US4505088A - Method of constructing arcuate structures - Google Patents

Method of constructing arcuate structures Download PDF

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US4505088A
US4505088A US06/391,566 US39156682A US4505088A US 4505088 A US4505088 A US 4505088A US 39156682 A US39156682 A US 39156682A US 4505088 A US4505088 A US 4505088A
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blocks
rows
concrete
arcuate
row
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US06/391,566
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Lloyd K. Lippe
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Lippe Lloyd K
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B1/3205Structures with a longitudinal horizontal axis, e.g. cylindrical or prismatic structures
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B2001/327Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures comprised of a number of panels or blocs connected together forming a self-supporting structure
    • E04B2001/3276Panel connection details
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B2001/327Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures comprised of a number of panels or blocs connected together forming a self-supporting structure
    • E04B2001/3288Panel frame details, e.g. flanges of steel sheet panels

Abstract

A method of assembly adapted for use with underground structures having an arcuate, elongated configuration and constructed of substantially identical blocks joined together with substantially identical fastening means and extending from both sides of a center keystone thereby allowing energy efficient, reliable, low cost structures capable of being mass produced with minimal die or pattern expense.

Description

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a building structure adapted for use as underground or partially underground structures. Such building structure is of an arcuate configuration on a concrete foundation slab. The arcuate structure has a central cast concrete keystone of special construction in accordance with the present invention. The remaining blocks used for the building structure extend downwardly from the central keystone and essentially are mortarless modified concrete blocks utilized in the construction industry thereby allowing interchangeability during construction of the building structure of the present invention. Thus, the modified concrete construction blocks do not require a close tolerance but may have tolerances generally found in ordinary concrete construction blocks.

The modified concrete construction blocks are joined together with fastening means comprising elongated substantially flat, rectangular-shaped shear key members. End fastening means are provided to secure each transverse or longitudinal row of blocks and include first and second end members, each of which has a partially recessed opening for receiving a bracket member having first and second tie rods or cables connected thereto and having a threaded member extending from the bracket into such partially recessed opening.

The central keystone member of the arcuate building structure is formed by plywood which is positioned to allow concrete to be poured between the two longitudinal rows of modified concrete construction blocks at the upper portion of the arcuate construction with a steel reinforcing rod being positioned in the concrete fill prior to pouring concrete for the keystone. A pair of metal fabrications are used to provide necessary adjustment and temporary support to each transverse or longitudinal row and support the suspended plywood form. The metal fabrications have slots for two bolts and nuts to allow adjustment of the metal fabrications by movement in the elongated openings in which each of the bolt and nut assembly are positioned. When concrete is poured to become the central keystone block, the metal fabrications are cast into the concrete.

The present invention utilizes repetitive modules or blocks and a building can be constructed with relatively lowskilled labor and with minimal equipment. Because the structure is adapted for total or partially underground use, heating and cooling costs are minimal because of the inherent thermal benefits of the earth. Two factors which have presented problems in the past, moisture and weight, have been overcome through the building structure provided by the present invention and by the use of conventional waterproofing methods.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing the building structure of the present invention on a concrete slab and partially covered with soil;

FIG. 2 is an upper, isometric or perspective view of part of the block structure shown in connection with the building structure of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is an upper, isometric or perspective view of an individual, modified concrete construction block utilized in practicing the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a longitudinal, sectional, elevational view showing a series of modified concrete construction blocks held together through end fastening means;

FIG. 5 is an upper, isometric or perspective view of one of the end fastening means shown in FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a front, transverse sectional view of the central cast concrete keystone utilized at the center and uppermost part of the building structure shown in FIG. 1; and

FIG. 7 is an upper, perspective view of the metal fabrication members shown in FIG. 6.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing the building structure of the present invention. A concrete slab 10 may be poured in a conventional manner well-known in the construction industry to form a structural concrete slab which may be of any desired concrete specification depending upon the type of soil and other environmental conditions which may be encountered.

Positioned on the concrete slab 10 are two longitudinal rows of blocks, such as row 12 and row 14. These longitudinal rows comprise a plurality of modified concrete construction blocks such as block 12a, 12b, 12c, 12d, 12e, 12f, 12g, 12h and 12i thereby forming a longitudinal row along one side of the building structure having an arcuate configuration and generally identified in FIG. 1 with the reference numeral 15.

It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art to which the present invention pertains that longitudinal row 14 also comprises a plurality of the same modified concrete construction blocks to provide a base support on which additional rows of blocks such as longitudinal rows 16, 18, 20 and 22 are provided. Keystone 100 is centrally located between rows 110 and 112 and is explained in detail in connection with FIG. 6. It will be appreciated that after the connection and joining of the modified concrete construction blocks in accordance with the method of the present invention that an arcuate building structure is provided having a concrete slab and which when completed may be partially covered with soil 30 to provide natural thermal benefits inherent in the earth. Prior to placing soil 30, a second and finished slab 10a is poured over concrete slab 10 for the purpose of providing an adequate counterreaction of the forces of the soil at the base of the structure from pushing the first laid rows inward. The building structure of the present invention provides reduction of heating and cooling costs which are important in the present era of energy-conscious living. It will be appreciated further that the building structure is comprised of repetitive modules and may be constructed with low-skilled labor and minimal equipment, as will be explained in detail in connection with the other drawing figures.

FIG. 2 is an upper, isometric or perspective view showing the modified concrete construction blocks utilized in construction of the building structure 15 shown in FIG. 1. A plurality of blocks, such as blocks 50, 60, 70 and 80 comprise part of the arcuate section of the building structure, block 72 and block 82 are shown positioned and connected to blocks 70 and 80.

Block 50, as explained previously, is a modified concrete construction block and fabricated in a conventional cinder block machine thereby allowing standardization and interchangeability to be practiced in constructing the building structure of the present invention. Block 50 includes a top portion 50a, a side portion 50b.

An elongated substantially flat fastening member 51 is used as a shear key and adapted for slideable engagement in slot 53 of block 50 and the block adjacent to block 50.

It will be appreciated in reviewing the disclosure of FIG. 2 that a plurality of elongated, substantially flat fastening members, such as fastening member 51, are utilized in fixedly positioning blocks 50, 60, 70 and 80 and in fixedly positioning block 70 to block 72 and block 80 to block 82. For example, elongated fastening member 61 may be used in positioning of block 50 to block 60. The elongated fastening member 61 has a top 61a, a side 61b, and an end 61c visible in FIG. 2. Not visible in FIG. 2 is another side, another end, and a bottom portion. The elongated fastening member 61 is typical of the elongated fastening members utilized in constructing the entire arcuate building structure of the present invention.

The easy, reliable, and relatively fast positioning of blocks of standard size and quality are an important aspect of the present invention because of minimal need for conventional construction hardward such as nails, screws, and clamps. It should be noted that an arcuate formwork will be required for the first two or three transverse rows. But after several rows are in place, the subsequent blocks are able to support off of the previous transverse row by the use of the shear key.

FIG. 3 is an upper, isometric or perspective view of an individual, modified concrete construction block, such as block 50 shown in FIG. 2. Block 50 includes a top 50a, a side 50b having a slot 53 as pointed out previously in connection with FIG. 2. Block 50 includes an upper opening 55 and a similar lower opening 57 typical of the modified concrete construction blocks and standard industry blocks. The face 59 of block 50 includes a notch 59a.

FIG. 4 is a longitudinal, sectional, elevational view showing a series of modified concrete construction blocks held together through end fastening means and in a row such as row 21 shown in FIG. 1. Row 21, for example, may have end members 21a and 21b, each of which has a recess 21c and 21d for receiving a cable or tie wire bracket such as tie wire bracket 21e having a threaded portion 21f on which is positioned a nut 21g. Cable or tie wire members 21h and 21i are positioned to each side of member 21j which is the central portion of the modified concrete construction block. The tie wires 21h and 21i have threaded ends and are secured to the bracket 21e with nuts in a manner well known in the construction art as shown in FIG. 4. Specifically, nut 21k is threadedly connected to threaded end 21m of tie wire 21i.

FIG. 5 is an upper, isometric or perspective view of end member 21a having an opening or hole 21n in which threaded portion 21f is positioned. Threaded portion 21f is connected to bracket 21e having tie wires 21h and 21i.

FIG. 6 is a front, transverse sectional view of the central cast concrete keystone utilized at the center and uppermost part of the building structure shown in FIG. 1. As rows of blocks are positioned as has been described previously and the arcuate configuration develops, there ultimately will be a space left between the blocks which have been built starting from each side of the base or concrete slab. This space is filled with concrete to form a keystone member 100 positioned between block rows 110 and 112 shown in FIG. 1. It will be appreciated that rows 110 and 112 are constructed in accordance with the previously disclosed method of the present invention and when the keystone member is ready to be poured with concrete, a keystone fastening means 114 which may be called a compression bracket also is utilized and positioned in notch 116 and notch 118. A similar arrangement is provided at the top of each transverse row of blocks 12, 12a through 12i. An important part of the present invention is the keystone construction wherein keystone fastening means 114 also called compression brackets are utilized and the keystone fastening means 114 will be explained in detail subsequently in connection with the detailed description of FIG. 7.

A plywood or other material form 120 is suspended by tie wires 122 and 124 and a conventional steel reinforcing rod 126 is positioned on top of the keystone fastening means 114. Concrete then is poured in the space or opening between rows 110 and 112 and upon hardening of the concrete, the arcuate building structure is complete and structurally sound. The tiewires 122 and 124 are cut to allow the plywood form to be removed.

FIG. 7 is an upper, perspective view of the metal fabrication members shown in FIG. 6 and also referred to as compression brackets. Keystone fastening means 114 include identical members 114a and 114b. Each of members 114a and 114b has an elongated slot to form openings 114c and 114d when positioned as shown in FIG. 7 to allow adjustment of members 114a and 114b for engagement in the concrete block notches with lips or protrusions 114e and 114f as explained previously in connection with FIG. 6. A bolt 114g having a nut 114h positioned thereon is positioned in slot 114c and, likewise, bolt 114i having nut 114j is positioned in slot 114d. It will be appreciated in viewing the keystone fastening means shown in FIG. 7 that members 114a and 114b may be assembled quickly and adjusted to compensate for the varying distance that may be found between the notches in the blocks adjacent the keystone centerpiece. These brackets keep each half of the arcuate structure from collapsing inward until the concrete keystone is cast.

Thus, it will be appreciated that the present invention provides a new and useful method and apparatus for constructing a building structure adapted for at least partial burial whereby the natural thermal qualities of the earth are utilized to minimize heating and cooling expense when the building structure of the present invention is inhabited.

Although a preferred embodiment of the invention has been shown and described in accordance with the requirements of the United States Patent Laws, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art to which the present invention pertains that many modifications and improvements may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention defined by the following claims. Although such claims may be presented in an indented format to facilitate reading and understanding thereof, such indented format is not to be construed as a structural or functional limitation of the elements or steps recited in such claims.

Claims (3)

What is claimed is:
1. A method of constructing arcuate structures, comprising the steps of
(a) pouring a planar concrete slab (10);
(b) positioning two spaced parallel longitudinal rows of modified concrete construction blocks on said slab, the blocks of each of said rows being arranged in contiguous relation and containing longitudinal slots (53) in the opposite sides thereof, respectively, said slots of the blocks of each row being in alignment to define a pair of longitudinal slots extending continuously along each row of blocks;
(c) positioning an elongated shear fastening member (51) in the continuous slot of each row of blocks said shear member having a width greater than the depth of said slot, whereby said shear member protrudes laterally from said slot;
(d) alternately positioning subsequent rows (16, 18 20, 22) of said blocks and said elongated shear fastening members on said two rows of blocks, the continuous longitudinal aligned slots of adjacent rows of blocks being arranged opposite each other and having one of said elongated shear fastening members arranged therein, said subsequent rows and fastening members forming a pair of arcuate locked walls extending toward each other with an opening therebetween at the highest point from said concrete slab without the continuous use of a supporting structure during the formation thereof;
(e) arranging an adjustable concrete pour form having at least one longitudinal steel reinforcing member in said opening;
(f) laterally adjusting said pour form to completely fill said opening; and
(g) filling said pour form with poured concrete, thereby to define a rigid keystone (100).
2. A method defined by claim 1 and further including the steps of sealing each end of said plurality of rows of modified concrete construction blocks and waterproofing the exterior of said arcuate configuration.
3. A method defined by claim 2 and further including pouring a second concrete slab to provide resistance to the bottom row of blocks created by the earth at the base of the arcuate structure.
US06/391,566 1982-06-24 1982-06-24 Method of constructing arcuate structures Expired - Lifetime US4505088A (en)

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US06/391,566 US4505088A (en) 1982-06-24 1982-06-24 Method of constructing arcuate structures
US06/674,658 US4644710A (en) 1982-06-24 1984-11-26 Lip block construction

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4644710A (en) * 1982-06-24 1987-02-24 Lippe Lloyd K Lip block construction
GB2214943A (en) * 1988-02-03 1989-09-13 Andrew Jonathon Smith New roof structure
US6705243B2 (en) * 2001-05-04 2004-03-16 Refratechnik Holding Gmbh Supporting-arch construction and process for producing a supporting arch
FR2848580A1 (en) * 2002-12-11 2004-06-18 Luc Charles Pierre Tamborero Arch structure forming device for use during building construction, has strap for forming adjuster unit, which is stretched between two ridges, and subjected to tension by system to press ridges against structural units
US7040241B2 (en) * 2002-05-24 2006-05-09 Merkle Engineers, Inc. Refractory brick and refractory construction
US20110067321A1 (en) * 2009-09-18 2011-03-24 Yousef Hijazi Prefabricated Building system
WO2015143354A1 (en) * 2014-03-20 2015-09-24 Michaluk Mitch Arched structure and modular building blocks
US10487494B1 (en) * 2019-03-05 2019-11-26 Spherical Block LLC Architectural building block system

Citations (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US597281A (en) * 1898-01-11 Concrete bridge
US727862A (en) * 1903-01-15 1903-05-12 William L Taylor Lock-joint for columns.
US1223266A (en) * 1916-04-03 1917-04-17 Walter Dyer Arch construction.
FR593892A (en) * 1924-09-04 1925-09-01 Bergbau Betongesellschaft M B Stones hook and nose arch construction and well
US1655701A (en) * 1927-03-14 1928-01-10 Kenneth M Hyland Split-log cabin
US1784271A (en) * 1927-07-13 1930-12-09 Pacific Clay Products Conduit and method of constructing the same
US2041243A (en) * 1934-11-30 1936-05-19 Ric Wil Company Subterranean structure
GB471226A (en) * 1936-08-14 1937-08-31 Eugenio Miozzi Improvements in arched structures such as roofs and bridges
GB488013A (en) * 1937-07-23 1938-06-29 James Thorburn Muirhead Improved form of air raid shelter
US2336228A (en) * 1940-06-20 1943-12-07 Davey Norman Arch construction
US2406448A (en) * 1940-06-04 1946-08-27 George G Wheat Shipping case or crate and shook therefor
GB647581A (en) * 1943-03-06 1950-12-20 Henry Lossier Improvements in the use of expansive cements
DE806393C (en) * 1943-06-18 1951-06-14 Eugene Germain Paul Mopin Gewoelbekonstruktion with prefabricated components made of vibrated
US3559361A (en) * 1968-06-04 1971-02-02 Sarros Construction Co Inc Method for construction
FR2386653A2 (en) * 1977-04-04 1978-11-03 Saps Sa Forming watertight concrete surfaces - using a bituminous concrete contg. a bitumen extracted from petroleum as binder
US4334393A (en) * 1980-03-03 1982-06-15 Everstrong Marketing, Inc. Earth-sheltered structure

Patent Citations (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US597281A (en) * 1898-01-11 Concrete bridge
US727862A (en) * 1903-01-15 1903-05-12 William L Taylor Lock-joint for columns.
US1223266A (en) * 1916-04-03 1917-04-17 Walter Dyer Arch construction.
FR593892A (en) * 1924-09-04 1925-09-01 Bergbau Betongesellschaft M B Stones hook and nose arch construction and well
US1655701A (en) * 1927-03-14 1928-01-10 Kenneth M Hyland Split-log cabin
US1784271A (en) * 1927-07-13 1930-12-09 Pacific Clay Products Conduit and method of constructing the same
US2041243A (en) * 1934-11-30 1936-05-19 Ric Wil Company Subterranean structure
GB471226A (en) * 1936-08-14 1937-08-31 Eugenio Miozzi Improvements in arched structures such as roofs and bridges
GB488013A (en) * 1937-07-23 1938-06-29 James Thorburn Muirhead Improved form of air raid shelter
US2406448A (en) * 1940-06-04 1946-08-27 George G Wheat Shipping case or crate and shook therefor
US2336228A (en) * 1940-06-20 1943-12-07 Davey Norman Arch construction
GB647581A (en) * 1943-03-06 1950-12-20 Henry Lossier Improvements in the use of expansive cements
DE806393C (en) * 1943-06-18 1951-06-14 Eugene Germain Paul Mopin Gewoelbekonstruktion with prefabricated components made of vibrated
US3559361A (en) * 1968-06-04 1971-02-02 Sarros Construction Co Inc Method for construction
FR2386653A2 (en) * 1977-04-04 1978-11-03 Saps Sa Forming watertight concrete surfaces - using a bituminous concrete contg. a bitumen extracted from petroleum as binder
US4334393A (en) * 1980-03-03 1982-06-15 Everstrong Marketing, Inc. Earth-sheltered structure

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4644710A (en) * 1982-06-24 1987-02-24 Lippe Lloyd K Lip block construction
GB2214943A (en) * 1988-02-03 1989-09-13 Andrew Jonathon Smith New roof structure
US6705243B2 (en) * 2001-05-04 2004-03-16 Refratechnik Holding Gmbh Supporting-arch construction and process for producing a supporting arch
US7040241B2 (en) * 2002-05-24 2006-05-09 Merkle Engineers, Inc. Refractory brick and refractory construction
FR2848580A1 (en) * 2002-12-11 2004-06-18 Luc Charles Pierre Tamborero Arch structure forming device for use during building construction, has strap for forming adjuster unit, which is stretched between two ridges, and subjected to tension by system to press ridges against structural units
US20110067321A1 (en) * 2009-09-18 2011-03-24 Yousef Hijazi Prefabricated Building system
US8365483B2 (en) * 2009-09-18 2013-02-05 Yousef Hijazi Prefabricated building system
WO2015143354A1 (en) * 2014-03-20 2015-09-24 Michaluk Mitch Arched structure and modular building blocks
US10487494B1 (en) * 2019-03-05 2019-11-26 Spherical Block LLC Architectural building block system

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