US3765205A - Method for protecting hot metal surface - Google Patents

Method for protecting hot metal surface Download PDF

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US3765205A
US3765205A US3765205DA US3765205A US 3765205 A US3765205 A US 3765205A US 3765205D A US3765205D A US 3765205DA US 3765205 A US3765205 A US 3765205A
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parts
hot
composition
surface
ferrous metal
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G Schaumburg
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G Schaumburg
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C5/00Manufacture of carbon-steel, e.g. plain mild steel, medium carbon steel or cast steel or stainless steel
    • C21C5/28Manufacture of steel in the converter
    • C21C5/42Constructional features of converters
    • C21C5/44Refractory linings
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C5/00Manufacture of carbon-steel, e.g. plain mild steel, medium carbon steel or cast steel or stainless steel
    • C21C5/28Manufacture of steel in the converter
    • C21C5/42Constructional features of converters
    • C21C5/44Refractory linings
    • C21C5/441Equipment used for making or repairing linings
    • C21C5/443Hot fettling; Flame gunning
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE BY DECARBURISATION, TEMPERING OR OTHER TREATMENTS
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/68Temporary coatings or embedding materials applied before or during heat treatment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE BY DECARBURISATION, TEMPERING OR OTHER TREATMENTS
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/82Descaling by thermal stresses
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22BPRODUCTION AND REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
    • C22B9/00General processes of refining or remelting of metals; Apparatus for electroslag or arc remelting of metals
    • C22B9/006General processes of refining or remelting of metals; Apparatus for electroslag or arc remelting of metals with use of an inert protective material including the use of an inert gas
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/008Using a protective surface layer
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C22/00Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive liquid, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals
    • C23C22/70Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive liquid, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals using melts
    • C23C22/72Treatment of iron or alloys based thereon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23FNON-MECHANICAL REMOVAL OF METALLIC MATERIAL FROM SURFACE; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL; MULTI-STEP PROCESSES FOR SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL INVOLVING AT LEAST ONE PROCESS PROVIDED FOR IN CLASS C23 AND AT LEAST ONE PROCESS COVERED BY SUBCLASS C21D OR C22F OR CLASS C25
    • C23F15/00Other methods of preventing corrosion or incrustation

Abstract

Process for preventing the oxidation of hot metallic surfaces comprising coating the surfaces of the hot metal with a reducing agent which forms a protective pellicle, i.e., a thin skin or film, through which the state of the metal surface can still be observed during fabrication. The pellicle or film inhibits the formation of an oxide crust. The metal may be in solid or molten condition. The pellicle is formed by applying a reducing agent to the metal surface. The reducing agent may be applied as a cloud of fine particles, as a solution, or as vapors.

Description

United States Patent 1191' Schaumburg METHOD FOR PROTECTING HOT METAL SURFACE [76] Inventor: Georges W. Schaumburg, 1 bis Rue de Londres, Montigny-Les-Metz, France [22] Filed: Jan. 30, 1970 [21] Appl. No.: 8,099

' Related U.S. Application Data Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 640,816, May 24,

1967, Abandoned.

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data May 24, 1966 France 6647309 [52] U.S. Cl 72/46, 106/54, 117/16, 117/23, 117/49, 117/129, 117/135.1

[51] Int. Cl B211) 45/02 [58] Field of Search 106/204, 52, 63,

[ Oct. 16, 1973 3,489,578 l/1970 Pugh 106/286 2,529,344 11/1950 Machlet 106/286 3,158,515 ll/l964 Michael 148/27 3,537,917 11/1970 Spencer et a1. 148/l2.1 2,762,115 9/1956 Gates 29/424 2,831,782 4/1958 Zvanut 29/528 2,842,837 7/1958 Huet et a1. 29/528 2,880,855 4/1959 Nachtman 29/528 2,885,315 5/1959 Milliken l48/13.l 2,962,808 12/1960 Cole et a]. 29/528 2,990,610 7/1961 Luckerath et a1. 29/528 Primary Examiner-William D. Martin Assistant Examiner-Theodore G. Davis Att0rneySughrue, Rothwell, Mion, Zinn & Macpeak [5 7] ABSTRACT Process for preventing the oxidation of hot metallic surfaces comprising coating the surfaces of the hot metal with a reducing agent which forms a protective pellicle, i.e., a thin skin or film, through which the state of the metal surface can still be observed during fabrication. The pellicle or film inhibits the formation of an oxide crust. The metal may be in solid or molten condition. The pellicle is formed by applying a reducing agent to the metal surface. The reducing agent may be applied as a cloud of fine particles, as a solution, or as vapors.

' 5 Claims, No Drawings METHOD FOR PROTECTING HOT METAL SURFACE CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 640,816, filed May 24, 1967 and now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention concerns a new process for the protection of solid or liquid hot metallic surfaces.

2. Description of the Prior Art It is known that surfaces of the type which are treated in the iron and steel industry have a tendency to oxidize, the more so the higher their temperature.

This oxidation generates internal and surface faults. Moreover, it constitutes an unfavorable economic element since in the dressing and transformation of steel it can represent the generation more than 20 kilograms of unusable material per tone of metal.

Processes are known which protect iron and steel parts by applying a protective or reduction layer before submitting them to treatment. However, on the one hand, these known layers are applied cold on the part which must subsequently be heated, and on the other hand, the known processes form a crust which masks the surface of the part.

An object of the present invention is to protect not only solid but also liquid hot metallic surfaces from oxidation. A further object is simultaneously to minimize the formation of oxides.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The process in accordance with the invention comprises applying,to the metallic surface to be protected, a product possessing reduction properties, which gives rise to a protective pellicle and can, as a result, be introduced and continuously applied, without modification of the manufacturing procedure already existing in the works of shop floors of the iron and steel industry, in forging or in foundry work.

Contrary to the prior art, the process in accordance with the present invention is applicable to a metallurgical part in the course of transformation or working, for example, in the course of a rolling operation, without it being necessary to heat the part solely and separately before the application of the coating. On the other hand, the protected pellicle, in accordance with the invention, reduces the oxides and minimizes the formation of calamine and leaves the hot surface visible so that one can observe with the naked eye the quality and state of the surface of the part in the course of lamina- .tion. As soon as a fault appears on the surface, it can be seen with the naked eye, since it is not masked by a crust of oxides, as in the case of known prior art processes.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The protective composition of the present invention has particular applicability to cleaning and protecting of steel, which is subjected to temperatures of between 900C. and 1,200C during the usual rolling operation on a rolling mill. Steel bars being rolled frequently circulate at a speed of about 50 meter per second and their cross-sectional surface can be reduced from 3 feet X 3 feet to a one-sixth inch diameter wire after 25 passages between the cylinder.

Protective coatings of the prior art applied before passing in the rolling mill become rapidly inefficient after a few passages, because of the enormous difference of the cross-sections. If these coatings are applied after the rolling operation, they are no longer useful. Furthermore, the metal would have to be reheated in order to form a protective pellicle.

0n the contrary, applicant's composition applied to a steel surface is able to permanently protect the metal surface throughout the rolling operation, no matter how great the cross-section reduction. Furthermore, using the heat produced in the rolling operation, it is not necessary to employ any exterior heat source in order to form the pellicle.

The materials of this invention may be easily applied to the metal surface using already existing rolling mill equipment, without any other construction than mounting a transverse tube about 5 feet in length and an aerosol producing apparatus (such as a hopper, turbine, venturi or the like). No other special preferential circuit or general installation is required. The surface defects of the steel bar may be viewed as soon as they appear during the rolling operation, as the steel surface is kept permanently clean and protected against oxidation.

The chemical forming materials of the present invention may be selected from a wide variety of materials which possesses the necessary chemical and physical properties required to insure the desired protective and reducing rolls of the present invention. That is, the materials to be employed in the process of the present invention are those which form a pellicle when'heated, suppress oxide formation on the surface of the metal to be protected and which form a film through which the surface of the metal can be observed. Such materials can comprise either mineral or organic components.

As mineral compositions which have been found to be suitable for use in the process of the present invention, there may be mentioned:

a. SiO A1 0 CaO, MgO, Na, K, and B 0 b. SiO Na CO and B203;

c. SiO K Na CO NaNlL, and HPO d. SiO A1 0 CaO, and MgO;

e. Na B O SiO and CaO.

The above mixtures, as well as those of the following examples, have been found to be absolutely non-toxic and very efficient in the protection of steel at forging temperatures of between 900 and 1,200C.

As organic compositions which have been found to be suitable for use in the process of the present invention, there may be mentioned mixtures of cellulose, a vegetable oil, such as palm nut oil, arachis oil, sunflower oil or the like, together with at least one material selected from among bentonite clay, chalk or carbon black.

The following illustrative examples will more clearly indicate the nature of the composition of the present invention. The compositions illustrated in Examples 1-5, inclusive, represent the initial compositions as applied to the hot metal surface, and not the final makeup of the coating.

EXAMPLES 1-3 The following table illustrates three compositions which are particularly suitable for application to ferrous metals during a foundry rolling operation. In claims 1-5, all proportions are set forth in parts by weight.

TABLE 1 Example C110 S102 A1103 F1220; MgO B K Na EXAMPLES 4 & 5

The following table illustrates two compositions which are particularly suitable for application to nonferrous metals during foundry rolling operations.

TABLE 2 Example 0210 810; A1 F 0; MgO T10 Be Na These materials are contacted with the hot metal surface in the same manner as described for the compositions of Examples 1-3.

EXAMPLE 6 An organic composition particularly suitable for spraying onto metal billets during foundry rolling operations was prepared by mixing the following ingredients:

Ingredient Proportion (weight percent) Cellulose 30 Palm nut oil 24 Bentonite clay 2] Carbon black 25 In use, the above composition is mixed with alcohol to obtain a sprayable paste which is then sprayed onto a metal billet during rolling. This composition provides an excellent protective coating which can be easily removed, if desired, when the metal has cooled.

As indicated in the above examples in accordance with the process which is the subject of the invention, the reducing, pellicle-forming materials are generally solid and may be used in the form of a cloud of very fine powder, the particles of which melt upon contact with the hot part of the liquid metal. As a result there is deposited apellicle which ensures rigorous protection, whilst exercising a chemical energy reduction. The compositions of this invention may also be employed in conjunction with a suitableliquid carrier, for example, as a dispersion, in the form of a fog which also gives rise, on contact with the hot surface part or the liquid metal, to a protective reducing pellicle. The reducing agents can also be directly gasified so as to constitute an atmosphere which possesses the property of reducing oxides, and which is contacted with the hot metal surface in a reducing atmosphere to form a protective pellicle.

It will be understood that the process which has been described can be used in all industries which put into use oxidizable metals and especially in the iron and steel industry, in forges or in foundries.

For example, in the case of a lamination, it will be seen that the application of a process in accordance with the invention can be effected without having to modify the lamination train, i.e., the mechanical treatment applied to the parts in the course of transformation, when the parts are at the desired temperature. The protective and reducing pellicle in accordance with the invention, maintains the surface of the part substantially free of oxides, leaving any possible superficial fault exposed to the naked eye and this, in spite of the large increase in surface observed in the course of lamination. The operation in accordance with the invention is thus comparable to sanding, grinding or chemical removal which permits suppression of masking or observation of surface faults. On the contrary, it has nothing in common with the known processes of thermal treatment which consists in applying a coating on the final cold part before passing it to an oven or a vat.

The process possesses the following principal advantages:

a. complete or substantial obviation of faults which may result from hot oxidation,

b. elimination of a large part of oxides which increase the manufacturing costs of oxidizable metals,

c. protection of metallic parts which can thus be stocked in the atmosphere without fear of attack. The protection obtained in accordance with the invention can possibly be used to form a marine coating,

d. since the treatment is effected continuously, it does not limit the production capacity in existing installations in which one puts it into practice. More especially, this treatment does not necessitate any special procedure, and

e. the treatement in accordance with the invention can be effected automatically without the intervention of a workman and it can be incorporated conveniently in existing manufacturing procedures without having to modify them. In particular, since the treatment is applied to a part in the course of hot working or transformation and not on the cold part, it does not necessitate subsequent heating of the part, for example, by passing it through an oven as a separate treatment step.

What is claimed is:

l. A continuous process for forming a protective coating on hot ferrous metals during a hot foundry rolling operation comprising continuously contacting the hot ferrous metal, during hot rolling thereof, with a chemically reducing composition which forms a pellicle when heated, supresses oxide formation on the surface of the ferrous metal being coated and forms a film through which the surface can be observed, whereby said protective coating is formed upon contact of said composition with said ferrous metal, said chemically reducing composition having the following initial composition, in parts by weight, 17.5 parts CaO, 5.5 parts SiO 1.4 parts A1 0 0.5 part Fe O 1.6 parts MgO, 14 parts B, 0.5 part K and 0.3 part Na.

2. A continuous process for forming a protective coating of hot ferrous metals during a hot foundry rolling operation comprising continuously contacting the hot ferrous metal, during hot rolling thereof, with a chemically reducing composition which forms a pellicle when heated, suppresses oxide formation on the surface of the ferrous metal being coated and forms a film through which the surface can be observed, whereby said protective coating is formed upon contact of said composition with said ferrous metal, said chemically reducing composition having the following initial composition, in parts by weight, 16.0 parts CaO, 4.5 parts SiO 3.6 parts A1 0 0.8 part F6 0,, 2.4 parts MgO and 17 parts B.

3. A continuous process for forming a protective coating of hot ferrous metals during a hot foundry rolling operation comprising continuously contacting the hot ferrous metal, during hot rolling thereof, with a chemically reducing composition which forms a pellicle when heated, suppresses oxide formation on the surface of the ferrous metal being coated and forms a film through which the surface can be observed, whereby said protective coating is formed upon contact of said composition with said ferrous metal, said chemically reducing composition having the following initial composition, in parts by weight, 25.0 parts CaO, 7.0 parts S10 4.2 parts A1 0 1.2 parts Fe,O 3.2 parts MgO and 17 parts Na.

4. A continuous process for forming a protective coating of hot ferrous metals during a hot foundry rolling operation comprising continuously contacting the hot ferrous metal, during hot rolling thereof, with a chemically reducing composition which forms a pellicle when heated, suppresses oxide formation on the surface of the ferrous metal being coated and forms a film through which the surface can be observed, whereby said protective coating is formed upon contact of said composition with said ferrous metal, said chemically reducing composition having the following initial composition, in parts by weight, 17 parts CaO, 5 parts SiO 5 parts Al, 2 parts Fe O 1.8 parts MgO, 37 parts TiO and 2.1 parts Na.

5. A continuous process for forming a protective coating of hot ferrous metals during a hot foundry rolling operation comprising continuously contacting the hot ferrous metal, during hot rolling thereof, with a chemically reducing composition which forms a pellicle when heated, suppresses oxide formation on the surface of the ferrous metal being coated and forms a film through which the surface can be observed, whereby said protective coating is formed upon contact of said composition with said ferrous metal, said chemically reducing composition having the following initial composition, in parts by weight, 22 parts CaO, 4 parts SiO 4 parts A], 1.5 parts Fe O 1.8 parts MgO, 12 parts TiO 10 parts Be and 1.7 parts Na.

Claims (4)

  1. 2. A continuous process for forming a protective coating of hot ferrous metals during a hot foundry rolling operation comprising continuously contacting the hot ferrous metal, during hot rolling thereof, with a chemically reducing composition which forms a pellicle when heated, suppresses oxide formation on the surface of the ferrous metal being coated and forms a film through which the surface can be observed, whereby said protective coating is formed upon contact of said composition with said ferrous metal, said chemically reducing composition having the following initial composition, in parts by weight, 16.0 parts CaO, 4.5 parts SiO2, 3.6 parts Al2O3, 0.8 part Fe2O3, 2.4 parts MgO and 17 parts B.
  2. 3. A continuous process for forming a protective coating of hot ferrous metals during a hot foundry rolling operation comprising continuously contacting the hot ferrous metal, during hot rolling thereof, with a chemically reducing composition which forms a pellicle when heated, suppresses oxide formation on the surface of the ferrous metal being coated and forms a film through which the surface can be observed, whereby said protective coating is formed upon contact of said composition with said ferrous metal, said chemically reducing composition having the following initial composition, in parts by weight, 25.0 parts CaO, 7.0 parts SiO2, 4.2 parts Al2O3, 1.2 parts Fe2O3, 3.2 parts MgO and 17 parts Na.
  3. 4. A continuous process for forming a protective coating of hot ferrous metals during a hot foundry rolling operation comprising continuously contacting the hot ferrous metal, during hot rolling thereof, with a chemically reducing composition which forms a pellicle when heated, suppresses oxide formation on the surface of the ferrous metal being coated and forms a film through which the surface can be observed, whereby said protective coating Is formed upon contact of said composition with said ferrous metal, said chemically reducing composition having the following initial composition, in parts by weight, 17 parts CaO, 5 parts SiO2, 5 parts Al, 2 parts Fe2O3, 1.8 parts MgO, 37 parts TiO2 and 2.1 parts Na.
  4. 5. A continuous process for forming a protective coating of hot ferrous metals during a hot foundry rolling operation comprising continuously contacting the hot ferrous metal, during hot rolling thereof, with a chemically reducing composition which forms a pellicle when heated, suppresses oxide formation on the surface of the ferrous metal being coated and forms a film through which the surface can be observed, whereby said protective coating is formed upon contact of said composition with said ferrous metal, said chemically reducing composition having the following initial composition, in parts by weight, 22 parts CaO, 4 parts SiO2, 4 parts Al, 1.5 parts Fe2O3, 1.8 parts MgO, 12 parts TiO2, 10 parts Be and 1.7 parts Na.
US3765205A 1966-05-24 1970-01-30 Method for protecting hot metal surface Expired - Lifetime US3765205A (en)

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FR69047309A FR1489122A (en) 1966-05-24 1966-05-24 A method for protecting hot metal surfaces, solid or liquid, particularly in the steel industry

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GB (1) GB1196043A (en)
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US3976474A (en) * 1972-09-22 1976-08-24 Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke Ag Covering layer for metallic baths
US4060662A (en) * 1975-08-25 1977-11-29 University Of Illinois Foundation Article having a surface layer of catalytic ash by-product of coal combustion
US4256074A (en) * 1978-06-16 1981-03-17 Nissan Motor Company, Limited Control system for closed loop mixture correction and split engine operation
US4274373A (en) * 1978-06-16 1981-06-23 Nissan Motor Company, Limited Combined split engine and closed loop mixture control operation with enriched fuel during partial cylinder mode
US6261639B1 (en) * 1998-03-31 2001-07-17 Kawasaki Steel Corporation Process for hot-rolling stainless steel
US6312764B1 (en) * 1998-07-30 2001-11-06 Sollac Process limiting overoxidation of coiled, hot-rolled sheet strip
US20160222498A1 (en) * 2015-02-04 2016-08-04 Spirit Aerosystems, Inc. Localized heat treating of net shape titanium parts

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DE3700701C2 (en) * 1987-01-13 1990-02-15 Rheinische Maschinenfabrik & Eisengiesserei Anton Roeper Gmbh & Co Kg, 4060 Viersen, De
US4848751A (en) * 1987-07-24 1989-07-18 L'air Liquide Lance for discharging liquid nitrogen or liquid argon into a furnace throughout the production of molten metal
DE102008002079A1 (en) 2008-02-20 2009-08-27 Baumüller Nürnberg GmbH Removing thin oxide layer from a surface of a metal object, comprises exposing the metal surface to an oxide-reducing environment, reducing the oxide layer, so that the metal surface is blank, and subjecting the metal object to a cooling

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US3099888A (en) * 1962-06-21 1963-08-06 Lawrence J Jaster Ice fishing net
US3191251A (en) * 1962-08-16 1965-06-29 Olsson Erik Allan Process for treating continuously cast material
US3484306A (en) * 1964-04-03 1969-12-16 Scm Corp Medium temperature temporary protective coating compositions for metals and resulting coated metal articles
US3489578A (en) * 1965-05-07 1970-01-13 Ici Ltd Soda-lime material for use in glass manufacture
US3390021A (en) * 1965-10-15 1968-06-25 North American Rockwell Metal treatment
US3537917A (en) * 1967-01-19 1970-11-03 Nat Steel Corp Process for coordinated cleaning and flow brightening of tinplated steel

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3976474A (en) * 1972-09-22 1976-08-24 Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke Ag Covering layer for metallic baths
US4060662A (en) * 1975-08-25 1977-11-29 University Of Illinois Foundation Article having a surface layer of catalytic ash by-product of coal combustion
US4256074A (en) * 1978-06-16 1981-03-17 Nissan Motor Company, Limited Control system for closed loop mixture correction and split engine operation
US4274373A (en) * 1978-06-16 1981-06-23 Nissan Motor Company, Limited Combined split engine and closed loop mixture control operation with enriched fuel during partial cylinder mode
US6261639B1 (en) * 1998-03-31 2001-07-17 Kawasaki Steel Corporation Process for hot-rolling stainless steel
US6312764B1 (en) * 1998-07-30 2001-11-06 Sollac Process limiting overoxidation of coiled, hot-rolled sheet strip
US20160222498A1 (en) * 2015-02-04 2016-08-04 Spirit Aerosystems, Inc. Localized heat treating of net shape titanium parts
US9951405B2 (en) * 2015-02-04 2018-04-24 Spirit Aerosystems, Inc. Localized heat treating of net shape titanium parts

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
ES341388A1 (en) 1968-07-01 application
LU53715A (en) application
BE698249A (en) 1967-10-16 grant
LU53715A1 (en) 1967-07-24 application
FR1489122A (en) 1967-07-21 grant
DE1558001A1 (en) 1970-02-12 application
GB1196043A (en) 1970-06-24 application
NL6707137A (en) 1967-11-27 application

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