Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Liquid crystal display having enhanced conductors and adhesive spacers

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US5515191A
US5515191A US08251446 US25144694A US5515191A US 5515191 A US5515191 A US 5515191A US 08251446 US08251446 US 08251446 US 25144694 A US25144694 A US 25144694A US 5515191 A US5515191 A US 5515191A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
substrate
conductors
material
electrode
pattern
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
US08251446
Inventor
Thomas J. Swirbel
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Motorola Solutions Inc
Original Assignee
Motorola Solutions Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1339Gaskets; Spacers, also spacers with conducting properties; Sealing of the cell
    • G02F1/13394Gaskets; Spacers, also spacers with conducting properties; Sealing of the cell spacers regularly patterned on the cell subtrate, e.g. walls, pillars
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/133305Flexible substrates, e.g. plastics, organic film

Abstract

Briefly, according to the invention, there is provided a liquid crystal display device (LCD). The LCD has an electrode pattern (14) deposited on one side of a substrate (10). The pattern is formed in a series of elements or pixels (13), that are arranged in a regularly ordered matrix of rows and columns. Metal conductors (16) are also on the face of the substrate and are electrically connected to the electrode elements. A spacer material (27) is formed on metal conductors and a second substrate (10') is placed on the first substrate, and the two substrates are arranged so that a uniform gap (25) is maintained between the substrates by the spacer material. A liquid crystal material (29) is then disposed in the uniform gap. The spacer material can be a photoimaged adhesive, the electrode pattern can be indium/tin oxide, the metal conductors can be copper, and the metal conductors are located between the rows and columns of the plurality of elements in the electrode pattern.

Description

TECHNICAL FIELD

This invention relates in general to liquid crystal display devices and more particularly to liquid crystal display devices having highly conductive circuitry.

BACKGROUND

Liquid crystal display (LCD) devices contain a liquid crystal material located between a pair of electrodes facing each other. Information written to the display is imaged by creating optical changes in the liquid crystal material by applying a voltage to selected portions of the electrodes.

Conventional LCDs typically use transparent conductive films, such as indium/tin oxide (ITO) for the electrodes. The sheet resistivity of these transparent films used for twisted nematic (TN) and super twisted nematic (STN) displays is typically about 100 Ohms per square. For active matrix displays with video graphic capability, sheet resistivity of less then 10 Ohms per square is required and a resistivity of less than 1 Ohm per square is preferred. When glass or quartz is used as a display substrate material, current techniques require that the substrate be elevated above 300° C. to optimize the film's crystal structure and, thus, the oxide state, in order to attain the specific resistance of 1×10(-4) Ohm-cm. Still, even when using this technique, film thicknesses on the order of 10,000 Ångstroms (1 micron) are needed in order to achieve a sheet resistivity of 1 Ohm per square. At these thicknesses, the tradeoff between conductivity and transparency becomes a concern, because the transparency is now less than 75%, which affects the contrast of the LCDs. Also, the increased thickness needed in order to achieve the high conductivity electrode film begins to have an effect on the gap in the LCD. With gap sizes becoming smaller and smaller and now currently approaching four microns, a metal thickness of greater than one micron on each of the two substrates begins to have a significant effect on the resultant gap of the finished display. Clearly, further reductions in gap size will not be attainable with the current state of technology. Larger displays having even more pixels will require even lower conductivity, thus, thicker electrode material. In addition, the decrease in transparency and reduced contrast due to this thick electrode material now begins to take its toll. Further, the need to use a high-temperature processing step to attain films with acceptable conductivity limits the type of substrate materials which can be used to manufacture displays. For example, it requires that a material such as glass or quartz be used, as opposed to cheaper and lower melting materials such as plastic.

As the size of the LCD increases, the glass is subject to sagging in the center, and also becomes expensive. In order to eliminate these shortcomings, the glass substrates have been replaced with a polymer or plastic substrate which is flexible, light, strong, and more easily formed into shapes. However, when sealing these types of displays with conventional adhesives, epoxies for example, insufficient sealing or adhesion to the polymer is noticed. The use of spherical spacers to maintain the gap is problematical, and as the size of the display increases or as the gap between the electrodes decreases, the requirements placed on the spherical spacers become more and more stringent. Also, in the case of large LCDs, for example greater than 50 mm×50 mm, deflection at the center of the plastic display is far worse than in glass displays because of the non-rigid nature of the plastic substrates. Even with the spherical spacers, it is difficult to continually maintain an accurate gap.

Clearly, it would be a desirable improvement if an LCD could be created that utilizes lower cost substrates, such as plastic, on very large displays, and could maintain an extremely uniform and extremely small gap between the two substrates. In addition, it would also be desirable if the electrode pattern could have increased conductivity.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Briefly, according to the invention, there is provided a liquid crystal display device (LCD). The LCD has an electrode pattern deposited on one side of a substrate. The pattern is formed in a series of elements or pixels, that are arranged in a regularly ordered matrix of rows and columns. Metal conductors are also. on the face of the substrate and are electrically connected to the electrode elements. A spacer material is formed on the metal conductors and a second substrate is placed on the first substrate. The two substrates are arranged so that a uniform gap is maintained between the substrates by the spacer material. A liquid crystal material is then disposed in the uniform gap.

In alternate embodiments of the invention, the spacer material is a photoimaged adhesive. In another embodiment, the electrode pattern is indium/tin oxide (ITO). Still another embodiment finds that the metal conductors are copper. A further embodiment shows the metal conductors located between the rows and columns of the plurality of elements in the electrode pattern.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a plan view of a portion of a liquid crystal display (LCD) substrate showing the electrode pattern and metal conductors in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 2 is another example of a patterned substrate in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of a substrate having metal conductors and a spacer material in accordance with the present invention; and

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of an LCD assembled in accordance with the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

While the specification concludes with claims defining the features of the invention that are regarded as novel, it is believed that the invention will be better understood from a consideration of the following description in conjunction with the drawing figures, in which like reference numerals are carried forward.

Referring now to FIG. 1,a substrate 10 of an insulated material, such as glass, quartz, or plastic, is provided. On one side or surface 12 of the substrate 10, a plurality of electrodes 14 is formed or deposited by well-known techniques, such as sputtering. The electrodes are typically composed of indium oxide or indium/tin oxide. The electrodes 14 are arranged on the surface 12 of the substrate 10 in a predetermined pattern, herein shown as a series or matrix of elements arranged in rows and columns. The electrodes, however, can be arranged in other suitable patterns if desired and may take other shapes, such as circles, triangles, or other regular or irregular polygons. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, these electrodes are arranged in the row and column format to create a series of pixels on the LCD.

Also deposited or formed on the same side 12 of the substrate 10 is a series of metal conductors that are physically and electrically connected to some of the individual elements in the electrode patterns 14. In the preferred embodiment, conductors 16 are a metal, such as copper, but other metals may be substituted and still provide a useful end product; for example, aluminum, chrome, nickel, titanium, or other metals commonly sputtered that have relatively high conductivity, may be substituted for the copper. Each of the conductors 16 has a portion 17 that is connected to one of the individual elements 13 of the electrode pattern 14. In the preferred embodiment, the conductors 16 are connected in parallel to an entire column of the elements 13. Another substrate, as shown in FIG. 2, may connect the conductors 16' to an entire row of elements 13'. In both FIGS. 1 and 2, the metal conductors are replicated across the surface of the substrate 10 in order to interconnect rows or columns of the individual elements 13 of the electrode patterns 14. The figures also show that the conductors 16 are formed in the space between the rows and columns of the individual elements.

Referring now to FIG. 3, an electrically insulative material 27 is formed on top of the metal conductors 16. The electrically insulated material 27 serves as a spacer and may be formed from any number of materials and by a number of techniques. However, the preferred technique is to use a photoimagable adhesive that is deposited across the entire substrate and photoimaged and developed in order to create the desired pattern. Selected adhesives and methods of patterning them may be found in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/069,798 by Williams, et al., filed on Jun. 1, 1993, and assigned to Motorola, Inc., which is incorporated herein by reference. While various types of spacer materials may be used, a photoimagable adhesive provides the preferred embodiment. The photoimaged adhesive serves to not only maintain the gap between the substrates, it also aids in bonding the two substrates together.

Referring now to FIG. 4, the second substrate 10', as described in FIG. 2, is now bonded to the first substrate 10 by the photoimaged adhesive 27. The gap 25 formed between the two substrates 10 and 10' is maintained by the photoimaged adhesive 27, and the two substrates 10 and 10' are held in alignment and in proper position by the photoimaged adhesive 27. A liquid crystal material 29 is disposed in the gap 25 between the two substrates.

In alternate embodiments of the invention, only one substrate has the copper conductors, or metal conductors, 16 formed thereon. The second substrate is bonded directly to the spacer material or photoimaged adhesive 27.

The layer of photoimaged adhesive or spacer material is of a predetermined thickness. This thickness is required in order to properly space the electrode pattern 14 on the substrate 10 of the LCD from those on a second substrate 10'. The formation of the photoimaged adhesive can be accomplished by techniques described in the above-referenced patent application. As can be seen in FIG. 3, the electrode pattern 14 is revealed through the openings provided in the spacer material 27.

Methods of bonding the two substrates 10 and 10' together are outlined in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/143,952 by Williams, et al., filed on Nov. 1, 1993, now abandoned which is a continuation-in-part application of Ser. No. 08/069,798 filed on Jun. 1, 1993, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,378,298, both assigned to Motorola, Inc., both incorporated herein by reference. In some applications of LCD technology, an alignment layer of a material such as polyimide, is used. The polyimide alignment layer is typically formed on top of the electrode pattern and the metal conductors. The spacer material 27 may be formed on top of the polyimide alignment layer, or the polyimide alignment layer itself may be used to form a spacer material on top of the metal conductors 16. The improvement gained by creating an LCD with high conductivity metal interconnects is shown in the following example. Assume an LCD 60 cm wide with pixels or electrode elements addressed from each side of the panel, such that from each edge of the panel, such that the maximum conductor length in any one direction is 30 cms. The specific resistivity of copper is 2.2×10(-6) Ohms cms.

RESISTANCE=SPECIFIC RESISTIVITY×(LENGTH/{D}{W})

For a ten micron wide copper line that is 1000 Ångstroms thick, the resistance is approximately 660 Ohms. Assume a pixel or element spacing of about 0.5 mm. To achieve this same resistance, a thickness of indium/tin oxide would require approximately 9000 Ångstroms or 1 micron of metal thickness, which is nearly nine times that required for copper. For high-contrast displays, pixel spacings of 0.25 mm are employed and would require an indium/tin oxide thickness approaching 18000 Ångstroms or 2 microns. As can be seen, with display gap sizes approaching four microns, the thickness of ITO becomes extremely significant and becomes a limiting factor in achieving small gap sizes. The 20-25% loss of transparency derived in films of this thickness is also critical. By taking advantage of the space in the display used for spacers and adhesive bonding and forming internal, high-conductivity runners that are buried under the spacer traces, a large area display can be created that more effectively addresses the individual pixel elements.

While the preferred embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, it will be clear that the invention is not so limited. Numerous modifications, changes, variations, substitutions and equivalents will occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (2)

What is claimed is:
1. A liquid crystal display device, comprising:
a first plastic substrate having an indium/tin oxide electrode pattern deposited on a face thereof, the pattern formed in a plurality of elements arranged in a regularly ordered matrix of rows and columns, and having copper, aluminum or chrome conductors thereon, the conductors being situated between the rows or columns and connected to the plurality of elements;
a photoimaged adhesive spacer material deposited on the copper, aluminum or chrome conductors;
a second plastic substrate having an indium/tin oxide electrode pattern deposited on a face thereof, the pattern formed in a plurality of elements arranged in a regularly ordered matrix of rows and columns, and having copper, aluminum or chrome conductors thereon, the conductors being situated between the rows or columns and connected to the plurality of elements;
the first and second substrates adhesively bonded to each other by the photoimaged adhesive spacer material, and arranged so that a uniform gap is maintained between the substrates by the spacer material; and
a liquid crystal material disposed in the uniform gap.
2. A liquid crystal display device, comprising:
first and second plastic substrates, each having a transparent electrode pattern adhered to a face thereof, the pattern formed of a plurality of elements arranged in rows and columns, and each substrate having metal conductors adhered to a face thereof, the metal conductors being of substantially greater electrical conductivity than the electrode pattern and situated between the rows or column and connected to the electrode pattern;
a polyimide alignment layer disposed over the transparent electrode pattern and the metal conductors;
a photoimaged adhesive deposited in the area of the metal conductors;
the substrates arranged so that the transparent electrode patterns face each other with the photoimaged adhesive forming a uniform gap between the substrates and adhesively bonding the substrate together;
a liquid crystal material disposed in the uniform gap.
US08251446 1994-05-31 1994-05-31 Liquid crystal display having enhanced conductors and adhesive spacers Expired - Fee Related US5515191A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08251446 US5515191A (en) 1994-05-31 1994-05-31 Liquid crystal display having enhanced conductors and adhesive spacers

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08251446 US5515191A (en) 1994-05-31 1994-05-31 Liquid crystal display having enhanced conductors and adhesive spacers

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US5515191A true US5515191A (en) 1996-05-07

Family

ID=22952015

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08251446 Expired - Fee Related US5515191A (en) 1994-05-31 1994-05-31 Liquid crystal display having enhanced conductors and adhesive spacers

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US5515191A (en)

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5661712A (en) * 1995-02-24 1997-08-26 Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Light phase modulating device and optical data recording and reproducing apparatus
US5838414A (en) * 1995-12-30 1998-11-17 Samsung Display Devices Co., Ltd. LCD device with improved resilient adhesive spacers
US5919606A (en) * 1997-05-09 1999-07-06 University Technology Corporation Liquid crystal cell and method for assembly thereof
US6108068A (en) * 1998-08-28 2000-08-22 Sony Corporation Liquid crystal display apparatus using spacers having double structure
US6233033B1 (en) 1999-03-29 2001-05-15 National Semiconductor Corp. Pixel array for LC silicon light valve featuring pixels with overlapping edges
US6356327B1 (en) 1999-03-29 2002-03-12 National Semiconductor Corporation Pixel array for silicon LC light valve featuring reflective metal surface underlying inter-pixel regions
US6373543B1 (en) 1999-07-16 2002-04-16 National Semiconductor Corporation Process for forming silicon LC pixel cell having planar alignment layers of uniform thickness
US6577362B1 (en) 1999-05-24 2003-06-10 National Semiconductor Corporation Pixel cell for silicon LC light valve having enhanced storage capacitance
US20060221294A1 (en) * 2005-04-01 2006-10-05 Innolux Display Corp. Liquid crystal display device and method for manufacturing the same
US20090161058A1 (en) * 2007-12-21 2009-06-25 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical adhesive for liquid crystal display
USRE41669E1 (en) 2002-05-10 2010-09-14 Ponnusamy Palanisamy Low-cost circuit board materials and processes for area array electrical interconnections over a large area between a device and the circuit board
USRE41914E1 (en) 2002-05-10 2010-11-09 Ponnusamy Palanisamy Thermal management in electronic displays

Citations (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3863332A (en) * 1973-06-28 1975-02-04 Hughes Aircraft Co Method of fabricating back panel for liquid crystal display
US3909930A (en) * 1972-05-23 1975-10-07 Motorola Inc Method for fabricating a liquid crystal display device
US3952405A (en) * 1974-11-04 1976-04-27 Motorola, Inc. Method for fabricating a liquid crystal display
US4401537A (en) * 1978-12-26 1983-08-30 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Liquid crystal display and photopolymerizable sealant therefor
US4422731A (en) * 1980-05-08 1983-12-27 Societe Industrielle des Nouvelles Techniques Radioelectriques Societe Anonyme dite Display unit with half-stud, spacer, connection layer and method of manufacturing
JPS60182414A (en) * 1984-02-29 1985-09-18 Canon Inc Display device
US4543573A (en) * 1981-03-31 1985-09-24 Hitachi, Ltd. Display panel
US4568149A (en) * 1983-01-28 1986-02-04 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Liquid crystal display panel with opaque mask over gate or signal line
US4653864A (en) * 1986-02-26 1987-03-31 Ovonic Imaging Systems, Inc. Liquid crystal matrix display having improved spacers and method of making same
US4725517A (en) * 1984-08-10 1988-02-16 Alpine Electronics Inc. Method of manufacturing a liquid crystal display device
US4728176A (en) * 1985-10-17 1988-03-01 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Ferroelectric liquid crystal device with metallic auxiliary electrodes provided adjacent to the transparent electrodes
US5089905A (en) * 1987-06-02 1992-02-18 Toppan Printing Co., Ltd. Color liquid crystal display system with spacer-adhesive and separate rigid spacers across display surface
US5124816A (en) * 1987-08-17 1992-06-23 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method of disconnecting short-circuited part between upper and lower electrodes of liquid crystal display panel, and process of preparing liquid crystal display panel by using the same
US5379139A (en) * 1986-08-20 1995-01-03 Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd. Liquid crystal device and method for manufacturing same with spacers formed by photolithography

Patent Citations (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3909930A (en) * 1972-05-23 1975-10-07 Motorola Inc Method for fabricating a liquid crystal display device
US3863332A (en) * 1973-06-28 1975-02-04 Hughes Aircraft Co Method of fabricating back panel for liquid crystal display
US3952405A (en) * 1974-11-04 1976-04-27 Motorola, Inc. Method for fabricating a liquid crystal display
US4401537A (en) * 1978-12-26 1983-08-30 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Liquid crystal display and photopolymerizable sealant therefor
US4422731A (en) * 1980-05-08 1983-12-27 Societe Industrielle des Nouvelles Techniques Radioelectriques Societe Anonyme dite Display unit with half-stud, spacer, connection layer and method of manufacturing
US4543573A (en) * 1981-03-31 1985-09-24 Hitachi, Ltd. Display panel
US4568149B1 (en) * 1983-01-28 1995-12-12 Canon Kk Liquid crystal display panel with opaque mask over gate or signal line
US4568149A (en) * 1983-01-28 1986-02-04 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Liquid crystal display panel with opaque mask over gate or signal line
US4568149C1 (en) * 1983-01-28 2002-04-09 Canon Kk Liquid crystal display panel with opaque mask over gate or signal line
JPS60182414A (en) * 1984-02-29 1985-09-18 Canon Inc Display device
US4725517A (en) * 1984-08-10 1988-02-16 Alpine Electronics Inc. Method of manufacturing a liquid crystal display device
US4728176A (en) * 1985-10-17 1988-03-01 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Ferroelectric liquid crystal device with metallic auxiliary electrodes provided adjacent to the transparent electrodes
US4653864A (en) * 1986-02-26 1987-03-31 Ovonic Imaging Systems, Inc. Liquid crystal matrix display having improved spacers and method of making same
US5379139A (en) * 1986-08-20 1995-01-03 Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd. Liquid crystal device and method for manufacturing same with spacers formed by photolithography
US5089905A (en) * 1987-06-02 1992-02-18 Toppan Printing Co., Ltd. Color liquid crystal display system with spacer-adhesive and separate rigid spacers across display surface
US5124816A (en) * 1987-08-17 1992-06-23 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method of disconnecting short-circuited part between upper and lower electrodes of liquid crystal display panel, and process of preparing liquid crystal display panel by using the same

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5661712A (en) * 1995-02-24 1997-08-26 Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Light phase modulating device and optical data recording and reproducing apparatus
US5838414A (en) * 1995-12-30 1998-11-17 Samsung Display Devices Co., Ltd. LCD device with improved resilient adhesive spacers
US5919606A (en) * 1997-05-09 1999-07-06 University Technology Corporation Liquid crystal cell and method for assembly thereof
US6108068A (en) * 1998-08-28 2000-08-22 Sony Corporation Liquid crystal display apparatus using spacers having double structure
US6233033B1 (en) 1999-03-29 2001-05-15 National Semiconductor Corp. Pixel array for LC silicon light valve featuring pixels with overlapping edges
US20010029056A1 (en) * 1999-03-29 2001-10-11 Moore Paul Mckay Pixel array for LC silicon light valve featuring pixels with overlapping edges
US6356327B1 (en) 1999-03-29 2002-03-12 National Semiconductor Corporation Pixel array for silicon LC light valve featuring reflective metal surface underlying inter-pixel regions
US6916692B2 (en) 1999-03-29 2005-07-12 National Semiconductor Corporation Pixel array for LC silicon light valve featuring pixels with overlapping edges
US6452647B2 (en) 1999-03-29 2002-09-17 National Semiconductor Corporation Pixel array for LC silicon light valve featuring pixels with overlapping edges
US6577362B1 (en) 1999-05-24 2003-06-10 National Semiconductor Corporation Pixel cell for silicon LC light valve having enhanced storage capacitance
US6373543B1 (en) 1999-07-16 2002-04-16 National Semiconductor Corporation Process for forming silicon LC pixel cell having planar alignment layers of uniform thickness
USRE41669E1 (en) 2002-05-10 2010-09-14 Ponnusamy Palanisamy Low-cost circuit board materials and processes for area array electrical interconnections over a large area between a device and the circuit board
USRE41914E1 (en) 2002-05-10 2010-11-09 Ponnusamy Palanisamy Thermal management in electronic displays
USRE42542E1 (en) 2002-05-10 2011-07-12 Transpacific Infinity, Llc Low-cost circuit board materials and processes for area array electrical interconnections over a large area between a device and the circuit board
US20060221294A1 (en) * 2005-04-01 2006-10-05 Innolux Display Corp. Liquid crystal display device and method for manufacturing the same
US20090161058A1 (en) * 2007-12-21 2009-06-25 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical adhesive for liquid crystal display
WO2009085793A3 (en) * 2007-12-21 2009-10-08 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical adhesive for liquid crystal display
US8034254B2 (en) 2007-12-21 2011-10-11 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical adhesive for liquid crystal display
CN101910343B (en) 2007-12-21 2013-04-10 3M创新有限公司 Optical adhesive for liquid crystal display

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4896946A (en) Liquid crystal display device
US6876355B1 (en) Touch screen structure to prevent image distortion
US6630686B1 (en) Liquid crystal display having pad parts and method for manufacturing same
US5155301A (en) Electrical connection and method for making the same
US20080068549A1 (en) Liquid crystal display devices
US4728176A (en) Ferroelectric liquid crystal device with metallic auxiliary electrodes provided adjacent to the transparent electrodes
US20010020986A1 (en) Tablet integrated liquid crystal display apparatus with less parallax
US20050237470A1 (en) Liquid crystal display device
US5235741A (en) Electrical connection and method for making the same
US5234541A (en) Methods of fabricating mim type device arrays and display devices incorporating such arrays
US4776673A (en) Liquid-crystal display device
JPH07199193A (en) Liquid crystal display device and production of substrate for liquid crystal display device
US6259501B1 (en) Liquid crystal display with dielectric layer having at least two openings corresponding to each picture element and method of making same
US20040090564A1 (en) In-plane switching mode thin film transistor liquid crystal display device with wide viewing angle
JPH1062802A (en) Liquid crystal display device
GB2091468A (en) Matrix liquid crystal display device and method of manufacturing the same
US5555116A (en) Liquid crystal display having adjacent electrode terminals set equal in length
JPH06102537A (en) Active matrix type liquid crystal display element
JPH09258265A (en) Liquid crystal display device
JPH05243333A (en) Thin film field-effect transistor substrate
US4572615A (en) Multiplexable metal-insulator-metal liquid crystal cell
JPH11125836A (en) Liquid crystal display device and its manufacture
EP0385419A1 (en) Liquid crystal display device
US20070115572A1 (en) Device and method of making a device having a meandering layer on a flexible substrate
US5852486A (en) Liquid crystal display with alternative electrode structure

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: MOTOROLA, INC., ILLINOIS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SWIRBEL, THOMAS J.;REEL/FRAME:007028/0182

Effective date: 19940526

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
LAPS Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
FP Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee

Effective date: 20080507