US5364518A - Magnetron cathode for a rotating target - Google Patents

Magnetron cathode for a rotating target Download PDF

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Publication number
US5364518A
US5364518A US07/976,960 US97696092A US5364518A US 5364518 A US5364518 A US 5364518A US 97696092 A US97696092 A US 97696092A US 5364518 A US5364518 A US 5364518A
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Prior art keywords
magnet means
means
inner
target
stretches
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Expired - Lifetime
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US07/976,960
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Klaus Hartig
Anton Dietrich
Joachim Szczyrbowski
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Balzers und Leybold Deutschland Holding AG
Applied Materials GmbH and Co KG
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Leybold AG
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Priority to DE19914117367 priority Critical patent/DE4117367C2/en
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Priority to US07/976,960 priority patent/US5364518A/en
Assigned to LEYBOLD AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT reassignment LEYBOLD AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: DIETRICH, ANTON, SZCZYRBOWSKI, JOACHIM
Assigned to LEYBOLD AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT reassignment LEYBOLD AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: HARTIG, KLAUS
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Assigned to BALZERS UND LEYBOLD DEUTSCHLAND HOLDING AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT reassignment BALZERS UND LEYBOLD DEUTSCHLAND HOLDING AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT CHANGE OF NAME (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: LEYBOLD AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT
Assigned to APPLIED FILMS GMBH & CO. KG reassignment APPLIED FILMS GMBH & CO. KG CHANGE OF NAME (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: LEYBOLD AKTIENGESSELSCHAFT
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/34Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering
    • H01J37/3411Constructional aspects of the reactor
    • H01J37/345Magnet arrangements in particular for cathodic sputtering apparatus
    • H01J37/3455Movable magnets
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/34Sputtering
    • C23C14/3407Cathode assembly for sputtering apparatus, e.g. Target
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/34Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering
    • H01J37/3402Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering using supplementary magnetic fields
    • H01J37/3405Magnetron sputtering

Abstract

Magnets are arranged inside a rotating tubular target to form a racetrack-shaped plasma having two straight stretches parallel to the target axis and two end stretches connecting the straight stretches. In order to achieve uniform target erosion, the magnets are arranged so that the plasma is wider and therefore less intense over the end stretches than it is over the straight stretches.

Description

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 07/744,280 filed Aug. 13, 1991, now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a magnetron cathode for a rotating tubular target, wherein the plasma is in the shape of a racetrack with two long straight stretches joined together.

In a known magnetron sputtering apparatus, a target is provided as a coating on the outer cylindrical surface of a copper support tube which is mounted for rotation in a vacuum chamber. Inner and outer loops of magnets are arranged inside the support tube to form a closed tunnel of magnetic flux which serves to trap a plasma loop over the target.

FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate such apparatus, which is also applicable for the present invention. The target 1 is applied to support tube 2 having closed ends which form a drum. Axles in the form of tubes 5, 6 are journaled for rotation in walls 3, 4 of the vacuum chamber and serve as conduits for coolant 11 whose flow is indicated by arrows 7 and 8. The drum is sealed against leakage by seals 13 and 14. A row of magnets 17 on a yoke 19 and holder 21 inside the drum serves to concentrate a plasma 12 outside the target when power is supplied to the cathode.

In FIG. 2 the magnets 17 are part of the inner loop and have a single polarity facing radially outward. The magnets 18 are part of the outer loop and have the opposite polarity facing radially outward. A racetrack shaped yoke 19 on a holder 21 serves to complete the flux path.

FIG. 2A is a schematic section of another known rotating cathode system having a single central row of magnets 16 and an outer loop 17 on a yoke 20. Once again a racetrack shaped plasma loop is entrapped by the closed loop of magnetic flux 10. A magnetron of this type is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,047,131.

FIG. 3 illustrates the racetrack shape of the plasma having straight stretches 22, 23 which parallel the axis of rotation, and end stretches or turns 24, 25. A point 26 on the rotating target 44 moves in the direction of arrow 27 through the end stretch 25, while a point 28 moves in the parallel direction 29 through the side stretches 22, 23. Since the point 26 is exposed to the active area of the plasma longer than the point 28, the target 44 forms an ablation profile 35 as shown (exaggerated) in FIG. 4. If the ring-like pits 30, 31 eroded in the surface of the target 44 reach the support tube 2 (FIG. 1), the coating of the substrate will be contaminated. If the support tube 45 is eroded through, cooling water can be released into the vacuum chamber and cause major damage.

For additional discussion of rotatable cylindrical magnetrons, see Wright et al., "Design advances and applications of the rotatable cylindrical magnetron", Journal of Vacuum Science Technology A4(3), May/June 1986, pp. 388-392.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The apparatus and methods of the present invention achieve a uniform ablation profile by altering the magnet field affecting the end stretches of the plasma loop. More particularly, the arcuate magnetic flux is widened so that the entrapped plasma is less intense and covers a wider area at the ends of the loop.

FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of the plasma loop formed according to the invention. Note that the width 43 of the end stretches 39, 40 is considerably wider than the width of the straight stretches 41, 42. By proper adjustment of the width 43, a uniform ablation profile as illustrated in FIG. 6 may be achieved. Here the ablation profile 36 has steep flanks 37, 38 and is essentially rectangular. The target 44 is therefore consumed efficiently without premature burn-through to the underlying support tube.

The magnetic field geometry may be affected by changing the distance between magnets forming the flux arcs over the end stretches, by changing the distance between the magnet and the rotating target, or changing the number of magnets. The strength of at least one magnet may be varied by the action of an electromagnet. Other means affecting the flux geometry, and thus the plasma shape and the erosion profile of the target, include arranging a shunt on at least one magnetic pole, and affixing specially shaped pole shoes to the poles.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic cross section of a rotatable tubular cathode,

FIG. 2 is an axial cross section taken along line II--II of FIG. 1,

FIG. 2A is an axial cross section of an alternative embodiment of magnetron with a rotating tubular target,

FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic plan view of the plasma formed by prior art apparatus,

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic partial side view of the erosion trench formed in the target with the prior art apparatus,

FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic plan view of the plasma formed by the inventive apparatus,

FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic partial side view of the erosion trench formed on the target with the inventive apparatus,

FIG. 7 is a partial side section showing the pairs of magnets over the end stretches,

FIG. 7A is a schematic of the flux without any fixtures on the magnets,

FIG. 7B is a schematic of the flux with a shunt traversing the yoke and a permanent magnet,

FIG. 7C is a schematic of the flux with special pole shoes fixed to the permanent magnets.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

FIG. 7 shows the magnet pairs 52, 53 and 61, 62 which provide the arcuate flux for the end stretches of the plasma loop. The magnets 53, 61 are part of the inner loop, while magnets 52, 62 are part of the outer loop. Yoke sections 50, 51 represent part of a single racetrack shaped yoke. Alternatively, the magnets 53, 61 may be seen as the end magnets of a single row within the outer loop (see FIG. 2A). The field geometry of the flux confining the plasma loop can be altered by varying the distances 54, 60 between magnets in each pair. More particularly, if the distances 54, 60 are greater than the spacing between magnets over the stretches parallel to the axis of rotation, without more, the plasma distribution of FIG. 5, and the erosion profile of FIG. 6, may be achieved. The actual spacing is determined experimentally.

The shape of the magnetic field may also be controlled by increasing or decreasing the distance 55 between at least one of the magnets and the target 1, or by placing a shunt 59.

FIG. 7A illustrates the shape of the flux field without any additional fixtures, while FIG. 7B illustrates the shape of the flux field with the shunt 59 in place. FIG. 7C shows the flux field with pole shoes 70, 71 in place.

The foregoing is exemplary and not intended to limit the scope of the claims which follow.

Claims (6)

We claim:
1. Apparatus for coating a substrate, comprising
a tubular cathode on which a tubular target is fixed, said cathode being rotatable about a central axis,
magnet means arranged inside said cathode to form an arcuate magnetic field which encloses a racetrack shaped plasma over said target, said plasma having two straight stretches parallel to said axis and two end stretches connecting said straight stretches, said magnet means being arranged to shape said magnetic field over said end stretches so that said plasma is wider in said end stretches than in said straight stretches.
2. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said magnet means comprises inner magnet means having one polarity facing said target, outer magnet means having another polarity facing said target, and yoke means connecting said inner and outer magnet means opposite from said target, thereby forming arcuate flux between said inner and outer magnet means.
3. Apparatus as in claim 2 wherein said inner and outer magnet means are spaced further apart where said end stretches are formed than where said straight stretches are formed.
4. Apparatus as in claim 2 wherein said magnet means comprises shunt means bridging between said yoke means and one of said inner and outer magnet means where said end stretches are formed.
5. Apparatus as in claim 2 wherein said magnet means comprises pole shoe means associated with at least one of said inner and outer magnet means where said end stretches are formed.
6. Apparatus as in claim 5 wherein said pole shoe means comprises inner pole shoe means associated with said inner magnet means and outer pole shoe means associated with said outer magnet means, said inner and outer pole shoe means having mutually opposed faces from which magnetic flux emanates.
US07/976,960 1991-05-28 1992-11-13 Magnetron cathode for a rotating target Expired - Lifetime US5364518A (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19914117367 DE4117367C2 (en) 1991-05-28 1991-05-28 A method for producing a homogeneous removal profile on a rotating target of a sputtering apparatus
DE4117367 1991-05-28
US74428091A true 1991-08-13 1991-08-13
US07/976,960 US5364518A (en) 1991-05-28 1992-11-13 Magnetron cathode for a rotating target

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Cited By (57)

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WO1996021750A1 (en) * 1995-01-12 1996-07-18 The Boc Group, Inc. Rotatable magnetron with curved or segmented end magnets
WO1998035070A1 (en) * 1997-02-07 1998-08-13 Coatinvest C.V.A. Apparatus and method for sputtering a magnetron target
US5812405A (en) * 1995-05-23 1998-09-22 Viratec Thin Films, Inc. Three variable optimization system for thin film coating design
US5997705A (en) * 1999-04-14 1999-12-07 Vapor Technologies, Inc. Rectangular filtered arc plasma source
US6350356B1 (en) 1997-11-26 2002-02-26 Vapor Technologies, Inc. Linear magnetron arc evaporation or sputtering source
US6416639B1 (en) 1999-06-21 2002-07-09 Sinvaco N.V. Erosion compensated magnetron with moving magnet assembly
US6445503B1 (en) 2000-07-10 2002-09-03 Guardian Industries Corp. High durable, low-E, heat treatable layer coating system
US6576349B2 (en) 2000-07-10 2003-06-10 Guardian Industries Corp. Heat treatable low-E coated articles and methods of making same
US20030230482A1 (en) * 2002-06-18 2003-12-18 Hannstar Display Corp. Magnetic control oscillating-scanning sputter
US6736948B2 (en) 2002-01-18 2004-05-18 Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik Gmbh Cylindrical AC/DC magnetron with compliant drive system and improved electrical and thermal isolation
US20040121163A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2004-06-24 Laird Ronald E. Heat treatable coated article with reduced color shift at high viewing angles
US20040129561A1 (en) * 2003-01-07 2004-07-08 Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik Gmbh Cylindrical magnetron magnetic array mid span support
US20050051422A1 (en) * 2003-02-21 2005-03-10 Rietzel James G. Cylindrical magnetron with self cleaning target
US20060000705A1 (en) * 2004-07-01 2006-01-05 Klaus Hartig Cylindrical target with oscillating magnet for magnetron sputtering
US7014741B2 (en) 2003-02-21 2006-03-21 Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik Gmbh Cylindrical magnetron with self cleaning target
US20060065524A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-03-30 Richard Newcomb Non-bonded rotatable targets for sputtering
US20060096855A1 (en) * 2004-11-05 2006-05-11 Richard Newcomb Cathode arrangement for atomizing a rotatable target pipe
US20060278524A1 (en) * 2005-06-14 2006-12-14 Stowell Michael W System and method for modulating power signals to control sputtering
US20060278519A1 (en) * 2005-06-10 2006-12-14 Leszek Malaszewski Adaptable fixation for cylindrical magnetrons
US20060278521A1 (en) * 2005-06-14 2006-12-14 Stowell Michael W System and method for controlling ion density and energy using modulated power signals
US20060289304A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2006-12-28 Guardian Industries Corp. Sputtering target with slow-sputter layer under target material
CN1296513C (en) * 1999-11-05 2007-01-24 W.C.贺利氏股份有限及两合公司 Tube target
US20070080056A1 (en) * 2005-10-07 2007-04-12 German John R Method and apparatus for cylindrical magnetron sputtering using multiple electron drift paths
US20070089982A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-04-26 Hendryk Richert Sputtering target and method/apparatus for cooling the target
US20070095281A1 (en) * 2005-11-01 2007-05-03 Stowell Michael W System and method for power function ramping of microwave liner discharge sources
US20070098916A1 (en) * 2005-11-01 2007-05-03 Stowell Michael W System and method for modulation of power and power related functions of PECVD discharge sources to achieve new film properties
US20070251816A1 (en) * 2006-05-01 2007-11-01 Vapor Technologies, Inc. Bi-directional filtered arc plasma source
US20080121515A1 (en) * 2006-11-27 2008-05-29 Seagate Technology Llc Magnetron sputtering utilizing halbach magnet arrays
US20110127157A1 (en) * 2007-08-15 2011-06-02 Gencoa Ltd. Low impedance plasma
US20110186427A1 (en) * 2010-01-29 2011-08-04 Angstrom Sciences, Inc. Cylindrical Magnetron Having a Shunt
WO2011056581A3 (en) * 2009-10-26 2011-09-09 General Plasma, Inc. Rotary magnetron magnet bar and apparatus containing the same for high target utilization
CN101877300B (en) 2009-04-30 2012-01-04 深圳市豪威薄膜技术有限公司 Sputter magnetron device
WO2011123688A3 (en) * 2010-04-02 2012-03-08 NuvoSun, Inc. Target utilization improvement for rotatable magnetrons
US20120175251A1 (en) * 2011-01-06 2012-07-12 Sputtering Components, Inc. Sputtering apparatus
US20120174864A1 (en) * 2009-10-05 2012-07-12 Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho (Kobe Steel, Ltd.) Plasma cvd apparatus
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US20140183037A1 (en) * 2012-12-28 2014-07-03 Silevo, Inc. Radio-frequency sputtering system with rotary target for fabricating solar cells
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Cited By (107)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1996021750A1 (en) * 1995-01-12 1996-07-18 The Boc Group, Inc. Rotatable magnetron with curved or segmented end magnets
US5812405A (en) * 1995-05-23 1998-09-22 Viratec Thin Films, Inc. Three variable optimization system for thin film coating design
WO1998035070A1 (en) * 1997-02-07 1998-08-13 Coatinvest C.V.A. Apparatus and method for sputtering a magnetron target
US6264803B1 (en) * 1997-02-07 2001-07-24 Steven V. Morgan Apparatus and method for sputtering
DE19853943B4 (en) * 1997-11-26 2006-04-20 Vapor Technologies, Inc. (Delaware Corporation), Longmont Cathode for sputtering or arc vapor deposition as well as apparatus for coating or ion implantation with such a cathode
US6350356B1 (en) 1997-11-26 2002-02-26 Vapor Technologies, Inc. Linear magnetron arc evaporation or sputtering source
US5997705A (en) * 1999-04-14 1999-12-07 Vapor Technologies, Inc. Rectangular filtered arc plasma source
US6416639B1 (en) 1999-06-21 2002-07-09 Sinvaco N.V. Erosion compensated magnetron with moving magnet assembly
CN1296513C (en) * 1999-11-05 2007-01-24 W.C.贺利氏股份有限及两合公司 Tube target
US20030194567A1 (en) * 2000-07-10 2003-10-16 Guardian Industries Corp Heat treatable low-E coated articles and methods of making same
US7300701B2 (en) 2000-07-10 2007-11-27 Guardian Industries Corp. High durable, low-e, heat treatable layer coating system
US6686050B2 (en) 2000-07-10 2004-02-03 Guardian Industries Corp. Heat treatable low-E coated articles and methods of making same
US6723211B2 (en) 2000-07-10 2004-04-20 Guardian Industries Corp Method of making coated articles with contact layer that is more oxidized further from IR reflecting layer
US6576349B2 (en) 2000-07-10 2003-06-10 Guardian Industries Corp. Heat treatable low-E coated articles and methods of making same
US7314668B2 (en) 2000-07-10 2008-01-01 Guardian Industries Corp. Low-E coated articles having zirconium inclusive dielectric layer
US8173263B2 (en) 2000-07-10 2012-05-08 Guardian Industries Corp. Heat treatable low-E coated articles and methods of making same
US6445503B1 (en) 2000-07-10 2002-09-03 Guardian Industries Corp. High durable, low-E, heat treatable layer coating system
US20060029816A1 (en) * 2000-07-10 2006-02-09 Guardian Industries Corp. Low-E coated articles having zirconium inclusive dielectric layer
US6736948B2 (en) 2002-01-18 2004-05-18 Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik Gmbh Cylindrical AC/DC magnetron with compliant drive system and improved electrical and thermal isolation
US20050006233A1 (en) * 2002-01-18 2005-01-13 Barrett Richard L. Cylindrical AC/DC magnetron with compliant drive system and improved electrical and thermal isolation
US6793785B2 (en) * 2002-06-18 2004-09-21 Hannstar Display Corp. Magnetic control oscillating-scanning sputter
US20030230482A1 (en) * 2002-06-18 2003-12-18 Hannstar Display Corp. Magnetic control oscillating-scanning sputter
US20050011758A1 (en) * 2002-06-18 2005-01-20 Hannstar Display Corp. Magnetic control oscillation-scanning sputter
US7005190B2 (en) 2002-12-20 2006-02-28 Guardian Industries Corp. Heat treatable coated article with reduced color shift at high viewing angles
US20040121163A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2004-06-24 Laird Ronald E. Heat treatable coated article with reduced color shift at high viewing angles
US20040129561A1 (en) * 2003-01-07 2004-07-08 Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik Gmbh Cylindrical magnetron magnetic array mid span support
WO2004061894A1 (en) * 2003-01-07 2004-07-22 Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik Gmbh Mid span support for a magnetic array of a cylindrical magnetron sputter device
US7014741B2 (en) 2003-02-21 2006-03-21 Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik Gmbh Cylindrical magnetron with self cleaning target
US20050051422A1 (en) * 2003-02-21 2005-03-10 Rietzel James G. Cylindrical magnetron with self cleaning target
US7993496B2 (en) 2004-07-01 2011-08-09 Cardinal Cg Company Cylindrical target with oscillating magnet for magnetron sputtering
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