US3848600A - Indifferent electrode in electrosurgical procedures and method of use - Google Patents

Indifferent electrode in electrosurgical procedures and method of use Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3848600A
US3848600A US32812073A US3848600A US 3848600 A US3848600 A US 3848600A US 32812073 A US32812073 A US 32812073A US 3848600 A US3848600 A US 3848600A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
indifferent electrode
electrode
electrolyte
conductive
sheet
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
C Patrick
C Milligan
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
AMERICAN HOSPITAL SUPPLY Corp EVANSTON ILLINOIS A CORP OF ILLINOIS
NDM Acquisition Corp
Original Assignee
Ndm Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US22310772A priority Critical
Application filed by Ndm Corp filed Critical Ndm Corp
Priority to US32812073 priority patent/US3848600B1/en
Publication of US3848600A publication Critical patent/US3848600A/en
Assigned to AMERICAN HOSPITAL SUPPLY CORPORATION, EVANSTON, ILLINOIS, A CORP. OF ILLINOIS reassignment AMERICAN HOSPITAL SUPPLY CORPORATION, EVANSTON, ILLINOIS, A CORP. OF ILLINOIS ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: NDM CORPORATION, A CORP. OF OHIO
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3848600B1 publication Critical patent/US3848600B1/en
Assigned to NDM ACQUISITION CORP. reassignment NDM ACQUISITION CORP. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: BAXTER HEALTHCARE CORPORATION OF PUERTO RICO, BAXTER INTERNATIONAL INC.
Assigned to NEW DIMENSIONS IN MEDICINE, INC. reassignment NEW DIMENSIONS IN MEDICINE, INC. RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BANK ONE, DAYTON, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/12Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
    • A61B18/14Probes or electrodes therefor
    • A61B18/16Indifferent or passive electrodes for grounding
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2562/00Details of sensors; Constructional details of sensor housings or probes; Accessories for sensors
    • A61B2562/12Manufacturing methods specially adapted for producing sensors for in-vivo measurements
    • A61B2562/125Manufacturing methods specially adapted for producing sensors for in-vivo measurements characterised by the manufacture of electrodes

Abstract

A disposable indifferent electrode easily contoured to body surfaces including an electrode electrolyte assembly in which the electrode is relatively small in size yet provides very effective electrical contact between it and the body surface by virtue of an interposed electrolyte composition of predetermined characteristics; and, in surgical diathermy, a method of conducting high frequency radio waves to ground.

Claims (36)

1. An indifferent electrode for use in electrosurgical procedures and easily contoured to body surfaces which comprises an electrode-electrolyte assembly including an electrode and an electrolyte composition in which the electrode is an electrically conductive means having at least 0.038 square inch surface thereof in essentially complete contact with said electrolyte composition having at least 2.0 square inches of its conductive surface adaptable to be applied in essentially complete conductive contact with the skin of a patient and having a thickness of at least 10 mils to thus space any part of said conductive means from the skin, said thickness being at least about 165 mils when the conductive element surface area is between about 0.038 and 0.10 square inch, said electrically conductive means, in turn, having a means for electrically connecting said electrode.
2. The indifferent electrode of claim 1 wherein the electrically conductive means is a disc.
3. The indifferent electrode of claim 1 wherein the electrically conductive means is a wire.
4. The indifferent electrode of claim 1 wherein the electrically conductive means is a flexible sheet of stainless steel and the electrolyte is an alkali metal sulfate.
5. The indifferent electrode of claim 4 wherein the electrolyte is an aqueous composition containing, by weight, from about 0.5 percent to about an aqueous saturated solution of alkali metal sulfate.
6. The indifferent electrode of claim 5 wherein the electrolyte is an aqueous composition containing, by weight, from about 5 percent to about 20% alkali metal sulfate.
7. The indifferent electrode of claim 6 wherein the alkali metal sulfate is sodium sulfate.
8. The indifferent electrode of claim 4 having means defining a low profile cup shaped non-conductive cavity which opens to the body surface and having said flexible sheet of conductive metal electrode at the base of the cavity and coplanar to said base, said electrolyte composition being contained in said cavity and completely overlying and in contact with the surface of the electrode away from said base.
9. The indifferent electrode of claim 8 wherein the electrolyte comprising an alkali metal sulfate and a sponge-like cellular matrix is an aqueous highly viscous semisolid composition comprising, by weight, from abouT 3 percent to about an aqueous saturated solution of alkali metal sulfate, and a small but effective amount of a water-soluble, water-swellable mucilage, said sponge-like cellular matrix containing said sulfate-mucilage blend uniformly distributed throughout its interstices.
10. The indifferent electrode of claim 9 wherein the mucilage is a neutralized, water-soluble water-swellable carboxypolymethylene present in the concentration of about 0.2 percent to about 5.0 percent, based upon the total weight of the electrolyte composition.
11. The indifferent electrode of claim 8 wherein the electrode is a flexible sheet of stainless steel which is in electrical contact with a conductive means passing through the base of the cup-shaped member and to a ground external to the cup.
12. The indifferent electrode of claim 11, wherein the aqueous highly viscous semisolid electrolyte composition substantially fills the interior of said cup member and has a thickness at least as great as the depth of said cup member.
13. The indifferent electrode of claim 12 wherein the thickness of said aqueous highly viscous semisolid electrolyte composition exceeds the depth of said cup member.
14. The indifferent electrode of claim 13 wherein a removable protective covering overlies the open end of the cup member, said covering being a sheet material having a raised portion overlying the semisolid electrolyte protruding from the cup member.
15. The indifferent electrode of claim 14 having an apertured flexible and resilient sheet carrying said cup member, the surface of said flexible and resilient sheet in coplanar relationship to the outer surface of the base of the cup member being substantially greater than that of the outer surface of the base member and having a pressure sensitive adhesive coating thereon for adhering to a body surface.
16. The indifferent electrode of claim 15 having conductive securing means projecting through the aperture in said flexible and resilient sheet, through the base of said cup member, and securely attached to the flexible sheet of conductive metal.
17. The indifferent electrode of claim 16 wherein the conductive securing means is securely attached to the flexible sheet of conductive metal by projecting through said thin flexible sheet, and the said securing means is a conductive metal snap fastener.
18. The indifferrent electrode of claim 17 wherein the stud portion of said snap fastener passes sequentially through the flexible sheet of conductive metal, the cup member and the flexible, resilient adhesive-bearing sheet and terminates in locking engagement with the mating socket of said snap fastener.
19. The indifferent electrode of claim 18 wherein the aqueous highly viscous semisolid composition has an aperture therein through which a non-conductive rivet passes and terminates in locking engagement in the hollow neck portion of said stud of said snap fastener, thus mounting the semi-solid composition on the flexible sheet of conductive metal and in immediate contact therewith.
20. The indifferent electrode of claim 15 further including a cover sheet releasably secured to said adhesive coating and means securing said protective covering to said cover sheet.
21. The indifferent electrode of claim 1, wherein the electrolyte composition has on its skin an electrical capacitor insulator capable of capacitively coupling under electrosurgical conditions.
22. The indifferent electrode of claim 21, wherein said insulator is at the interface of the electrically conductive means and the electrolyte composition.
23. The indifferent electrode of claim 21, wherein, in addition, a similar insulator is at the interface of the electrolyte composition and the electrically conductive means.
24. The indifferent electrode of claim 23, wherein the insulator is a thin polymer film.
25. The indifferent electrode of claim 24, wherein the insulator is a saran film.
26. The indifferent electrode of claIm 1, wherein the electrolyte composition is an electrolyte-containing fabric.
27. The indifferent electrode of claim 26, wherein the fabric is unwoven cotton fabric.
28. The indifferent electrode of claim 1, wherein the electrolyte composition contains an inert filler.
29. The indifferent electrode of claim 28, wherein the inert filler is powdered talc.
30. In surgical diathermy, a method of conducting high frequency radio waves to ground which comprises placing against and coplanar to the body surface a flexible sheet of conductive metal electrode, said sheet surface opposite and nearer said body surface having an area in the range of about 0.5 square inch to about 10 square inches, and interposing in direct and essentially complete contact with said opposed surfaces of electrode and body an electrolyte composition of substantially uniform thickness, said thickness being in the range of about 62 mils to about 500 mils.
31. The method of claim 30 wherein the said sheet surface opposite and nearer said body surface has an area in the range of about 2 square inches to about 5 square inches.
32. The method of claim 30 wherein the flexible sheet of conductive metal is stainless steel and the electrolyte is an alkali metal sulfate.
33. The method of claim 32 wherein the alkali metal sulfate is sodium sulfate.
34. The method of claim 33 wherein the electrolyte is an aqueous composition containing, by weight, from about 0.5 percent to about an aqueous saturated solution of alkali metal sulfate.
35. The method of claim 34 wherein the electrolyte is an aqueous composition containing, by weight, from about 5 percent to about 20 percent alkali metal sulfate.
36. The method of claim 26 wherein the alkali metal sulfate is sodium sulfate.
US32812073 1972-02-03 1973-01-30 Expired - Lifetime US3848600B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US22310772A true 1972-02-03 1972-02-03
US32812073 US3848600B1 (en) 1972-02-03 1973-01-30

Applications Claiming Priority (8)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US32812073 US3848600B1 (en) 1972-02-03 1973-01-30
DE19732305220 DE2305220A1 (en) 1972-02-03 1973-02-02 Inactive electrode for electrosurgical interventions
FR7303787A FR2170227B1 (en) 1972-02-03 1973-02-02
CA162,762A CA993958A (en) 1972-02-03 1973-02-02 Indifferent electrode in electrosurgical procedures
JP48014208A JPS6158177B2 (en) 1972-02-03 1973-02-03
AR24642273A AR197113A1 (en) 1972-02-03 1973-02-05 Neutral electrode for use in electrosurgical procedures
IT2001973A IT983855B (en) 1972-02-03 1973-02-05 Indifferent electrode in electro minds we proceed
GB555973A GB1425851A (en) 1972-02-03 1973-02-05 Indifferent elec-rode-e'ectrolyte assembly in electrosurgical procedures

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3848600A true US3848600A (en) 1974-11-19
US3848600B1 US3848600B1 (en) 1988-06-21

Family

ID=26917452

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US32812073 Expired - Lifetime US3848600B1 (en) 1972-02-03 1973-01-30

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (1) US3848600B1 (en)
JP (1) JPS6158177B2 (en)
AR (1) AR197113A1 (en)
CA (1) CA993958A (en)
DE (1) DE2305220A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2170227B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1425851A (en)
IT (1) IT983855B (en)

Cited By (104)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3989036A (en) * 1975-04-02 1976-11-02 Dia Medical System Co., Ltd. Biophysical electrode
US4067322A (en) * 1974-07-19 1978-01-10 Johnson Joseph H Disposable, pre-gel body electrodes
US4088133A (en) * 1976-09-13 1978-05-09 Products International Company Electrode for electrosurgical procedure
US4092985A (en) * 1974-11-25 1978-06-06 John George Kaufman Body electrode for electro-medical use
US4126126A (en) * 1976-07-27 1978-11-21 C. R. Bard, Inc. Non-metallic pregelled electrode
WO1979000042A1 (en) * 1977-07-13 1979-02-08 A Mercuri Biomedical electrode assembly
US4164226A (en) * 1976-08-25 1979-08-14 Robert Tapper Iontophoretic burn-protection electrode structure
US4166465A (en) * 1977-10-17 1979-09-04 Neomed Incorporated Electrosurgical dispersive electrode
US4188927A (en) * 1978-01-12 1980-02-19 Valleylab, Inc. Multiple source electrosurgical generator
US4196737A (en) * 1978-04-21 1980-04-08 C. R. Bard, Inc. Transcutaneous electrode construction
US4200104A (en) * 1977-11-17 1980-04-29 Valleylab, Inc. Contact area measurement apparatus for use in electrosurgery
US4211222A (en) * 1976-08-25 1980-07-08 Robert Tapper Iontophoretic burn-protection method
EP0013613A1 (en) * 1979-01-08 1980-07-23 Johnson & Johnson Products Inc. Electrosurgical grounding pad
US4303073A (en) * 1980-01-17 1981-12-01 Medical Plastics, Inc. Electrosurgery safety monitor
US4304235A (en) * 1978-09-12 1981-12-08 Kaufman John George Electrosurgical electrode
US4343308A (en) * 1980-06-09 1982-08-10 Gross Robert D Surgical ground detector
US4387714A (en) * 1981-05-13 1983-06-14 Purdue Research Foundation Electrosurgical dispersive electrode
US4416274A (en) * 1981-02-23 1983-11-22 Motion Control, Inc. Ion mobility limiting iontophoretic bioelectrode
US4419998A (en) * 1980-08-08 1983-12-13 R2 Corporation Physiological electrode systems
US4441501A (en) * 1982-03-08 1984-04-10 Ndm Corporation Medical electrode
US4441500A (en) * 1980-04-17 1984-04-10 Ferris Manufacturing Corp. EKG Electrode
US4494541A (en) * 1980-01-17 1985-01-22 Medical Plastics, Inc. Electrosurgery safety monitor
US4635641A (en) * 1985-10-16 1987-01-13 Murray Electronics Associates Limited Multi-element electrode
US4669468A (en) * 1979-06-15 1987-06-02 American Hospital Supply Corporation Capacitively coupled indifferent electrode
US4700710A (en) * 1985-03-12 1987-10-20 Murray Electronics Associates Limited Partnership Apertured adhesively applied body electrode apparatus and method
US4722761A (en) * 1986-03-28 1988-02-02 Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc. Method of making a medical electrode
US4722726A (en) * 1986-02-12 1988-02-02 Key Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Method and apparatus for iontophoretic drug delivery
US4799480A (en) * 1987-08-04 1989-01-24 Conmed Electrode for electrosurgical apparatus
US4955381A (en) * 1988-08-26 1990-09-11 Cardiotronics, Inc. Multi-pad, multi-function electrode
US5080099A (en) * 1988-08-26 1992-01-14 Cardiotronics, Inc. Multi-pad, multi-function electrode
US5087241A (en) * 1990-07-24 1992-02-11 Empi, Inc. Iontophoresis electrode with reservoir and injection site
WO1992004937A1 (en) * 1990-09-10 1992-04-02 Henley Julian L Iontophoretic drug delivery apparatus
US5566672A (en) * 1994-01-03 1996-10-22 Labeltape Meditect, Inc. Biomedical electrode
EP0836864A3 (en) * 1996-10-18 2000-03-08 Graphic Controls Corporation Defibrillator electrode
US6053910A (en) * 1996-10-30 2000-04-25 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Capacitive reusable electrosurgical return electrode
US6083221A (en) * 1996-10-30 2000-07-04 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Resistive reusable electrosurgical return electrode
US6454764B1 (en) 1996-10-30 2002-09-24 Richard P. Fleenor Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode
US6544258B2 (en) 1996-10-30 2003-04-08 Mega-Dyne Medical Products, Inc. Pressure sore pad having self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode properties and optional heating/cooling capabilities
US6582424B2 (en) 1996-10-30 2003-06-24 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Capacitive reusable electrosurgical return electrode
US20030176908A1 (en) * 2002-03-18 2003-09-18 Hsin-Yi Lin Water-impregnable electrode for electrical stimulation device
WO2003094766A2 (en) * 2002-05-09 2003-11-20 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode
US6735470B2 (en) 2000-05-31 2004-05-11 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
US6792306B2 (en) 2000-03-10 2004-09-14 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Finger-mounted electrokinetic delivery system for self-administration of medicaments and methods therefor
US6895271B2 (en) 1998-09-15 2005-05-17 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Iontophoretic drug delivery electrodes and method
US20050113817A1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2005-05-26 Isaacson James D. Tuned return electrode with matching inductor
US6989275B2 (en) 1986-04-18 2006-01-24 Carnegie Mellon University Cyanine dyes as labeling reagents for detection of biological and other materials by luminescence methods
US20060025837A1 (en) * 1996-01-05 2006-02-02 Stern Roger A Handpiece with RF electrode and non-volatile memory
US7044948B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2006-05-16 Sherwood Services Ag Circuit for controlling arc energy from an electrosurgical generator
US20060206110A1 (en) * 1996-01-05 2006-09-14 Thermage, Inc. Handpiece with RF electrode and non-volative memory
US7127285B2 (en) 1999-03-12 2006-10-24 Transport Pharmaceuticals Inc. Systems and methods for electrokinetic delivery of a substance
US7131860B2 (en) 2003-11-20 2006-11-07 Sherwood Services Ag Connector systems for electrosurgical generator
US7137980B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2006-11-21 Sherwood Services Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US20070167695A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2007-07-19 Erbe Elektromedizin Gmbh Neutral electrode for hf surgery
US7255694B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2007-08-14 Sherwood Services Ag Variable output crest factor electrosurgical generator
US20070265614A1 (en) * 1996-01-05 2007-11-15 Thermage, Inc. Rf device with thermo-electric cooler
US7300435B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2007-11-27 Sherwood Services Ag Automatic control system for an electrosurgical generator
US7303557B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2007-12-04 Sherwood Services Ag Vessel sealing system
US7364577B2 (en) 2002-02-11 2008-04-29 Sherwood Services Ag Vessel sealing system
USRE40388E1 (en) 1997-04-09 2008-06-17 Covidien Ag Electrosurgical generator with adaptive power control
US7396336B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2008-07-08 Sherwood Services Ag Switched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US20080192404A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2008-08-14 Fujitsu Limited Anti-static wrist band and anti-static wrist band set
WO2008132164A1 (en) * 2007-04-26 2008-11-06 Energy-Lab Technologies Gmbh Electrode and pin-and-socket connector for electrode
US20090082764A1 (en) * 1996-01-05 2009-03-26 Thermage, Inc. Methods for creating tissue effect utilizing electromagnetic energy and a reverse thermal gradient
US7513896B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2009-04-07 Covidien Ag Dual synchro-resonant electrosurgical apparatus with bi-directional magnetic coupling
US20090228000A1 (en) * 2008-03-05 2009-09-10 Michael Cao Disposable Apparatus for Patient Grounding
US7628786B2 (en) 2004-10-13 2009-12-08 Covidien Ag Universal foot switch contact port
US7637907B2 (en) 2006-09-19 2009-12-29 Covidien Ag System and method for return electrode monitoring
US7648499B2 (en) 2006-03-21 2010-01-19 Covidien Ag System and method for generating radio frequency energy
US7651493B2 (en) 2006-03-03 2010-01-26 Covidien Ag System and method for controlling electrosurgical snares
US7651492B2 (en) 2006-04-24 2010-01-26 Covidien Ag Arc based adaptive control system for an electrosurgical unit
US7722601B2 (en) 2003-05-01 2010-05-25 Covidien Ag Method and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US7731717B2 (en) 2006-08-08 2010-06-08 Covidien Ag System and method for controlling RF output during tissue sealing
US7749217B2 (en) 2002-05-06 2010-07-06 Covidien Ag Method and system for optically detecting blood and controlling a generator during electrosurgery
US7766905B2 (en) 2004-02-12 2010-08-03 Covidien Ag Method and system for continuity testing of medical electrodes
US7780662B2 (en) 2004-03-02 2010-08-24 Covidien Ag Vessel sealing system using capacitive RF dielectric heating
US20100217260A1 (en) * 2009-02-26 2010-08-26 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode with pressure sore reduction and heating capabilities
US7794457B2 (en) 2006-09-28 2010-09-14 Covidien Ag Transformer for RF voltage sensing
US7834484B2 (en) 2007-07-16 2010-11-16 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Connection cable and method for activating a voltage-controlled generator
US7901400B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2011-03-08 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US7927328B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2011-04-19 Covidien Ag System and method for closed loop monitoring of monopolar electrosurgical apparatus
US7947039B2 (en) 2005-12-12 2011-05-24 Covidien Ag Laparoscopic apparatus for performing electrosurgical procedures
US7972328B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2011-07-05 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US8034049B2 (en) 2006-08-08 2011-10-11 Covidien Ag System and method for measuring initial tissue impedance
US8104956B2 (en) 2003-10-23 2012-01-31 Covidien Ag Thermocouple measurement circuit
US8147485B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2012-04-03 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US8216220B2 (en) 2007-09-07 2012-07-10 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for transmission of combined data stream
US8216223B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2012-07-10 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US8226639B2 (en) 2008-06-10 2012-07-24 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for output control of electrosurgical generator
US8486061B2 (en) 2009-01-12 2013-07-16 Covidien Lp Imaginary impedance process monitoring and intelligent shut-off
US8512332B2 (en) 2007-09-21 2013-08-20 Covidien Lp Real-time arc control in electrosurgical generators
US8663214B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2014-03-04 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling an output of a radio-frequency medical generator having an impedance based control algorithm
US8685017B2 (en) 1996-01-05 2014-04-01 Thermage, Inc. Method and kit for treatment of tissue
US8685016B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2014-04-01 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US8734438B2 (en) 2005-10-21 2014-05-27 Covidien Ag Circuit and method for reducing stored energy in an electrosurgical generator
US8753334B2 (en) 2006-05-10 2014-06-17 Covidien Ag System and method for reducing leakage current in an electrosurgical generator
US8777941B2 (en) 2007-05-10 2014-07-15 Covidien Lp Adjustable impedance electrosurgical electrodes
US8808161B2 (en) 2003-10-23 2014-08-19 Covidien Ag Redundant temperature monitoring in electrosurgical systems for safety mitigation
US20140336644A1 (en) * 2003-10-30 2014-11-13 Erbe Elektromedizin Gmbh Neutral electrode device, electrosurgical instrument comprising a corresponding neutral electrode device
US9186200B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2015-11-17 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US9474564B2 (en) 2005-03-31 2016-10-25 Covidien Ag Method and system for compensating for external impedance of an energy carrying component when controlling an electrosurgical generator
US9636165B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2017-05-02 Covidien Lp Systems and methods for measuring tissue impedance through an electrosurgical cable
US9867650B2 (en) 2013-12-26 2018-01-16 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Universal self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode
US9872719B2 (en) 2013-07-24 2018-01-23 Covidien Lp Systems and methods for generating electrosurgical energy using a multistage power converter
US10085791B2 (en) 2013-12-26 2018-10-02 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Universal self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode

Families Citing this family (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS51106381A (en) * 1975-03-17 1976-09-21 Sanritsu Medeikaru Kk
US4177817A (en) * 1978-02-01 1979-12-11 C. R. Bard, Inc. Dual terminal transcutaneous electrode
JPS5547828U (en) * 1978-09-22 1980-03-28
GB2030453B (en) * 1978-10-03 1983-05-05 Tapper R Applying unidirectional elecric current to the skin of a living body
JPH0235585B2 (en) * 1981-12-28 1990-08-10 Horuman Zoru Rosu
JPS6223464Y2 (en) * 1983-08-17 1987-06-15
EP0273167A1 (en) * 1986-11-26 1988-07-06 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Conductive intermediate layer for electrodes
JPH0345739Y2 (en) * 1986-12-31 1991-09-26
JPH04108559U (en) * 1991-02-28 1992-09-18
AT503420B1 (en) * 2006-05-16 2007-10-15 Univ Wien Med surface electrode
DE102016109568B4 (en) * 2016-05-24 2017-12-14 Wearable Life Science Gmbh Electrode for electrical muscle stimulation garment method for producing a garment, as well as use of an electrode

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US789161A (en) * 1903-09-30 1905-05-09 Samuel H Linn Dental electrode for medicamental diffusion.
GB190827796A (en) * 1908-12-21 1909-12-21 Wilhelm Rubiner Improvements in Electrodes particularly for use in the Therapeutic Application of Electricity under Water.
US1945867A (en) * 1932-04-27 1934-02-06 Technical Equipment Company High frequency oscillatory apparatus for electrotherapeutic and sterilization purposes
US2651304A (en) * 1950-10-19 1953-09-08 Relaxacizor Thermatone Inc Therapeutic electrode
US2887112A (en) * 1957-08-15 1959-05-19 Sanborn Company Pad for skin preparation for electrocardiography and the like
US3048549A (en) * 1957-05-27 1962-08-07 Carsbie C Adams Electrode jelly
US3265638A (en) * 1964-03-24 1966-08-09 Franklin Institute Electrolyte composition
US3568662A (en) * 1967-07-07 1971-03-09 Donald B Everett Method and apparatus for sensing bioelectric potentials
US3601126A (en) * 1969-01-08 1971-08-24 Electro Medical Systems Inc High frequency electrosurgical apparatus
US3701346A (en) * 1971-01-04 1972-10-31 Bionetics Inc Medical electrode

Family Cites Families (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA675494A (en) * 1963-12-03 Theratron Corporation Electrode for electronic therapeutic and diagnostic equipment
BE366145A (en) * 1929-06-19
US3027333A (en) * 1957-12-30 1962-03-27 Burton Parsons Chemicals Inc Electrically conductive emulsions
US3187745A (en) * 1961-08-01 1965-06-08 Melpar Inc Electrodes
DE1564103C3 (en) * 1966-12-31 1978-06-22 Hellige Gmbh, 7800 Freiburg
FR2026457A1 (en) * 1968-12-18 1970-09-18 Minnesota Mining & Mfg
AU1388870A (en) * 1969-05-02 1971-10-21 Sybron Corporation Inactive electrode
US3696807A (en) * 1970-02-13 1972-10-10 Mdm Corp Medical electrode with relatively rigid electrolyte cup

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US789161A (en) * 1903-09-30 1905-05-09 Samuel H Linn Dental electrode for medicamental diffusion.
GB190827796A (en) * 1908-12-21 1909-12-21 Wilhelm Rubiner Improvements in Electrodes particularly for use in the Therapeutic Application of Electricity under Water.
US1945867A (en) * 1932-04-27 1934-02-06 Technical Equipment Company High frequency oscillatory apparatus for electrotherapeutic and sterilization purposes
US2651304A (en) * 1950-10-19 1953-09-08 Relaxacizor Thermatone Inc Therapeutic electrode
US3048549A (en) * 1957-05-27 1962-08-07 Carsbie C Adams Electrode jelly
US2887112A (en) * 1957-08-15 1959-05-19 Sanborn Company Pad for skin preparation for electrocardiography and the like
US3265638A (en) * 1964-03-24 1966-08-09 Franklin Institute Electrolyte composition
US3568662A (en) * 1967-07-07 1971-03-09 Donald B Everett Method and apparatus for sensing bioelectric potentials
US3601126A (en) * 1969-01-08 1971-08-24 Electro Medical Systems Inc High frequency electrosurgical apparatus
US3701346A (en) * 1971-01-04 1972-10-31 Bionetics Inc Medical electrode

Cited By (160)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4067322A (en) * 1974-07-19 1978-01-10 Johnson Joseph H Disposable, pre-gel body electrodes
US4092985A (en) * 1974-11-25 1978-06-06 John George Kaufman Body electrode for electro-medical use
US3989036A (en) * 1975-04-02 1976-11-02 Dia Medical System Co., Ltd. Biophysical electrode
US4126126A (en) * 1976-07-27 1978-11-21 C. R. Bard, Inc. Non-metallic pregelled electrode
US4164226A (en) * 1976-08-25 1979-08-14 Robert Tapper Iontophoretic burn-protection electrode structure
US4211222A (en) * 1976-08-25 1980-07-08 Robert Tapper Iontophoretic burn-protection method
US4088133A (en) * 1976-09-13 1978-05-09 Products International Company Electrode for electrosurgical procedure
US4161174A (en) * 1977-07-13 1979-07-17 Mercuri Albert R Biomedical electrode assembly
WO1979000042A1 (en) * 1977-07-13 1979-02-08 A Mercuri Biomedical electrode assembly
US4166465A (en) * 1977-10-17 1979-09-04 Neomed Incorporated Electrosurgical dispersive electrode
US4200104A (en) * 1977-11-17 1980-04-29 Valleylab, Inc. Contact area measurement apparatus for use in electrosurgery
US4188927A (en) * 1978-01-12 1980-02-19 Valleylab, Inc. Multiple source electrosurgical generator
US4196737A (en) * 1978-04-21 1980-04-08 C. R. Bard, Inc. Transcutaneous electrode construction
US4304235A (en) * 1978-09-12 1981-12-08 Kaufman John George Electrosurgical electrode
EP0013613A1 (en) * 1979-01-08 1980-07-23 Johnson & Johnson Products Inc. Electrosurgical grounding pad
US4669468A (en) * 1979-06-15 1987-06-02 American Hospital Supply Corporation Capacitively coupled indifferent electrode
US4303073A (en) * 1980-01-17 1981-12-01 Medical Plastics, Inc. Electrosurgery safety monitor
US4494541A (en) * 1980-01-17 1985-01-22 Medical Plastics, Inc. Electrosurgery safety monitor
US4441500A (en) * 1980-04-17 1984-04-10 Ferris Manufacturing Corp. EKG Electrode
US4343308A (en) * 1980-06-09 1982-08-10 Gross Robert D Surgical ground detector
US4419998A (en) * 1980-08-08 1983-12-13 R2 Corporation Physiological electrode systems
US4416274A (en) * 1981-02-23 1983-11-22 Motion Control, Inc. Ion mobility limiting iontophoretic bioelectrode
US4387714A (en) * 1981-05-13 1983-06-14 Purdue Research Foundation Electrosurgical dispersive electrode
US4441501A (en) * 1982-03-08 1984-04-10 Ndm Corporation Medical electrode
US4700710A (en) * 1985-03-12 1987-10-20 Murray Electronics Associates Limited Partnership Apertured adhesively applied body electrode apparatus and method
US4635641A (en) * 1985-10-16 1987-01-13 Murray Electronics Associates Limited Multi-element electrode
US4722726A (en) * 1986-02-12 1988-02-02 Key Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Method and apparatus for iontophoretic drug delivery
US4722761A (en) * 1986-03-28 1988-02-02 Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc. Method of making a medical electrode
US7008798B2 (en) 1986-04-18 2006-03-07 Carnegie Mellon University Cyanine dyes as labeling reagents for detection of biological and other materials by luminescence methods
US6989275B2 (en) 1986-04-18 2006-01-24 Carnegie Mellon University Cyanine dyes as labeling reagents for detection of biological and other materials by luminescence methods
US4799480A (en) * 1987-08-04 1989-01-24 Conmed Electrode for electrosurgical apparatus
US4955381A (en) * 1988-08-26 1990-09-11 Cardiotronics, Inc. Multi-pad, multi-function electrode
US5080099A (en) * 1988-08-26 1992-01-14 Cardiotronics, Inc. Multi-pad, multi-function electrode
US5087241A (en) * 1990-07-24 1992-02-11 Empi, Inc. Iontophoresis electrode with reservoir and injection site
WO1992004937A1 (en) * 1990-09-10 1992-04-02 Henley Julian L Iontophoretic drug delivery apparatus
US5160316A (en) * 1990-09-10 1992-11-03 Henley Julian L Iontophoretic drug delivery apparatus
USRE36626E (en) * 1990-09-10 2000-03-28 The Aps Organization, Llp Iontophoretic drug delivery apparatus
US5566672A (en) * 1994-01-03 1996-10-22 Labeltape Meditect, Inc. Biomedical electrode
US8221410B2 (en) 1996-01-05 2012-07-17 Thermage, Inc. Methods for creating tissue effect utilizing electromagnetic energy and a reverse thermal gradient
US20060025837A1 (en) * 1996-01-05 2006-02-02 Stern Roger A Handpiece with RF electrode and non-volatile memory
US8685017B2 (en) 1996-01-05 2014-04-01 Thermage, Inc. Method and kit for treatment of tissue
US7481809B2 (en) * 1996-01-05 2009-01-27 Thermage, Inc. Handpiece with RF electrode and non-volatile memory
US20090082764A1 (en) * 1996-01-05 2009-03-26 Thermage, Inc. Methods for creating tissue effect utilizing electromagnetic energy and a reverse thermal gradient
US20070265614A1 (en) * 1996-01-05 2007-11-15 Thermage, Inc. Rf device with thermo-electric cooler
US20060206110A1 (en) * 1996-01-05 2006-09-14 Thermage, Inc. Handpiece with RF electrode and non-volative memory
EP0836864A3 (en) * 1996-10-18 2000-03-08 Graphic Controls Corporation Defibrillator electrode
US6666859B1 (en) 1996-10-30 2003-12-23 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode
US6582424B2 (en) 1996-10-30 2003-06-24 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Capacitive reusable electrosurgical return electrode
US6544258B2 (en) 1996-10-30 2003-04-08 Mega-Dyne Medical Products, Inc. Pressure sore pad having self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode properties and optional heating/cooling capabilities
US7166102B2 (en) 1996-10-30 2007-01-23 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode
US6454764B1 (en) 1996-10-30 2002-09-24 Richard P. Fleenor Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode
US6053910A (en) * 1996-10-30 2000-04-25 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Capacitive reusable electrosurgical return electrode
US6214000B1 (en) 1996-10-30 2001-04-10 Richard P. Fleenor Capacitive reusable electrosurgical return electrode
US20070118103A1 (en) * 1996-10-30 2007-05-24 Mega-Dyne Medical Products, Inc. Self-Limiting Electrosurgical Return Electrode
US6083221A (en) * 1996-10-30 2000-07-04 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Resistive reusable electrosurgical return electrode
US7367971B2 (en) 1996-10-30 2008-05-06 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode
USRE40388E1 (en) 1997-04-09 2008-06-17 Covidien Ag Electrosurgical generator with adaptive power control
US6895271B2 (en) 1998-09-15 2005-05-17 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Iontophoretic drug delivery electrodes and method
US7901400B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2011-03-08 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US9168089B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2015-10-27 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US7137980B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2006-11-21 Sherwood Services Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US8287528B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2012-10-16 Covidien Ag Vessel sealing system
US9113900B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2015-08-25 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US7303557B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2007-12-04 Sherwood Services Ag Vessel sealing system
US8105323B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2012-01-31 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US8328788B2 (en) 1999-03-12 2012-12-11 Nitric Biotherapeutics, Inc. Methods and systems for electrokinetic delivery of a substance
US7127285B2 (en) 1999-03-12 2006-10-24 Transport Pharmaceuticals Inc. Systems and methods for electrokinetic delivery of a substance
US7016724B2 (en) 2000-03-10 2006-03-21 Transport Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Electrokinetic delivery system for self-administration of medicaments and methods therefor
US8352024B2 (en) 2000-03-10 2013-01-08 Nitric Biotherapeutics, Inc. Electrokinetic delivery system for self-administration of medicaments and methods therefor
US6792306B2 (en) 2000-03-10 2004-09-14 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Finger-mounted electrokinetic delivery system for self-administration of medicaments and methods therefor
US6735470B2 (en) 2000-05-31 2004-05-11 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
US7069073B2 (en) 2000-05-31 2006-06-27 Biophoretic Therapeutic Systems, Llc Electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
US7364577B2 (en) 2002-02-11 2008-04-29 Sherwood Services Ag Vessel sealing system
US20030176908A1 (en) * 2002-03-18 2003-09-18 Hsin-Yi Lin Water-impregnable electrode for electrical stimulation device
US7749217B2 (en) 2002-05-06 2010-07-06 Covidien Ag Method and system for optically detecting blood and controlling a generator during electrosurgery
WO2003094766A2 (en) * 2002-05-09 2003-11-20 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode
WO2003094766A3 (en) * 2002-05-09 2004-02-12 Megadyne Med Prod Inc Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode
US7824400B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2010-11-02 Covidien Ag Circuit for controlling arc energy from an electrosurgical generator
US7255694B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2007-08-14 Sherwood Services Ag Variable output crest factor electrosurgical generator
US8523855B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2013-09-03 Covidien Ag Circuit for controlling arc energy from an electrosurgical generator
US7044948B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2006-05-16 Sherwood Services Ag Circuit for controlling arc energy from an electrosurgical generator
US8267929B2 (en) 2003-05-01 2012-09-18 Covidien Ag Method and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US8298223B2 (en) 2003-05-01 2012-10-30 Covidien Ag Method and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US8303580B2 (en) 2003-05-01 2012-11-06 Covidien Ag Method and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US8012150B2 (en) 2003-05-01 2011-09-06 Covidien Ag Method and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US8080008B2 (en) 2003-05-01 2011-12-20 Covidien Ag Method and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US7722601B2 (en) 2003-05-01 2010-05-25 Covidien Ag Method and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US8808161B2 (en) 2003-10-23 2014-08-19 Covidien Ag Redundant temperature monitoring in electrosurgical systems for safety mitigation
US8104956B2 (en) 2003-10-23 2012-01-31 Covidien Ag Thermocouple measurement circuit
US8647340B2 (en) 2003-10-23 2014-02-11 Covidien Ag Thermocouple measurement system
US7396336B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2008-07-08 Sherwood Services Ag Switched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US20140336644A1 (en) * 2003-10-30 2014-11-13 Erbe Elektromedizin Gmbh Neutral electrode device, electrosurgical instrument comprising a corresponding neutral electrode device
US8113057B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2012-02-14 Covidien Ag Switched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US8096961B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2012-01-17 Covidien Ag Switched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US8966981B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2015-03-03 Covidien Ag Switched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US9768373B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2017-09-19 Covidien Ag Switched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US8485993B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2013-07-16 Covidien Ag Switched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US7766693B2 (en) 2003-11-20 2010-08-03 Covidien Ag Connector systems for electrosurgical generator
US7416437B2 (en) 2003-11-20 2008-08-26 Sherwood Services Ag Connector systems for electrosurgical generator
US7131860B2 (en) 2003-11-20 2006-11-07 Sherwood Services Ag Connector systems for electrosurgical generator
US7169145B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2007-01-30 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Tuned return electrode with matching inductor
US7300435B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2007-11-27 Sherwood Services Ag Automatic control system for an electrosurgical generator
US20050113817A1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2005-05-26 Isaacson James D. Tuned return electrode with matching inductor
US20070049916A1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2007-03-01 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Tuned return electrode with matching inductor
US7837680B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2010-11-23 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Tuned return electrode with matching inductor
US7766905B2 (en) 2004-02-12 2010-08-03 Covidien Ag Method and system for continuity testing of medical electrodes
US7780662B2 (en) 2004-03-02 2010-08-24 Covidien Ag Vessel sealing system using capacitive RF dielectric heating
US7699840B2 (en) * 2004-03-05 2010-04-20 Erbe Elektromedizin Gmbh Neutral electrode for HF surgery
US20070167695A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2007-07-19 Erbe Elektromedizin Gmbh Neutral electrode for hf surgery
US8025660B2 (en) 2004-10-13 2011-09-27 Covidien Ag Universal foot switch contact port
US7628786B2 (en) 2004-10-13 2009-12-08 Covidien Ag Universal foot switch contact port
US9474564B2 (en) 2005-03-31 2016-10-25 Covidien Ag Method and system for compensating for external impedance of an energy carrying component when controlling an electrosurgical generator
US9522032B2 (en) 2005-10-21 2016-12-20 Covidien Ag Circuit and method for reducing stored energy in an electrosurgical generator
US8734438B2 (en) 2005-10-21 2014-05-27 Covidien Ag Circuit and method for reducing stored energy in an electrosurgical generator
US8241278B2 (en) 2005-12-12 2012-08-14 Covidien Ag Laparoscopic apparatus for performing electrosurgical procedures
US7947039B2 (en) 2005-12-12 2011-05-24 Covidien Ag Laparoscopic apparatus for performing electrosurgical procedures
US8187262B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2012-05-29 Covidien Ag Dual synchro-resonant electrosurgical apparatus with bi-directional magnetic coupling
US8216223B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2012-07-10 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US9186200B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2015-11-17 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US8202271B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2012-06-19 Covidien Ag Dual synchro-resonant electrosurgical apparatus with bi-directional magnetic coupling
US8147485B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2012-04-03 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US8267928B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2012-09-18 Covidien Ag System and method for closed loop monitoring of monopolar electrosurgical apparatus
US8663214B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2014-03-04 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling an output of a radio-frequency medical generator having an impedance based control algorithm
US8685016B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2014-04-01 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US9642665B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2017-05-09 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling an output of a radio-frequency medical generator having an impedance based control algorithm
US7972328B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2011-07-05 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US7927328B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2011-04-19 Covidien Ag System and method for closed loop monitoring of monopolar electrosurgical apparatus
US7513896B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2009-04-07 Covidien Ag Dual synchro-resonant electrosurgical apparatus with bi-directional magnetic coupling
US8475447B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2013-07-02 Covidien Ag System and method for closed loop monitoring of monopolar electrosurgical apparatus
US7972332B2 (en) 2006-03-03 2011-07-05 Covidien Ag System and method for controlling electrosurgical snares
US7651493B2 (en) 2006-03-03 2010-01-26 Covidien Ag System and method for controlling electrosurgical snares
US7648499B2 (en) 2006-03-21 2010-01-19 Covidien Ag System and method for generating radio frequency energy
US7651492B2 (en) 2006-04-24 2010-01-26 Covidien Ag Arc based adaptive control system for an electrosurgical unit
US9119624B2 (en) 2006-04-24 2015-09-01 Covidien Ag ARC based adaptive control system for an electrosurgical unit
US8556890B2 (en) 2006-04-24 2013-10-15 Covidien Ag Arc based adaptive control system for an electrosurgical unit
US8753334B2 (en) 2006-05-10 2014-06-17 Covidien Ag System and method for reducing leakage current in an electrosurgical generator
US8034049B2 (en) 2006-08-08 2011-10-11 Covidien Ag System and method for measuring initial tissue impedance
US7731717B2 (en) 2006-08-08 2010-06-08 Covidien Ag System and method for controlling RF output during tissue sealing
US7637907B2 (en) 2006-09-19 2009-12-29 Covidien Ag System and method for return electrode monitoring
US7794457B2 (en) 2006-09-28 2010-09-14 Covidien Ag Transformer for RF voltage sensing
US8231616B2 (en) 2006-09-28 2012-07-31 Covidien Ag Transformer for RF voltage sensing
US20080192404A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2008-08-14 Fujitsu Limited Anti-static wrist band and anti-static wrist band set
WO2008132164A1 (en) * 2007-04-26 2008-11-06 Energy-Lab Technologies Gmbh Electrode and pin-and-socket connector for electrode
WO2008132148A1 (en) * 2007-04-26 2008-11-06 Tesa Ag Electrode and pin-and-socket connector for electrode
US8777941B2 (en) 2007-05-10 2014-07-15 Covidien Lp Adjustable impedance electrosurgical electrodes
US7834484B2 (en) 2007-07-16 2010-11-16 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Connection cable and method for activating a voltage-controlled generator
US8216220B2 (en) 2007-09-07 2012-07-10 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for transmission of combined data stream
US8353905B2 (en) 2007-09-07 2013-01-15 Covidien Lp System and method for transmission of combined data stream
US8512332B2 (en) 2007-09-21 2013-08-20 Covidien Lp Real-time arc control in electrosurgical generators
US9271790B2 (en) 2007-09-21 2016-03-01 Coviden Lp Real-time arc control in electrosurgical generators
US20090228000A1 (en) * 2008-03-05 2009-09-10 Michael Cao Disposable Apparatus for Patient Grounding
US8226639B2 (en) 2008-06-10 2012-07-24 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for output control of electrosurgical generator
US8486061B2 (en) 2009-01-12 2013-07-16 Covidien Lp Imaginary impedance process monitoring and intelligent shut-off
US8876812B2 (en) 2009-02-26 2014-11-04 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode with pressure sore reduction and heating capabilities
US20100217260A1 (en) * 2009-02-26 2010-08-26 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode with pressure sore reduction and heating capabilities
US9872719B2 (en) 2013-07-24 2018-01-23 Covidien Lp Systems and methods for generating electrosurgical energy using a multistage power converter
US9655670B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2017-05-23 Covidien Lp Systems and methods for measuring tissue impedance through an electrosurgical cable
US9636165B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2017-05-02 Covidien Lp Systems and methods for measuring tissue impedance through an electrosurgical cable
US10085791B2 (en) 2013-12-26 2018-10-02 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Universal self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode
US9867650B2 (en) 2013-12-26 2018-01-16 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Universal self-limiting electrosurgical return electrode

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE2305220A1 (en) 1973-08-09
FR2170227B1 (en) 1978-06-23
US3848600B1 (en) 1988-06-21
CA993958A1 (en)
CA993958A (en) 1976-07-27
JPS49108885A (en) 1974-10-16
FR2170227A1 (en) 1973-09-14
IT983855B (en) 1974-11-11
JPS6158177B2 (en) 1986-12-10
AR197113A1 (en) 1974-03-15
GB1425851A (en) 1976-02-18

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4197851A (en) Apparatus for emitting high-frequency electromagnetic waves
US4196737A (en) Transcutaneous electrode construction
CA2002849C (en) Method and apparatus for iontophoretic drug delivery
US2651304A (en) Therapeutic electrode
Kritikos et al. Hot spots generated in conducting spheres by electromagnetic waves and biological implications
US3964477A (en) Method of using electrodes having antiseptic properties for LIDC therapy
CA988589A (en) Duplex ultrasound generator and combined electrical muscle stimulator
CA1020740A (en) Dielectric composition capable of electrical activation
US1983669A (en) Electrode
US3267931A (en) Electrically stimulated hearing with signal feedback
CA990823A (en) Electrical connector and contact
TW446566B (en) Cell necrosis apparatus
CA991707A (en) Nonpolarizable muscle stimulating electrode
US4387714A (en) Electrosurgical dispersive electrode
CA1006231A (en) Disposable electro-surgical cautery
FR2267752B1 (en)
JPS5278772A (en) Double electrode and filterrpress electrolytic cell using it
JPS527898A (en) Electrolytic cell having coaxial electrodes
AU4647079A (en) Device for screwing body tissue electrode into body tissue
CA2367631A1 (en) Wireless cardiac pacing system with vascular electrode-stents
JPH0378221A (en) Electric double layer capacitor
GB1425851A (en) Indifferent elec-rode-e'ectrolyte assembly in electrosurgical procedures
JPS5249986A (en) Flake electrode and electrolytic cell
GB1461809A (en) Coagulating devices
AU5583473A (en) Cutter body and blade therefor

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
STCF Information on status: patent grant

Free format text: PATENTED FILE - (OLD CASE ADDED FOR FILE TRACKING PURPOSES)

AS Assignment

Owner name: AMERICAN HOSPITAL SUPPLY CORPORATION, EVANSTON, IL

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:NDM CORPORATION, A CORP. OF OHIO;REEL/FRAME:004495/0141

Effective date: 19851125

RR Request for reexamination filed

Effective date: 19851211

B1 Reexamination certificate first reexamination
AS Assignment

Owner name: NDM ACQUISITION CORP., MINNESOTA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:BAXTER INTERNATIONAL INC.;BAXTER HEALTHCARE CORPORATION OF PUERTO RICO;REEL/FRAME:005254/0845

Effective date: 19891031

AS Assignment

Owner name: NEW DIMENSIONS IN MEDICINE, INC., OHIO

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:BANK ONE, DAYTON, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION;REEL/FRAME:007833/0476

Effective date: 19960223