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US2887112A - Pad for skin preparation for electrocardiography and the like - Google Patents

Pad for skin preparation for electrocardiography and the like Download PDF

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Publication number
US2887112A
US2887112A US67840957A US2887112A US 2887112 A US2887112 A US 2887112A US 67840957 A US67840957 A US 67840957A US 2887112 A US2887112 A US 2887112A
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Prior art keywords
pad
skin
particles
resistance
electrical
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John R Smith
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SANBORN CO
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SANBORN CO
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/04Detecting, measuring or recording bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/0402Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
    • A61B5/04025Preparing electrode site, e.g. by abrasion
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/04Detecting, measuring or recording bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/0402Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
    • A61B5/0408Electrodes specially adapted therefor

Description

J. R. SMITH May 19, 1959 PAD FOR SKIN PREPARATION FOR ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY AND THE LIKE Filed Aug. 15, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. Jaw P. 5/11/76 Arrozmms' May19, 1959 J. R. SMITH 2,887,112

PAD FOR SKIN PREPARATION FOR ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY AND THE LIKE Filed Aug. 15, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 To necrnacnnmoannpn INVENTOR. -J0///v 19. Sin/r11 ATTORNEYS United States Patent PAD FOR SKIN PREPARATION FOR ELECTRO- CARDIOGRAPHY AND THE LIKE John R. Smith, Winchester, Mass., assignor to Sanborn Company, Waltham, Mass, a corporation of Massachusetts Application August 15, 1957, Serial No. 678,409

Claims. (Cl. 128-417) The present invention relates to pads for preparing the skin and the like for electrocardiographic and similar measurements.

It has long been recognized that, when electrodes are applied to the skin for electrocardiographic measurements, the skin-to-electrode barrier should be of as low electrical resistance as possible. Resort has accordingly been had to numerous techniques and devices for reducing this resistance. The oil on the skin, of course, should be removed if low resistance is to be attained. The skin and the electrode itself, for example, have thus been cleaned as by swabbing with alcohol. It is particularly important that no metallic or similar particles be trapped under the electrode since such particles cause local electrolytic action that makes the recorded base line of the electrocardiograph unsteady. Electrode jelly or paste or electrolytic solution is then applied to the skin to serve as a low-resistance path contacting the skin and the electrode. An edge of the electrode itself, however, is customarily scraped over the skin several times to abrade the same and dilate the skin vessels, which phenomenon has been found to improve the electrical conductivity of the skin. This application of the electrolytic jelly or solution is, at best, a messy procedure, resulting in the coating of parts of the electrical cables, corroding of the electrodes, and soiling of the finger tips of the operator. The art has had to put up these long years, however, with the carrying of containers or tubes of electrode paste and the attendant inconvenience in dispensing and cleaning off of the tubes; the preparation of special electrolyte solutions and the saturating of towels and the like to apply the solution to the skin; or the filling with electrolyte of special absorbent containers associated with the electrodes. The numerous additional cleaning and skin-rubbing steps, above-mentioned, moreover, have also had to be employed.

An object of the present invention, accordingly, is to provide a novel pad that can be conveniently carried and stored in a dry state, and then used without any of the disadvantages, above discussed.

A further object is to provide a new and improved technique for preparing the skin for electrocardiographic and similar measurements.

Other and further objects will be explained hereinafterand will be more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.

The invention will now be described in connection with the accompanying drawing Fig. 1 of which is an enlarged fragmentary view of a pad constructed in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention; and

Figs. 2 through 4 are schematic views of successive steps involved in employing the pad for electrocardiographic and similar measurements, the dimensions of the .pad of Fig. 2 being exaggerated for clarity of illustration.

Fig. 1 is a reproduction of a microscopic view of a portion of a pad 2 constructed so as to embody the present invention in preferred form. As illustrated, the pad 2,887,112 Patented May 19, 1959 2 comprises one or more layers of a preferably gauzelike fiber matte, the fibers 4 of which are disposed in matrix form, defining a plurality of interstices or openings 6. Adhering to the fibers 4 and within thejopenings 6, is a hardened non-corrosive paste or jelly binder containing solid particles 8 of a salt, such as sodium chlo- I ride, that, in solution, exhibits electrolytic action. Also interposed within the binder 10 and heldto the fibers 4 and within some of the openings 6 therebetween, are fine solid abrasive particles 12, such as, for example, 60- to IOU-mesh quartz particles, which are insoluble in water. The pad 2 may be prepared, for example, through appropriately impregnating the same with the above-mentioned binder containing the salt and abrasive particles and then heating the pad to dry it into a relatively rigid or stiff member. The dry pad 2 will have a high electrical resistance.

Dry pads 2 may be packaged for shipment and storage as, for example, in groups of a few to an envelope, for the use of an individual electrocardiograph patient. Alternatively, the pads may be provided in tapes, rolls or sheets, preferably appropriately scored for facilitating the obtaining of a pad of appropriate size for use with an electrode, as later discussed.

When it is desired to use the dry rigid pad 2, it may first be somewhat wetted, as with water droplets 14, Fig. 2. The hardened paste or jelly binder 10 will readily soften and the salt or similar solid particles 8 will readily dissolve, rendering the pad thoroughly moistened with electrolyte and thus of low electrical resistance. The mechanical stiffness of the somewhat wetted pad 2 will permit it to serve as a carrier for the abrasive non-soluble quartz or other particles 12 so that the operator may rub the pad 2 against the skin, such as the wrist 1 or other portion of the body of the patient, Fig. 3, thus abrading the same and, in one single operation, both cleaning the skin and abrading the same to produce an erythema that dilates the skin vessels. It has been found, moreover, that the pad 2, in its wetted condition, appears to retain the bulk of the impregnant binder and its particle contents, yet loses none of the desired electrical. characteristics of low resistance. The moistened low-resistance pad 2 may then be placed between the cleaned and abraded wrist 1 and the electrode 3, with the electrode 3 strapped or clamped to the wrist, as at 5, and connected by a conductor or cable 7 to the electrocardiograph or similar apparatus.

Not only has the inconvenience and messiness of the prior-art techniques been completely obviated by the present invention, but the necessity for separate skin cleaning and abrading steps has been completely eliminated, also. After use, moreover, it has been found that the moistened pad 2 leaves the wrist 1 and the electrode 3 almost dry, as contrasted with the coatings of jelly, paste or other electrolyte as presently employed. At the completion of the test, the pads 2 may be disposed of, and whatever slight smear that may be left upon the wrist 1 or other portion of the body and on the electrode 3 may be readily wiped off. Corroding of the electrodes or coating the electric cable 7 or other parts of the equip ment with excess jelly, paste or electrolyte is also avoided. The operator, moreover, maintains his fingers relatively clean, when preparing, applying and removing the pad 2. In addition, a definite sanitary appeal is provided.

While the invention has been described in connection with a gauze-like or cheesecloth type of carrier, other kinds of absorbent fibers, or plastic carriers, such as Fiberglas mattes and the like, may also be employed, providing, preferably, a measure of stitfness satisfactory for the abrading step of Fig. 3. Though the use of a binder 10 is preferred, the salt or other electrolyte-forming particles 8 may be applied in solution and then dried upon serr te l the fibers 4; or otherwise" secured" thereto. of abrasives than the preferred quartz particles 12 may also be employed, though they should be insoluble so as to" re r'nain solid during and following the wetting step of Fig. 2'. Very close, as well as wider mesh carriers may be employed? v I Further modifications will occur to those skilled in the art and all such are co'nside'red to fall within the spirit and scope of theinvention as defined in the appended claims.

What'is claimed is: v

1. A dry relatively high electrical resistance pad for preparing the skin and the like for electrocardiographic and similar measurements, comprising a stifi matte to' which are adhered ja plurality of solid particles of the type that, when dissolved'insolution; produce electrolytic action, interspersed with] a' plurality of nonsoluble abra s-ive particles, the matte having sufiicient mechanical strength, when wetted, to serve as a carrier for rubbing the said abrasive particles against the skin and the like to abrade the same, and the said solid particles being readily soluble upon wetting the matte to render the pad of relatively low electrical resistance.

2. A dry relatively high electrical resistance pad for preparing the skin and the like forelectrocardiographic and similar measurements, comprising a stiti matte to which is adhered a hardened paste containing a plurality of solid particles of the type that, when dissolved in solu tion, produce electrolytic action, interspersed with a plurality of non-soluble abrasive particles, the matte having sufiicient mechanical strength, when wetted, to serve as a carrier for rubbing the said abrasive particles against the skin and the likekto abrade the same, and the said paste being readily softened and the said solid particles readily soluble upon wetting the matte to render the pad of relatively low electrical resistance.

3. A dry relatively high electrical resistance pad for preparing the skin and the like for electrocardiographic and similar measurements, comprising a stiff fibrous matte having a plurality of openings between the fibers, and, adherent to the fibers and within certain of the said open ings, a plurality of solid particles of the type that, when dissolved in solution, produce electrolytic action, inter- Other types spersed with a'plurality ofnon-soluble abrasive particles, the matte having sufficient'" mechanical strength, when wetted, to serve as a carrier for rubbing the said abrasive particles against the skin and the like to abrade the same, and the said solid particles being readily soluble upon wetting the matte to render the'pad of relatively low electrical resistance;

4. A dry relatively high electrical resistance pad for preparing the skin and the like for electrocardiographic and similar measurements, comprising a stiff, fibrous matte having a plurality of openings between the fihers, and, adherent to the fibers and within certain of the said openings, a hardened paste containing a plurality of solid particles of the type that, when dissolved-in solution, produce electrolytic action, interspersed with a plurality of non-soluble abrasive particles, the matte having suflioient mechanical strength, whenwetted, to serve as a carrier for rubbing the said abrasive particles against the skin and the like to abrade the same, and the said paste being readily softened and the said solid particles readily soluble upon wetting the matte to render the pad of relatively low electrical resistance.

5. A dry relatively high electrical resistance pad for preparing the skin and the like for electrocardiographic and similar measurements, comprising a stilt fibrous gauze matte having a plurality of openings between the fibers, and, adherent to the fibers and Within certain of the said openings, a hardened paste containing a plurality of solid salt particles of the type that, when dissolved in solution, produce electrolytic action, interspersed with a plurality of non-soluble abrasive quartz particles, the

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,782,786 Krasno Feb. 26, 1957 Kimble Jan. 29, 1935

US2887112A 1957-08-15 1957-08-15 Pad for skin preparation for electrocardiography and the like Expired - Lifetime US2887112A (en)

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Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3469577A (en) * 1967-03-02 1969-09-30 Beckman Instruments Inc Scalp contacting bioelectrode
US3685645A (en) * 1970-08-17 1972-08-22 Physio Control Corp Defibrillation electrode pad and package therefor
US3805769A (en) * 1971-08-27 1974-04-23 R Sessions Disposable electrode
US3848600A (en) * 1972-02-03 1974-11-19 Ndm Corp Indifferent electrode in electrosurgical procedures and method of use
US3998215A (en) * 1968-12-18 1976-12-21 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Bio-medical electrode conductive gel pads
US4027664A (en) * 1975-11-17 1977-06-07 Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc. Diagnostic electrode assembly with a skin preparation surface
US4092985A (en) * 1974-11-25 1978-06-06 John George Kaufman Body electrode for electro-medical use
US4109648A (en) * 1975-12-18 1978-08-29 National Research Development Corporation Electrode assemblies
US4274419A (en) * 1979-10-19 1981-06-23 Quinton Instrument Co. Skin preparation device and method used in the application of medical electrodes
US4311152A (en) * 1979-01-15 1982-01-19 Quinton Instrument Co. Medical electrode and system for minimizing motion artifacts
US4538612A (en) * 1983-08-29 1985-09-03 Ndm Corporation Skin preparation method and product
US4608044A (en) * 1978-04-03 1986-08-26 Molnlycke Ab Compress for treatment of wounds
US4742828A (en) * 1985-01-17 1988-05-10 Rematra Research, Marketing & Trading Co. S.A. Disposable electrode for monitoring a patient
US4767401A (en) * 1975-04-22 1988-08-30 Maurice Seiderman Iontophoretic administration of ionizable or polar medicaments to a mammalian body
EP0377997A2 (en) * 1988-12-29 1990-07-18 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Self-preparing electrode for sensing the electric potential of a persons skin.
US5003987A (en) * 1987-09-11 1991-04-02 Grinwald Paul M Method and apparatus for enhanced drug permeation of skin
WO1994007409A1 (en) * 1992-09-29 1994-04-14 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Disposable, pre-gelled, self-prepping electrode
US5891028A (en) * 1994-07-01 1999-04-06 Humanteknik Ab Interface element for a biomedical electrode
US5928141A (en) * 1995-08-01 1999-07-27 Castelli; Arrigo Electrode for detecting an electric biological signal, in particular an electrocardiographic signal
US6345196B1 (en) 1998-12-30 2002-02-05 Arrigo Castelli Electrode for detecting an electric biological signal, in particular an electrocardiographic signal, and electrocardiograph employing such an electrode
US6711427B1 (en) 2002-02-13 2004-03-23 Milwaukee Electronics Corporation Skin abrading medical electrode mounting and packaging system
US20080275468A1 (en) * 2007-04-27 2008-11-06 Echo Therapeutics, Inc. Skin permeation device for analyte sensing or transdermal drug delivery

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1989282A (en) * 1933-08-19 1935-01-29 Gen Electric X Ray Corp Electrode
US2782786A (en) * 1955-10-10 1957-02-26 Louis R Krasno Electrocardiograph electrode with absorbent contact surface

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1989282A (en) * 1933-08-19 1935-01-29 Gen Electric X Ray Corp Electrode
US2782786A (en) * 1955-10-10 1957-02-26 Louis R Krasno Electrocardiograph electrode with absorbent contact surface

Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3469577A (en) * 1967-03-02 1969-09-30 Beckman Instruments Inc Scalp contacting bioelectrode
US3998215A (en) * 1968-12-18 1976-12-21 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Bio-medical electrode conductive gel pads
US3685645A (en) * 1970-08-17 1972-08-22 Physio Control Corp Defibrillation electrode pad and package therefor
US3805769A (en) * 1971-08-27 1974-04-23 R Sessions Disposable electrode
US3848600A (en) * 1972-02-03 1974-11-19 Ndm Corp Indifferent electrode in electrosurgical procedures and method of use
US4092985A (en) * 1974-11-25 1978-06-06 John George Kaufman Body electrode for electro-medical use
US4767401A (en) * 1975-04-22 1988-08-30 Maurice Seiderman Iontophoretic administration of ionizable or polar medicaments to a mammalian body
US4027664A (en) * 1975-11-17 1977-06-07 Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc. Diagnostic electrode assembly with a skin preparation surface
US4109648A (en) * 1975-12-18 1978-08-29 National Research Development Corporation Electrode assemblies
US4608044A (en) * 1978-04-03 1986-08-26 Molnlycke Ab Compress for treatment of wounds
US4311152A (en) * 1979-01-15 1982-01-19 Quinton Instrument Co. Medical electrode and system for minimizing motion artifacts
US4274419A (en) * 1979-10-19 1981-06-23 Quinton Instrument Co. Skin preparation device and method used in the application of medical electrodes
US4538612A (en) * 1983-08-29 1985-09-03 Ndm Corporation Skin preparation method and product
US4742828A (en) * 1985-01-17 1988-05-10 Rematra Research, Marketing & Trading Co. S.A. Disposable electrode for monitoring a patient
EP0188302A3 (en) * 1985-01-17 1988-08-31 Rematra Res Marketing Trading Disposable electrode for monitoring a patient
US5003987A (en) * 1987-09-11 1991-04-02 Grinwald Paul M Method and apparatus for enhanced drug permeation of skin
EP0377997A3 (en) * 1988-12-29 1990-10-10 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Self-preparing electrode for sensing the electric potential of a persons skin.
EP0377997A2 (en) * 1988-12-29 1990-07-18 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Self-preparing electrode for sensing the electric potential of a persons skin.
WO1994007409A1 (en) * 1992-09-29 1994-04-14 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Disposable, pre-gelled, self-prepping electrode
US5305746A (en) * 1992-09-29 1994-04-26 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Disposable, pre-gelled, self-prepping electrode
US5891028A (en) * 1994-07-01 1999-04-06 Humanteknik Ab Interface element for a biomedical electrode
US5928141A (en) * 1995-08-01 1999-07-27 Castelli; Arrigo Electrode for detecting an electric biological signal, in particular an electrocardiographic signal
US6345196B1 (en) 1998-12-30 2002-02-05 Arrigo Castelli Electrode for detecting an electric biological signal, in particular an electrocardiographic signal, and electrocardiograph employing such an electrode
US6711427B1 (en) 2002-02-13 2004-03-23 Milwaukee Electronics Corporation Skin abrading medical electrode mounting and packaging system
US20080275468A1 (en) * 2007-04-27 2008-11-06 Echo Therapeutics, Inc. Skin permeation device for analyte sensing or transdermal drug delivery
US8386027B2 (en) 2007-04-27 2013-02-26 Echo Therapeutics, Inc. Skin permeation device for analyte sensing or transdermal drug delivery
US9572527B2 (en) 2007-04-27 2017-02-21 Echo Therapeutics, Inc. Skin permeation device for analyte sensing or transdermal drug delivery

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