US3814394A - Apparatus for encapsulating hot gases from high stacks - Google Patents

Apparatus for encapsulating hot gases from high stacks Download PDF

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US3814394A
US3814394A US19978971A US3814394A US 3814394 A US3814394 A US 3814394A US 19978971 A US19978971 A US 19978971A US 3814394 A US3814394 A US 3814394A
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means
bubble
forming medium
subjecting
hot gas
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M Murray
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D49/00Separating dispersed particles from gases, air or vapours by other methods
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S261/00Gas and liquid contact apparatus
    • Y10S261/09Furnace gas scrubbers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S261/00Gas and liquid contact apparatus
    • Y10S261/26Foam

Abstract

Hot gases are encapsulated by creating a high draft by passing them up a high stack, subjecting hot gas leaving the stack to a bubble-forming medium, and entrapping the hot gas in bubbles formed by the hot gas impinging on the bubble-forming medium. The hot gas is subjected to a bubble-forming medium, such as latex, by a continuously rotated screen wheel having a screen defining a mesh for carrying the bubble-forming medium. A sponge impregnated with the bubble-forming medium and in direct contact with the screen wipes the screen for continuously applying the bubbleforming medium thereto.

Description

169-44. .XR 3981-49394 :SR

United States Patent 11 1 1111 3,814,394 Murray June 4, 1974 APPARATUS FOR ENCAPSULATING HOT 3.306.008 2/l967 Silverman 55/87 x GASES FROM STACKS 322328 3333 2253251 54735 2 [76] Inventor: Michael F. Murray, 189 C ar 335033704 3/1970 Marks iiizliii ss/iss ux Ave., Oroville, Calif. 95965 3,601,3l3 8/1971 OweBerg 55/107 X [22] Filed: Nov. 17, 1971 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS [21] Appl. No 199,789 1.337379 8/1963 France 55/220 Primary ExaminerDennis E. Talbert, Jr. [5 Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Clarence A. OBrien; Har- 1 1 vey B. Jacobson 26l/DIG. 9, 26l/DIG. 26 v v [51] Int. Cl B0ld 47/00 57 ABSTRACT [58] Field of Search 55/ Hot gases are encapsulated by creating a high draft by 55/220 227 229 230 231 232 233 240 242 4 83 b i 2, f passing them up a high stack, sub ecting hot gas leav- 46/6 9 28 f ing the stack to a bubble-forming medium, and entrapg 5 1 169/1 ping the hot gas in bubbles formed by the hot gas impinging on the bubble-forming medium. The hot gas is 56 f d subjected to a bubble-forming medium, such as latex, 1 e erences l e by a continuously rotated screen wheel having 21 UNITED STATES PATENTS screen defining a mesh for carrying the bubblel,958.383 5/1934 Naucler et al. 26l/DlG. 26 forming medium. A sponge impregnated with the bub- 2,234,385 3/1941 Ryner 261/ 13 ble forming medium and in direct ontact the 3 1 l 1 screen wipes the screen for-continuously applying the u c 1nson.... 1. 3,065,797 11/1962 Barnes 261 lDlG. 26 bubble formmg med'um thereto 3,100,947 8/1963 Hellman 46/8 14 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures r 4" A n a Q 3 a I Max 72 m- 31 26 24 f 24 68 t 20 66 s 76 Q9 :1 5 22 m s r H APPARATUS FOR ENCAPSULATING HOT GASES FROM HIGH STACKS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION a mesh for carrying the bubble-forming medium, and mounted for rotation about an axis parallel to a high stack and arranged over an outlet of the stack.

The means for supplying preferably has means in direct contact with the screen of the screen wheel for applying the bubble-forming medium thereto. A preferred embodiment of the present invention has the means for applying in the form of an impregnated sponge which wipes the surface of the screen. The sponge forms the bottom of a container arranged over a portion of the screen wheel. A further container defines an open top and is arranged beneath the first container and below the screen wheel for receiving excess charges to attract ionized particles in a stream of hot gas. These electrical precipitators, however, involve much expensiveequipment and high operating costs. Another approach is to attract the particles in a stream of hot gas by causing the particles to combine with a liquid, usually water. One device of this type is shown in, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 1,550,357, issued Aug. 18, 1925 to G. L. Hess. A soot eradicator described in this patent passes a stream of hot gas though one or more rotating screens covered with water. The particles in the stream of hot gas tend to adhere to the water, and are washed off the screen in a water bath which the rotation of the screen subsequently subjects the particles to. U.S. Pat. No. 3,389,971, issued June 25, 1968 to H. Alliger, describes a spray-type soot eliminator using ultrasonic vibrations to combine the particulate matter with a mist. U.S. Pat. No. 1,749,594, issued Mar. 4, 1930 to H. C. Lyons describes a water adhering device using wetted belts, and adapted to be fitted to the top of a chimney. Itis, however, the object of all the prior art devices to separate the particles from the stream of hot gas. In order to obtain high efficiency with these devices, great expenditures in equipment and operation are necessary. Further, the material separated from the hot gases cannot always be profitably utilized, thus creating additionalexpense in disposing of the waste.

It is broadly'known to produce bubbles by using a ro tating disc. U.S. Pat. No. 2,736,989, issued Mar. 6, 1956 to N. A. Fisher, describes a bubble blowing machine having a disc mounted for rotation about a vertical axis. This patent, however, is only concerned with blowing bubbles.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for reducing the effects of pollution of the atmosphere by particulate matter in hot gases.

This and other objects are achieved according to the present invention by creating a high draft by passing hot gas up a high stack, subjecting hot gas leaving the stack to a bubble-forming medium, and entrapping the hot gas in bubbles formed by the hot gas impinging on the bubble-forming medium. The bubbles thus formed will ascend to such heights before bursting, that the hot gases may be efficiently dispersed.

Apparatus according to the present invention for encapsulating hot gas has means for subjecting ahighdraft stream of hot gas to a bubble-forming medium for entrapping the hot gas in bubbles, and means for supplying the bubble-forming medium to the means for subjecting.

In a preferred embodiment of the means for subjecting, a screen wheel is provided having a screen defining quantities of the bubble-forming medium.

Structure is provided for supporting the means for subjecting and the means for supplying on top of a high stack. In addition, means may be provided for regulating the amount of bubble-forming material in the containers, and for maintaining the temperature of the bubble-forming medium in the containers above a predetermined temperature.

These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a device according-to the present invention mounted on top of a high stack. 1

FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken generally along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view taken generally along the line 3-3 of FIG. 2 with certain parts removed and showing a screen wheel according to the present invention.

FIG. 4 is'a partially sectional view showing a hot gas filled bubble according to the-present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS FIG. 1 of the drawings shows a device 10 according to the present invention mounted on top of'a high stack 12. Stack 12 may be any high industrial stack, or chimney, capable of creating a draft which will cause bubbles 14 to rise 5,000 to 10,000 feet above ground level, where they will burst.

As can be seen from FIG. 2, a stream of hot gas 16 moving in the direction of the arrow is entrapped in bubbles 14 as it leaves outlet 18 of stack 12. By the term hot gas" is meant all hot gases normally emitted from a high stack, including dusts, clouds, and smokes.

Device 10 has a means for subjecting the high-draft stream of hot gas 16 to bubble-forming medium 20, which is preferably latex, for entrapping the hot gas in bubbles, and a means for supplying the bubble-forming medium 20to the means for subjecting.

A means for supporting the means for subjecting and the means for supplying at the top of stack 12 has a collar 22 which is dimensioned to, for example, slide down the inclined'wall of stack 12 until it fits tightly thereon. For a stack having a straight wall (not shown), suitable known means such as welded brackets (not shown) may be used to stop the collar 22 in the desired location. A platform 24 is mounted on collar 22 in a known manner, such as by a weld, rivets, or screw fasteners. Platform 24 defines an opening 26 so as to fit around stack 12. Braces 28, 30 are preferably provided to assure a rigid structure.

The means for subjecting has means defining a mesh for carrying the medium 20. Preferably, this means is a screen wheel 32 (FIGS. 2 and 3). A screen 33 of screen wheel 32 may be, for example, constructed from steel wire and have, for example, four meshes per inch, and is supported by spokes 34 and a rim 36. Spokes 34 are connected to a hub 38.

Hub 38 is mounted on a shaft 40 for rotation therewith. Shaft 40 is mounted in bearings 42, 44 for rotation about an axis parallel to stack 12. Screen wheel 32 is arranged over outlet 18.

A, for example, known electric motor 46 is mounted on platform 24 in a known manner, and rotates shaft 40 and bevel gears 48, 50 so as to continuously subject the stream of hot gas 16 to medium 20.

The means for supplying has means in direct contact with screen 33 for continuously applying medium thereto. As seen in FIG. 2, this means for applying may be a sponge 52. Sponge 52 may be, for example, a foamed thermoplastic or latex. A container 54 is arranged over a portion of screen wheel 32, and sponge 52 forms the bottom of container 54. Walls56, 58 and a cover 60 enclose container 54. An opening 62 is defined in cover 60 to provide an access hatch. Member 64 is provided to cover opening 62.

A further container 66 defining an open top 68 is arranged beneath container 54 and below screen wheel 32 for receiving excess quantities of medium 20. Container 66 is formed by a bottom member 68 and walls 70, 72, and is mounted in a known manner on platform 24. A line 74 is connected between container 54 and container 66 for returning medium 20 from container 66 to container 54. A pump 76 which may be a known electric pump, may be provided to pump medium 20. Means such as known float valves 78, 80, may be used for regulating the amount of medium 20 in containers 54, 66. Valve 78 may, for example, actuate pump 76 in a known manner when a predetermined level of medium 20 in container 66 is exceeded. Pump 76 will then send medium 20 to container 54. Valve 80 may open and permitmedium 20 to pass from a line 82 into container 54 and provide container 54 with medium 20 when the level of medium 20 in container 54 falls below a predetermined level. Line 82 may be connected to a reservoir (not shown) and medium 20 is preferably maintained at a constant pressure therein.

Heating elements-84 and 86 are advantageously immersed in medium 20 in containers 54 and 66, respectively, for maintaining medium 20 above a predetermined temperature. A temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit has been found satisfactory for liquid latex during cold weather. Furthermore, latex at 60F. will expand more readily when encapsulating hot gas 16. Known thermostatic switches 88 and 90 are: immersed in medium 20 for actuating elements 84, 86, respectively, in a known manner. Elements 84, 86 may be, for example, immersible electrical resistant heating elements.

Power for motor 46 and heaters 84, 86 may be supplied in a known manner by, for example, a power cord (not shown) arranged on the outer surface of stack 12.

A housing 92 defining an opening 94 for passage of bubbles 14 is preferably provided for covering the means for supplying. Housing 92 also defines an opening 96 for providing an access hatch to, for example, motor 46 and pump 76. A member 98 covers opening 96, and defines slots 100 for receiving braces 28.

FIG. 4 shows an individual bubble 102 of bubbles 14. As can be seen, the, for example, latex bubble is filled with hot gas 16 which has been entrapped therein.

As the stream of hot gas 16 leaves outlet 18 of stack 12, it is subjected to the film of medium 20, preferably latex, carried on screen 33. The hot gas 16 is entrapped in bubbles formed by the hot gas 16 impinging on medium 20. The bubbles 14 will rise at a fast rate of ascent and enlarge in diameter during their upwardly journey. Eventually, the bubbles will burst because of the continually reduced external pressure. The hot gas encapsulated in the thin film of latex will generally dissipate very efficiently at the usual bursting altitudes of 5,000 to 10,000 feet above ground level.

The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope.

of the invention.

I claim:

1. Apparatus for encapsulating hot gas, comprising in combination:

a. means for subjecting a high-draft stream of hot gas to a bubble-forming medium for entrapping the hot gas in bubbles; and

b. means for supplying the bubble-forming medium to the means for subjecting said means for supplying including means in direct contact with the means for subjecting for applying the bubbleforrning medium thereto, and said means for supplying further including a container arranged over a portion of said means for subjecting, and having a bottom formed by said means for applying.

2. Apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said means for supplying further includes a further container defining an open top and arranged beneath said container and below the-means for subjecting for receiving excess quantities of the bubble-forming medium.

3. Apparatus as defined in claim 2, wherein said means for supplying further includes means for returntaining bubble-forming medium in said further container and in said container above a predetermined temperature.

6. Apparatus as defined in claim 1, further including means for providing said container with bubbleforming medium.

7. Apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said means for subjecting includes means defining a mesh for carrying the bubble-forming medium, and mounted for rotation about an axis parallel to a high stack and arranged over an outlet of the stack.

8. Apparatus for encapsulating hot gas, comprising in combination:

a. means for subjecting a high-draft stream of hot gas to a bubble-forming medium for entrapping the hot gas in bubbles, said means for subjecting including a screen wheel for carrying the bubble-forming medium, and mounted for rotation about an axis parallel to a high stack and arranged over an outlet of the stack; and

b. means for supplying the bubble-forming medium to the means for subjecting, said means for supplying including means in direct contact with the means for subjecting for applying the bubbleforming medium thereto.

9. Apparatus as defined in claim 8, further including means for supporting said screen wheel and said means for supplying at the top of a high stack, and means mounted on said means for supporting for rotating said screen wheel so as to continuously subject the hot gas to the bubble-forming medium.

10. Apparatus as defined in claim 9, further including means mounted on said means for supporting for covering said means for supplying.

11. Apparatus for encapsulating hot gas, comprising in combination:

a. means for subjecting a high-draft stream of hot gas to a bubble-forming medium for entrapping the hot gas in bubbles, said means for subjecting including means defining a mesh for carrying the bubbleforming medium, and mounted for rotation about an axis parallel to a high stack and arranged over anoutlet of the stack; and

b. means for supplying the bubble-forming medium to the means for subjecting.

12. Apparatus as defined in claim 11, further including means for supporting the means for subjecting and the means for supplying at the top of the high stack.

13. Apparatus as defined in claim 11, wherein said means for supplying includes means in direct contact with the means for subjecting for applying the bubble forming medium thereto.

14. Apparatus for encapsulating hot gas, comprising in combination:

a. means for subjecting a high-draft stream of hot gas to a bubble-forming medium for entrapping the hot gas in bubbles, said bubble-forming medium being latex; and

b. means forsupplying the bubble-forming medium to the means for subjecting.

Claims (14)

1. Apparatus for encapsulating hot gas, comprising in combination: a. means for subjecting a high-draft stream of hot gas to a bubble-forming medium for entrapping the hot gas in bubbles; and b. means for supplying the bubble-forming medium to the means for subjecting said means for supplying including means in direct contact with the means for subjecting for applying the bubble-forming medium thereto, and said means for supplying further including a container arranged over a portion of said means for subjecting, and having a bottom formed by said means for applying.
2. Apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said means for supplying further includes a further container defining an open top and arranged beneath said container and below the means for subjecting for receiving excess quantities of the bubble-forming medium.
3. Apparatus as defined in claim 2, wherein said means for supplying further includes means for returning bubble-forming medium from said further container to said container.
4. Apparatus as defined in claim 2, wherein said means for supplying further includes means for regulating the amount of bubble-forming medium in said further container and in said container.
5. Apparatus as defined in claim 2, wherein said means for supplying further includes means for maintaining bubble-forming medium in said further container and in said container above a predetermined temperature.
6. Apparatus as defined in claim 1, further including means for providing said container with bubble-forming medium.
7. Apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said means for subjecting includes means defining a mesh for carrying the bubble-forming medium, and mounted for rotation about an axis parallel to a high stack and arranged over an outlet of the stack.
8. Apparatus for encapsulating hot gas, comprising in combination: a. means for subjecting a high-draft stream of hot gas to a bubble-forming medium for entrapping the hot gas in bubbles, said means for subjecting including a screen wheel for carrying the bubble-forming medium, and mounted for rotation about an axis parallel to a high stack and arranged over an outlet of the stack; and b. means for supplying the bubble-forming medium to the means for subjecting, said means for supplying including means in direct contact with the means for subjecting for applying the bubble-forming medium thereto.
9. Apparatus as defined in claim 8, further including means for supporting said screen wheel and said means for supplying at the top of a high stack, and means mounted on said means for supporting for rotating said screen wheel so as to continuously subject the hot gas to the bubble-forming medium.
10. Apparatus as defined in claim 9, further including means mounted on said means for supporting for covering said means for supplying.
11. Apparatus for encapsulating hot gas, comprising in combination: a. means for subjecting a high-draft stream of hot gas to a bubble-forming medium for entrapping the hot gas in bubbles, said means for subjecting including means defining a mEsh for carrying the bubble-forming medium, and mounted for rotation about an axis parallel to a high stack and arranged over an outlet of the stack; and b. means for supplying the bubble-forming medium to the means for subjecting.
12. Apparatus as defined in claim 11, further including means for supporting the means for subjecting and the means for supplying at the top of the high stack.
13. Apparatus as defined in claim 11, wherein said means for supplying includes means in direct contact with the means for subjecting for applying the bubble-forming medium thereto.
14. Apparatus for encapsulating hot gas, comprising in combination: a. means for subjecting a high-draft stream of hot gas to a bubble-forming medium for entrapping the hot gas in bubbles, said bubble-forming medium being latex; and b. means for supplying the bubble-forming medium to the means for subjecting.
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US4234525A (en) * 1979-03-13 1980-11-18 Piterskikh Georgy P Apparatus for spraying fluid and paste-like materials
US4775348A (en) * 1987-01-14 1988-10-04 Collins Phillip A Bubble machine
US5498191A (en) * 1995-02-21 1996-03-12 Demars; Robert A. Bubble producing toy
FR2765500A1 (en) * 1997-07-03 1999-01-08 Philippe Leopold Denis Renoux Generation of bubbles to treat atmospheric pollution
US6062935A (en) * 1998-06-29 2000-05-16 Gross; Stanley Bubble generator
US20030194942A1 (en) * 2000-01-03 2003-10-16 Arko Development Limited Bubble generating assemblies
US20040142626A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2004-07-22 Choi Kei Fung Toy for producing bubbles
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US20040259458A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2004-12-23 Fusco Michael T. Fog filled bubble blower
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US20080011474A1 (en) * 2006-07-12 2008-01-17 Kerfoot William B Directional microporous diffuser and directional sparging
US20080047905A1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2008-02-28 Kerfoot William B Coated Microbubbles for Treating an Aquifer or Soil Formations
US20080290043A1 (en) * 2003-12-24 2008-11-27 Kerfoot William B Directional Microporous Diffuser and Directional Sparging
US20090039016A1 (en) * 2003-08-27 2009-02-12 Kerfoot William B Environmental Remediation Method
US20090272697A1 (en) * 2004-07-20 2009-11-05 Kerfoot William B Superoxidant Poiser For Groundwater And Soil Treatment With In-Situ Oxidation-Reduction And Acidity-Basicity Adjustment
US7645380B2 (en) 1995-05-05 2010-01-12 Thinkvillage-Kerfoot, Llc Microporous diffusion apparatus
US7661657B2 (en) 2003-02-12 2010-02-16 Thinkvillage-Kerfoot, Llc Deep well sparging
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USRE43350E1 (en) 1995-05-05 2012-05-08 Think Village-Kerfoot, Llc Microporous diffusion apparatus
US7645380B2 (en) 1995-05-05 2010-01-12 Thinkvillage-Kerfoot, Llc Microporous diffusion apparatus
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JPS4862667A (en) 1973-09-01
CA984112A (en) 1976-02-24
CA984112A1 (en)

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