US3903702A - Revetment structure - Google Patents

Revetment structure Download PDF

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Publication number
US3903702A
US3903702A US35831073A US3903702A US 3903702 A US3903702 A US 3903702A US 35831073 A US35831073 A US 35831073A US 3903702 A US3903702 A US 3903702A
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Prior art keywords
units
revetment
recesses
unit
earth
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Samuel Alan Appleton
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DYTAP CONSTRUCTION HOLDINGS Ltd
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DYTAP CONSTRUCTION HOLDINGS Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01CCONSTRUCTION OF, OR SURFACES FOR, ROADS, SPORTS GROUNDS, OR THE LIKE; MACHINES OR AUXILIARY TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR
    • E01C9/00Special pavings; Pavings for special parts of roads or airfields
    • E01C9/004Pavings specially adapted for allowing vegetation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B3/00Engineering works in connection with control or use of streams, rivers, coasts, or other marine sites; Sealings or joints for engineering works in general
    • E02B3/04Structures or apparatus for, or methods of, protecting banks, coasts, or harbours
    • E02B3/12Revetment of banks, dams, watercourses, or the like, e.g. the sea-floor
    • E02B3/14Preformed blocks or slabs for forming essentially continuous surfaces; Arrangements thereof

Abstract

The invention provides a system of interfitting concrete units for surfacing revetments or other ground liable to erosion. Each unit is provided with cavities to retain earth on the finished surface and has a special outline shape such that opposite longitudinal sides are reflections of each other. This is claimed to avoid any tendency for the units to rotate when subjected to stresses in the finished structure. The units may optionally be provided with sockets into which dowels may be fitted to further prevent dislodgement of any one unit.

Description

United States Patent 1 1 Appleton [4 1 Sept. 9, 1975 REVETMENT STRUCTURE [75] Inventor: Samuel Alan Appleton, Taunton,

[21] Appl. No.: 358,310

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data May 9, 1972 United Kingdom 21600/72 [52] US. Cl. 61/37; 52/608; 404/41 [51] Int. Cl. E02b 3/12 [58] Field of Search 61/37, 38, 35; 404/34, 404/41, 39, 37, 29; 52/608, 609, 590

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 708,470 9/1902 Flood 52/590 928,320 7/1909 Moore 52/590 1,040,117 10/1912 Bates 52/590 1,379,440 5/1921 Brainerd 404/34 2,047,882 7/1936 McPherson 52/608 2,662,343 12/1953 Rice 404/34 3,347,048 10/1967 Brown et al. 61/37 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 465,097 8/1951 Italy 52/606 676,764 8/1952 United Kingdom 404/34 520,563 4/1940 United Kingdom 404/34 456,670 4/1950 52/608 Primary Examiner--Robert L. Wolfe Assistant ExaminerAIex Grosz Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Norris & Bateman [5 7] ABSTRACT The invention provides a system of interfitting concrete units for surfacing revetments or other ground liable to erosion. Each unit is provided with cavities to retain earth on the finished surface and has a special outline shape such that opposite longitudinal sides are reflections of each other. This is claimed to avoid any tendency for the units to rotate when subjected to stresses in the finished structure. The units may optionally be provided with sockets into which dowels may be fitted to further prevent dislodgement of any one unit.

3 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures PATENTED SEP 9|975 sum 1 BF 9 PATENTED 9|975 sum 3 o 9 REVETMENT STRUCTURE This invention relates to building materials suitable for the construction of revetments for the protection of slopes from erosion and for the formation of hardstandings and other earth surfacings, e.g. for vehicles.

It has previously been proposed to face ground surfaces with a matrix of interfitting masonry units provided with cavities which retain earth to give a natural appearance. Known interiitting units intended for this purpose have however, not found widespread demand and this is believed to be due to (a) high cost of manufacture (b) necessity for the costly process of grouting or otherwise fixing the blocks together to prevent dislodgement and (c) tendency for the blocks or joints between the blocks to dislodge or fracture during assembly or when the finished structure is subjected to shear forces in and perpendicular to the plane of the structure.

It is an aim of this invention to provide a novel combination of features which reduce the severity of the aforementioned problems and enable stable surfacings to be assembled quickly and inexpensively.

According to the invention, there is provided a masonry unit whose edges have laterally projecting and depressed recess portions arranged to interfit with corresponding portions on identical units to form an interfitting structure and which are formed with cavities to retain earth on the finished structure, one lingitudinal edge of the unit being a reflection of the other longitudinal edge about a longitudinal axis of the unit.

By providing opposite longitudinal edges as reflections of each other any tendancy for the block to rotate and become dislodged when subjected to shear forces is reduced.

The raised and depressed portions are preferably simple 'V or U shapes and are optionally provided with sockets adapted to receive linking members for transmitting forces between the units in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the finished structure thereby reducing the possibility of dislodgement. The Linking members may take the form of short dowels each tapered from a central position towards its ends and they fit into correspondingly tapered sockets in the masonry units.

A preferred construction is a concrete moulding formed by interconnected ribs defining cavities between them. By providing the ribs with a taper towards the upper or front faces of the units the area of concrete exposed on the finished surface after the cavities have been filled with earth is minimized. The tapered shape of the ribs also facilitates striking the units out of their moulds during manufacture.

Each longitudinal edge has a laterally projecting portion centrally located on one half thereof and a laterally recessed portion centrally located on the other half. This particular outline shape, the exact nature of which will become more apparent from the following description has been found to be particularly satisfactory with regard to forming a stable and flexible mattress on the ground surface.

By constructing the unit so that the shorter sides are approximately equal in length (after allowing for a joint thickness) to the said sections it is possible to assemble a revetment having some of the blocks at right angles to the others. This can be an advantage when finishing the edges of the revetment.

In order that the units may engage in a proper manner all the raised and depressed portions are of a similar shape which can advantageously be a shallow V or U. If a V shape is used it preferably defines an angle within the range of about 140 to for maximum strength combined with effectiveness in the transmission of shear forces.

The invention will now be particularly described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view from above of an exemplary embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 2 is a view from underneath of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is an elevation of the far end of the embodiment as shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 and 5 are plan views of alternative embodiments; and

FIG. 6 shows an assembly of blocks all constructed in accordance with the invention.

Referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 there is shown a generally rectangular precast concrete unit whose top face I is defined by a latticework of interconnected slightly tapered ribs which serve to retain soil on the finished revetment. The exact formation of the ribs is not a critical feature and possible alternative designs are shown in FIGS. 4 and 5.

Cavities 2 are provided between the ribs with further spaces 3 on the longer edges and corners of the unit. These spaces 2 and 3 all extend through the entire thickness of the unit.

Lateral projections 4 and depressions 5, all have a similar V shape are spaced around the unit as shown and it is notable that the basic outline is symmetrical about the longitudinal axis X X (see FIG. 2). In particular the longitudinal edges of the unit are reflections one of the other about the X X axis. This symmetry enables identical units to be assembled in staggered relationship and also reduces tendency for the unit to turn when subjected to stresses in the finished structure.

Each of the two longer sides can be divided into two sections of length plus a joint thickness j between the two sections as shown on FIG. 2 and this dimension k) is equal to the length of each of the shorter sides. The advantage of this will be apparent from FIG. 6 which shows how one of the units can be fitted at right angles to the others. It should be noted that FIG. 6 is intended only to show the laying pattern of the blocks and does not show the internal cavities.

It is not essential for the spaces or cavities between the ribs to penetrate completely through the units and in one possible construction the spaces extend only through one quarter of the thickness of the unit.

As will be seen from FIGS. 1 and 2, each laterally projecting and laterally recessed portion 4 and 5 is provided with a socket in the form of a small tapered hole. To give improved stability in the finished structure small dowels (not shown) of nylon or other similar synthetic material are inserted into these sockets during assembly. The dowels are tapered to co-act with the taper of the sockets and may be constructed so as to separate each block slightly from the next to give added flexibility.

What we claim is:

l. A revetment or earth facing structure laid directly on the earth comprising a plurality of interfitting units to form a flexible mattress and including means defining cavities therethrough which are filled with said earth to stabilize and retain said revetment on said earth, said units being similar to one another, said units interlocking after assembly to substantially minimize rotative shifting of units adjacent any units subjected to a rotative, shifting force caused by earth movement, each of said units being of generally rectangular configuration and being formed by a series of interconnected ribs which taper towards the upper face of said unit,

a point of the recess nearest the axis, the projections and recesses interfitting with recesses and prpjections respectively of identical units to form said revetment, the projections and recesses on one said edge being reflections in the axis of the projections and recesses respectively of the other edge, the projections and recesses of said each of said units being provided with sockets receiving linking members for transmitting forces between adjacent units in a direction perpendicular to the plane of said revetment, whereby any heaving or shifting in the earth with resultant movement of units adjacent any one unit will cause substantially only nonrotative shifting of such one unit thereby substantially negating breaking up of the interfitting structure of the identical units forming said revetment.

2. A Revetment Structure according to claim 1 in which the projections and recesses are V shaped.

3. A Revetment Structure according to claim 1 in which the projections and recesses are U shaped.

Claims (3)

1. A revetment or earth facing structure laid directly on the earth comprising a plurality of interfitting units to form a flexible mattress and including means defining cavities therethrough which are filled with said earth to stabilize and retain said revetment on said earth, said units being similar to one another, said units interlocking after assembly to substantially minimize rotative shifting of units adjacent any units subjected to a rotative, shifting force caused by earth movement, each of said units being of generally rectangular configuration and being formed by a series of interconnected ribs which taper towards the upper face of said unit, said unit having two parallel longitudinal edges and a central longitudinal axis, each of said edges having a projection centrally located on one half thereof, a recess, similarly dimensioned, centrally located on the other half thereof and a space provided between each projection and recess to form cavities between said units assembled into a revetment said unit having a total length of twice its breadth plus a relatively small allowance for joint thickness, each projection having sides which slope to a point of the projection farthest from the axis, each recess having sides which slope to a point of the recess nearest the axis, the projections and recesses interfitting with recesses and prpjections respectively of identical units to form said revetment, the projections and recesses on one said edge being reflections in the axis of the projections and recesses respectively of the other edge, the projections and recesses of said each of said units being provided with sockets receiving linking members for transmitting forces between adjacent units in a direction perpendicular to the plane of said revetment, whereby any heaving or shifting in the earth with resultant movement of units adjacent any one unit will cause substantially only nonrotative shifting of such one unit thereby substantially negating breaking up of the interfitting structure of the identical units forming said revetment.
2. A Revetment Structure according to claim 1 in which the projections and recesses are ''V'' shaped.
3. A Revetment Structure according to claim 1 in which the projections and recesses are ''U'' shaped.
US3903702A 1972-05-09 1973-05-08 Revetment structure Expired - Lifetime US3903702A (en)

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GB2160072A GB1385207A (en) 1972-05-09 1972-05-09 Masonry block

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DE (1) DE2323162A1 (en)
ES (1) ES218724Y (en)
FR (1) FR2184323A5 (en)
GB (1) GB1385207A (en)

Cited By (38)

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US4067196A (en) * 1974-11-18 1978-01-10 Paul Schraudenbach Decorative stone
US4067197A (en) * 1975-11-26 1978-01-10 Paul Ritter Means for stabilizing soil
US4227829A (en) * 1978-11-29 1980-10-14 Landry Jr Kossuth J Soil erosion prevention blocks
WO1981003514A1 (en) * 1980-05-27 1981-12-10 K Landry Soil erosion prevention blocks
WO1981003512A1 (en) * 1980-06-02 1981-12-10 P Knudsen A revetment for protecting the inclined surfaces of beaches,shores,rivers or channels,and of structures such as moles,dikes or channel walls,located in these places,against erosion by waves and flowing water
FR2488634A1 (en) * 1980-08-12 1982-02-19 Kossuth Jean Soil erosion prevention system - uses cellular concrete blocks joined by cables into matrix and having passages for foliage growth
US4326817A (en) * 1980-02-22 1982-04-27 Boiardi Mario J Paving stone and walkway formed therewith
US4370075A (en) * 1980-10-28 1983-01-25 Nicolon Corporation Revetment grids and mats
US4875803A (en) * 1988-07-18 1989-10-24 Scales Michael J Block-formed revetment system for controlling soil erosion
US4896996A (en) * 1989-01-23 1990-01-30 Mouton William J Wave actuated coastal erosion reversal system for shorelines
US4998844A (en) * 1989-01-23 1991-03-12 Charles C. Garvey, Jr. Wave actuated coastal erosion reversal system for shorelines
US5102048A (en) * 1990-08-31 1992-04-07 Bohnhoff William W Irrigation head support
US5108219A (en) * 1990-12-14 1992-04-28 Hair Roberta A Interlocking paving stone
US5123778A (en) * 1990-09-26 1992-06-23 Bohnhoff William W Method of paving
US5201843A (en) * 1992-02-11 1993-04-13 Hair Roberta A Interlocking paving stone for open drainage ground cover pattern
US5250340A (en) * 1990-08-31 1993-10-05 Bohnhoff William W Mat for stabilizing particulate materials
US5429451A (en) * 1993-04-30 1995-07-04 Pettee, Jr.; Gary K. Grid matrix system including interconnected revetment blocks
US5645369A (en) * 1993-12-08 1997-07-08 Geiger; Peter Plate-shaped paving stone, in particular made of concrete
US5988942A (en) * 1996-11-12 1999-11-23 Stewart Trustees Limited Erosion control system
US6508607B1 (en) 2000-12-21 2003-01-21 Lee A. Smith Erosion control block adapted for use with cellular concrete mattresses
US6558074B2 (en) 2001-07-19 2003-05-06 Jan Erik Jansson Assembly of revetments with crush-absorbing ribs
US20030121229A1 (en) * 2000-06-07 2003-07-03 Michael Schmitz Cast stone for fixing exterior traffic surfaces
US6592292B1 (en) 2002-11-14 2003-07-15 Jan Erik Jansson Flexible bolt and assembly of concrete revetments employing same
US20040045248A1 (en) * 2000-09-27 2004-03-11 Andreas Drost Floor covering element consisting of artificial stone material and set of floor convering elements
US6739797B1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2004-05-25 Thomas W. Schneider Interlocking erosion control block with integral mold
US6863472B2 (en) 2002-06-11 2005-03-08 Jan Erik Jansson Revetment useful to line stream bed and assembly of said revetments
US6866446B2 (en) 2002-02-05 2005-03-15 Lee Masonry Products, Llc Revetment block and mat
US6942420B1 (en) * 2001-02-05 2005-09-13 F. Von Langsdorff Licensing Limited Ground covering elements of artificial stone material
US20050214077A1 (en) * 2004-03-25 2005-09-29 Dearmond Thomas H Jr Structure and method for supporting headstones and other stonelike objects
US20060263146A1 (en) * 2005-05-20 2006-11-23 National Diversified Sales, Inc. Rollable load bearing mat for turf areas
US20110180452A1 (en) * 2010-01-25 2011-07-28 Mattel, Inc. Display Assembly
US8609215B2 (en) 2003-03-24 2013-12-17 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems Llc Irregular tessellated building units
US8726595B2 (en) * 2010-10-20 2014-05-20 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems Llc Irregular building units having mating sides
US8747019B2 (en) 2004-10-25 2014-06-10 Oldcastle Building Products Canada, Inc. Artificial flagstone for providing a surface with a natural random look
US8979420B2 (en) 2012-04-27 2015-03-17 National Diversified Sales, Inc. Marker for permeable paver
US9057197B2 (en) 2008-05-21 2015-06-16 Oldcastle Building Products Canada, Inc. Artificial stone
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Cited By (57)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4067196A (en) * 1974-11-18 1978-01-10 Paul Schraudenbach Decorative stone
US4067197A (en) * 1975-11-26 1978-01-10 Paul Ritter Means for stabilizing soil
US4227829A (en) * 1978-11-29 1980-10-14 Landry Jr Kossuth J Soil erosion prevention blocks
US4326817A (en) * 1980-02-22 1982-04-27 Boiardi Mario J Paving stone and walkway formed therewith
WO1981003514A1 (en) * 1980-05-27 1981-12-10 K Landry Soil erosion prevention blocks
WO1981003512A1 (en) * 1980-06-02 1981-12-10 P Knudsen A revetment for protecting the inclined surfaces of beaches,shores,rivers or channels,and of structures such as moles,dikes or channel walls,located in these places,against erosion by waves and flowing water
FR2488634A1 (en) * 1980-08-12 1982-02-19 Kossuth Jean Soil erosion prevention system - uses cellular concrete blocks joined by cables into matrix and having passages for foliage growth
US4370075A (en) * 1980-10-28 1983-01-25 Nicolon Corporation Revetment grids and mats
US4875803A (en) * 1988-07-18 1989-10-24 Scales Michael J Block-formed revetment system for controlling soil erosion
WO1990001088A1 (en) * 1988-07-18 1990-02-08 Scales Michael J Block-formed revetment system for controlling soil erosion
US4896996A (en) * 1989-01-23 1990-01-30 Mouton William J Wave actuated coastal erosion reversal system for shorelines
US4998844A (en) * 1989-01-23 1991-03-12 Charles C. Garvey, Jr. Wave actuated coastal erosion reversal system for shorelines
US5102048A (en) * 1990-08-31 1992-04-07 Bohnhoff William W Irrigation head support
US5250340A (en) * 1990-08-31 1993-10-05 Bohnhoff William W Mat for stabilizing particulate materials
US5123778A (en) * 1990-09-26 1992-06-23 Bohnhoff William W Method of paving
US5108219A (en) * 1990-12-14 1992-04-28 Hair Roberta A Interlocking paving stone
US5244303A (en) * 1990-12-14 1993-09-14 Hair Roberta A Interlocking paving stone
US5201843A (en) * 1992-02-11 1993-04-13 Hair Roberta A Interlocking paving stone for open drainage ground cover pattern
US5429451A (en) * 1993-04-30 1995-07-04 Pettee, Jr.; Gary K. Grid matrix system including interconnected revetment blocks
US5645369A (en) * 1993-12-08 1997-07-08 Geiger; Peter Plate-shaped paving stone, in particular made of concrete
US5988942A (en) * 1996-11-12 1999-11-23 Stewart Trustees Limited Erosion control system
US6739797B1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2004-05-25 Thomas W. Schneider Interlocking erosion control block with integral mold
US20030121229A1 (en) * 2000-06-07 2003-07-03 Michael Schmitz Cast stone for fixing exterior traffic surfaces
US6857244B2 (en) 2000-06-07 2005-02-22 F. Von Langsdorff Licensing Limited Cast stone for fixing exterior traffic surfaces
US6898906B2 (en) * 2000-09-27 2005-05-31 Andreas Drost Floor covering element consisting of artificial stone material and set of floor covering elements
US20040045248A1 (en) * 2000-09-27 2004-03-11 Andreas Drost Floor covering element consisting of artificial stone material and set of floor convering elements
US6508607B1 (en) 2000-12-21 2003-01-21 Lee A. Smith Erosion control block adapted for use with cellular concrete mattresses
US20050254894A1 (en) * 2001-02-05 2005-11-17 F. Von Langsdorff Licensing Limited Ground covering elements of artificial stone material
US7220078B2 (en) 2001-02-05 2007-05-22 F.Von Langsdorff Licensing Limited Ground covering elements of artificial stone material
US6942420B1 (en) * 2001-02-05 2005-09-13 F. Von Langsdorff Licensing Limited Ground covering elements of artificial stone material
US6558074B2 (en) 2001-07-19 2003-05-06 Jan Erik Jansson Assembly of revetments with crush-absorbing ribs
US6866446B2 (en) 2002-02-05 2005-03-15 Lee Masonry Products, Llc Revetment block and mat
US6863472B2 (en) 2002-06-11 2005-03-08 Jan Erik Jansson Revetment useful to line stream bed and assembly of said revetments
US6592292B1 (en) 2002-11-14 2003-07-15 Jan Erik Jansson Flexible bolt and assembly of concrete revetments employing same
US8609215B2 (en) 2003-03-24 2013-12-17 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems Llc Irregular tessellated building units
US9745742B2 (en) 2003-03-24 2017-08-29 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems Llc Irregular tessellated building units
US9428906B2 (en) 2003-03-24 2016-08-30 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems Llc Irregular tessellated building units
US8888401B2 (en) 2003-03-24 2014-11-18 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems Llc Irregular tessellated building units
US7144201B2 (en) 2004-03-25 2006-12-05 Dearmond Jr Thomas H Structure and method for supporting headstones and other stonelike objects
US20050214077A1 (en) * 2004-03-25 2005-09-29 Dearmond Thomas H Jr Structure and method for supporting headstones and other stonelike objects
US9193215B2 (en) 2004-10-25 2015-11-24 Oldcastle Building Products Canada, Inc. Artificial flagstone for providing a surface with a natural random look
US8747019B2 (en) 2004-10-25 2014-06-10 Oldcastle Building Products Canada, Inc. Artificial flagstone for providing a surface with a natural random look
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US9677228B2 (en) 2004-10-25 2017-06-13 Oldcastle Building Products Canada Inc. Artificial flagstone for providing a surface with a natural random look
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
BE799240A (en) 1973-08-31 grant
GB1385207A (en) 1975-02-26 application
DE2323162A1 (en) 1973-11-29 application
ES218724Y (en) 1977-03-01 grant
ES218724U (en) 1976-10-16 application
FR2184323A5 (en) 1973-12-21 application
BE799240A1 (en) grant

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