinders via exhaust valves, the aspirator comprising an adapter that fits to the manifold having a port in communication with the manifold, a first one way valve fitted to the adapter that prevents gases leaving the manifold through the port when the pressure inside the manifold is greater than the pressure at the first valve, and a second one way valve connected by a passageway to the first valve, the second one way valve being arranged to allow air to enter the passageway whenever the pressure inside the passageway is less than the pressure at the second valve; and means for supplying air to the second valve at different pressures, above atmospheric pressure, that increase with increases of speed of the engine.

The aspirator may comprise a hollow body that extends to the port fitted to the manifold and the port be formed in a tube that extends somewhat in to the manifold beyond its inner surface.

The hollow body may be formed with an intermediate expansion chamber.

The one way valves may each comprise a needle valve.

The passageway is preferably formed with an intermediate expansion chamber.

The position of the second one way valve may be manually adjustable to vary the differential pressure at which the second valve opens and closes.

The air may be supplied to the second one way valve by an air ram having an inlet exposed forwardly in a vehicle in which the engine is mounted so as to provide air at a pressure corresponding to the forward speed of the vehicle.

The air may also or alternatively be supplied by an air pump, and the air pump may form part of a turbo charger for the engine.

An exhaust manifold device or aspirator according to the invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings in which:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a sectional side view of an adapter of the device;

FIG. 2 in a sectional side view of the device which fits above the adapter in use;

FIG. 3 is a top plan view of an exhaust manifold; and

FIG. 4 is a top plan view of the device in a turbo charger application of the device.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Referring to the drawings, in FIG. 1 the adapter comprises a lower part 10 including a port 11 that screw fits to an engine manifold 12. The lower part incorporates an expansion chamber 13 that is closed off by hollow cap 14 extending up to a gland fitting 15 which seals and connects the cap 14 to a cylindrical tube 16.

It will be noted that the bottom edge of the port 11 extends somewhat into the manifold 12 and beyond its inner surface. This makes the port more sensitive to the flow of gases and pressure in the manifold. Also, hot exhaust gases are less inclined to be swept into the port 11 and corrode valve seatings in the device. The provision of the expansion chamber 13 ensures that any flow of air towards the manifold is accelerated and so "rammed" through the port 11, when required, into the manifold.

In FIG. 2, the tube 16 is attached to a lower housing 17 incorporating a first one way needle valve 18 by a gland coupling 19. An upper housing 20 is slidably or otherwise adjustably attached to the lower housing 17 so that the housings together form an expansion chamber 20'. The effective size or capacity of the chamber 20' can be varied as and when required but serves as a pressure damper between the first valve 18 and a second one way needle valve 21. The valve 21 is biassed by a spring 22 and fitted to an upper end of the housing 20 by a screw thread so that manually adjustment can be made to increase or decrease the effective spring bias. This adjustment enables the differential pressure at which the valve 21 opens and closes to be varied. The device includes two high pressure bi-pass and relief ports 22' and 23.

In general, the device is provided to allow air to enter the exhaust manifold from atmosphere via the valves 18 and 21 as and when required, and as already known in principle in the prior art. In devices of the present invention air is supplied to the valve 21 under pressure when the engine speeds up so that a supply of pressurised air is provided through the port 11 to ensure efficient operation at all times. The pressurised air is preferably supplied for the exhaust of a moving vehicle by feeding air from a forward facing inlet. Thus, as vehicle speeds up the pressure of the air supplied to the valve 21 automatically increases to correspond to the engine speed and provide a supply of increased pressurised air to the port 11 as desired. The pressurised air can also be supplied from an electric fan, say, or a turbo charger fan, as shown in FIG. 4.

FIG. 3 shows at 30, a central preferable location for fitting the device to a manifold of a four cylinder engine. The location is chosen to coincide with a region where the flow of exhaust gases is mixed generally evenly from all four cylinders. It is of course possible to use other locations or provide more than one device in which case the choice of location will depend on which and an how many cylinders are served by each device.

In FIG. 4, the device of the invention is provided with air at elevated pressure as required from a bleed-valve 31 connected to an outlet of a turbo charger fan 32. The outlet air is normally fed to force fuel-air mixture into the engine cylinders but a sufficient amount is used, that is diverted or bled, to create a supply and elevated pressure of air at the inlet to the needle valve is of the device.

Claims (8)

What is claimed:
1. An aspirator for allowing air automatically to selectively enter an engine exhaust manifold during operation of an internal combustion engine to inhibit exhaust gases being drawn back into the cylinders via exhaust valves, the aspirator comprising an adapter formed by a hollow body that extends to a port fitted in communication with the manifold, a first one way valve fitted to the adapter that prevents gases leaving the manifold through the port when the pressure inside the manifold is greater than the pressure at the first valve, and means for supplying air to a second one way valve at different pressures, above atmospheric pressure, that increase with increases of speed of the engine, in which the second one way valve is connected by a passageway to the first valve forming an intermediate expansion chamber having a relief port to atmosphere, the second one way valve being arranged to allow air to enter the passageway whenever the pressure inside the passageway is less than the pressure at the second valve.
2. The aspirator of claim 1, wherein the port is formed in a tube that extends into the manifold beyond its inner surface.
3. The aspirator of claim 1, wherein the one way valves each comprises a needle valve.
4. The aspirator of claim 1, wherein the position of the second one way valve is manually adjustable to vary the differential pressure at which the second valve opens and closes.
5. The aspirator of claim 1, wherein the air is supplied to the second one way valve by an air ram having an inlet exposed forwardly in a vehicle in which the engine is mounted so as to provide air at a pressure corresponding to the forward speed of the vehicle.
6. The aspirator of claim 1, wherein the air is supplied by an air pump.
7. The aspirator of claim 6, wherein the air pump forms part of a turbo charger for the engine.
8. The aspirator of claim 1, in which air is supplied to the second valve corresponding to all speeds of the engine.
US09101513 1996-01-12 1997-01-10 Exhaust manifold device Expired - Fee Related US6119454A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9600642 1996-01-12
GB9600642A GB2308989B (en) 1996-01-12 1996-01-12 Exhaust manifold device
PCT/GB1997/000081 WO1997025526A1 (en) 1996-01-12 1997-01-10 Exhaust manifold device

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US6119454A true US6119454A (en) 2000-09-19

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09101513 Expired - Fee Related US6119454A (en) 1996-01-12 1997-01-10 Exhaust manifold device

Country Status (9)

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US (1) US6119454A (en)
JP (1) JP4056564B2 (en)
CN (1) CN1088794C (en)
CA (1) CA2242464A1 (en)
DE (2) DE69701958T2 (en)
EP (1) EP0873470B1 (en)
ES (1) ES2149563T3 (en)
GB (1) GB2308989B (en)
WO (1) WO1997025526A1 (en)

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030028890A1 (en) * 2001-08-03 2003-02-06 Swart William D. Video and digital multimedia acquisition and delivery system and method
US7013788B1 (en) * 2003-07-24 2006-03-21 The United States Of America Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Launch tube with adjustable plenum
US20120018013A1 (en) * 2006-03-20 2012-01-26 Paul Thomas Street Apparatus and methods to dispense fluid from a bank of containers and to refill same
US8578410B2 (en) 2001-08-03 2013-11-05 Comcast Ip Holdings, I, Llc Video and digital multimedia aggregator content coding and formatting
US8621521B2 (en) 2001-08-03 2013-12-31 Comcast Ip Holdings I, Llc Video and digital multimedia aggregator
US8967046B2 (en) 2012-11-30 2015-03-03 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Gas generators, launch tubes including gas generators and related systems and methods
US9078014B2 (en) 2000-06-19 2015-07-07 Comcast Ip Holdings I, Llc Method and apparatus for targeting of interactive virtual objects
US9286294B2 (en) 1992-12-09 2016-03-15 Comcast Ip Holdings I, Llc Video and digital multimedia aggregator content suggestion engine
US9644356B1 (en) * 2012-01-06 2017-05-09 Joelex, Inc. Apparatuses for managing fluids through a pipe

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2344614B (en) * 1998-12-11 2000-11-08 Steven Valisko Exhaust manifold device

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US3287899A (en) * 1965-02-12 1966-11-29 Norris Thermador Corp Air pollution control system for internal combustion engine
US3455106A (en) * 1967-05-05 1969-07-15 Charles R Flint Exhaust manifold device
US3871175A (en) * 1972-07-28 1975-03-18 Nippon Denso Co Secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine
US3975905A (en) * 1973-11-14 1976-08-24 Hitachi, Ltd. Secondary air flow rate control device for use in exhaust gas purifying device
US4162613A (en) * 1975-12-26 1979-07-31 Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Exhaust gas purifier of an internal combustion engine
US4257227A (en) * 1977-12-26 1981-03-24 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Secondary air controlling apparatus for internal combustion engines
EP0041831A1 (en) * 1980-06-06 1981-12-16 Pulse Air Research Limited Device for admitting air to the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine
US4534173A (en) * 1981-10-19 1985-08-13 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Means for supplying a secondary air in an internal combustion engine which is provided with a turbo charger
US5177958A (en) * 1991-12-16 1993-01-12 Ford Motor Company Secondary air injection valve and mounting system for automotive engine
US5421366A (en) * 1994-06-06 1995-06-06 Borg-Warner Automotive, Inc. Solenoid operated air control and check valve
US5499502A (en) * 1994-11-02 1996-03-19 Nippondenso Co., Ltd. Secondary air supplying system having a motor-driven air pump
US5699664A (en) * 1994-11-17 1997-12-23 Sagem Sa Shut-off valve unit for a circuit for injecting air in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

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DE1927764A1 (en) * 1968-06-06 1969-12-11 Spring Steel Fasteners Inc mounting clamp
US4433541A (en) * 1981-06-17 1984-02-28 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Secondary air introducing apparatus for internal combustion engine
JPS62291429A (en) * 1986-06-10 1987-12-18 Mazda Motor Corp Supercharging device for engine
JP3247225B2 (en) * 1993-12-27 2002-01-15 マツダ株式会社 Supercharger of the engine

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3287899A (en) * 1965-02-12 1966-11-29 Norris Thermador Corp Air pollution control system for internal combustion engine
US3455106A (en) * 1967-05-05 1969-07-15 Charles R Flint Exhaust manifold device
US3871175A (en) * 1972-07-28 1975-03-18 Nippon Denso Co Secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine
US3975905A (en) * 1973-11-14 1976-08-24 Hitachi, Ltd. Secondary air flow rate control device for use in exhaust gas purifying device
US4162613A (en) * 1975-12-26 1979-07-31 Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Exhaust gas purifier of an internal combustion engine
US4257227A (en) * 1977-12-26 1981-03-24 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Secondary air controlling apparatus for internal combustion engines
EP0041831A1 (en) * 1980-06-06 1981-12-16 Pulse Air Research Limited Device for admitting air to the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine
US4534173A (en) * 1981-10-19 1985-08-13 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Means for supplying a secondary air in an internal combustion engine which is provided with a turbo charger
US5177958A (en) * 1991-12-16 1993-01-12 Ford Motor Company Secondary air injection valve and mounting system for automotive engine
US5421366A (en) * 1994-06-06 1995-06-06 Borg-Warner Automotive, Inc. Solenoid operated air control and check valve
US5499502A (en) * 1994-11-02 1996-03-19 Nippondenso Co., Ltd. Secondary air supplying system having a motor-driven air pump
US5699664A (en) * 1994-11-17 1997-12-23 Sagem Sa Shut-off valve unit for a circuit for injecting air in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

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Copy Not Presently Available Patent Abstracts of Japan, vol. 095, No. 010, Nov. 30, 1995. *
Copy Not Presently Available Patent Abstracts of Japan,vol. 012, No. 182, May, 27, 1988. *

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9286294B2 (en) 1992-12-09 2016-03-15 Comcast Ip Holdings I, Llc Video and digital multimedia aggregator content suggestion engine
US9813641B2 (en) 2000-06-19 2017-11-07 Comcast Ip Holdings I, Llc Method and apparatus for targeting of interactive virtual objects
US9078014B2 (en) 2000-06-19 2015-07-07 Comcast Ip Holdings I, Llc Method and apparatus for targeting of interactive virtual objects
US8578410B2 (en) 2001-08-03 2013-11-05 Comcast Ip Holdings, I, Llc Video and digital multimedia aggregator content coding and formatting
US8621521B2 (en) 2001-08-03 2013-12-31 Comcast Ip Holdings I, Llc Video and digital multimedia aggregator
US20030028890A1 (en) * 2001-08-03 2003-02-06 Swart William D. Video and digital multimedia acquisition and delivery system and method
US7013788B1 (en) * 2003-07-24 2006-03-21 The United States Of America Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Launch tube with adjustable plenum
US8636025B2 (en) * 2006-03-20 2014-01-28 Tescom Corporation Apparatus and methods to dispense fluid from a bank of containers and to refill same
US20120018013A1 (en) * 2006-03-20 2012-01-26 Paul Thomas Street Apparatus and methods to dispense fluid from a bank of containers and to refill same
US8707977B2 (en) 2006-03-20 2014-04-29 Tescom Corporation, A Minnesota Company Apparatus and methods to dispense fluid from a bank of containers and to refill same
US9644356B1 (en) * 2012-01-06 2017-05-09 Joelex, Inc. Apparatuses for managing fluids through a pipe
US8967046B2 (en) 2012-11-30 2015-03-03 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Gas generators, launch tubes including gas generators and related systems and methods
US9605932B2 (en) 2012-11-30 2017-03-28 Orbital Atk, Inc. Gas generators, launch tubes including gas generators and related systems and methods

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB2308989A9 (en) 1997-07-29 application
JP2000503091A (en) 2000-03-14 application
DE69701958T2 (en) 2000-12-07 grant
CN1212743A (en) 1999-03-31 application
CN1088794C (en) 2002-08-07 grant
EP0873470A1 (en) 1998-10-28 application
GB2308989A8 (en) 1997-08-22 application
GB9600642D0 (en) 1996-03-13 grant
GB2308989A (en) 1997-07-16 application
EP0873470B1 (en) 2000-05-10 grant
ES2149563T3 (en) 2000-11-01 grant
CA2242464A1 (en) 1997-07-17 application
WO1997025526A1 (en) 1997-07-17 application
JP4056564B2 (en) 2008-03-05 grant
GB2308989B (en) 1997-11-19 grant
DE69701958D1 (en) 2000-06-15 grant

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