US3756880A - Moval ultrasonic perforating a sheet of film paper or the like with chip re - Google Patents

Moval ultrasonic perforating a sheet of film paper or the like with chip re Download PDF

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Publication number
US3756880A
US3756880A US3756880DA US3756880A US 3756880 A US3756880 A US 3756880A US 3756880D A US3756880D A US 3756880DA US 3756880 A US3756880 A US 3756880A
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Prior art keywords
sheet
web
horn
punch
ultrasonic
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T Graczyk
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Eastman Kodak Co
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Eastman Kodak Co
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/81General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/816General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the mounting of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/8161General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the mounting of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps said pressing elements being supported or backed-up by springs or by resilient material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/08Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/08Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations
    • B29C65/083Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations using a rotary sonotrode or a rotary anvil
    • B29C65/086Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations using a rotary sonotrode or a rotary anvil using a rotary anvil
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/08Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations
    • B29C65/083Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations using a rotary sonotrode or a rotary anvil
    • B29C65/087Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations using a rotary sonotrode or a rotary anvil using both a rotary sonotrode and a rotary anvil
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/74Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by welding and severing, or by joining and severing, the severing being performed in the area to be joined, next to the area to be joined, in the joint area or next to the joint area
    • B29C65/743Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by welding and severing, or by joining and severing, the severing being performed in the area to be joined, next to the area to be joined, in the joint area or next to the joint area using the same tool for both joining and severing, said tool being monobloc or formed by several parts mounted together and forming a monobloc
    • B29C65/7443Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by welding and severing, or by joining and severing, the severing being performed in the area to be joined, next to the area to be joined, in the joint area or next to the joint area using the same tool for both joining and severing, said tool being monobloc or formed by several parts mounted together and forming a monobloc by means of ultrasonic vibrations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/74Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by welding and severing, or by joining and severing, the severing being performed in the area to be joined, next to the area to be joined, in the joint area or next to the joint area
    • B29C65/749Removing scrap
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/70General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material
    • B29C66/73General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset
    • B29C66/739General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset
    • B29C66/7392General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of at least one of the parts being a thermoplastic
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/81General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/814General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/8141General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined
    • B29C66/81411General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined characterised by its cross-section, e.g. transversal or longitudinal, being non-flat
    • B29C66/81415General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined characterised by its cross-section, e.g. transversal or longitudinal, being non-flat being bevelled
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/81General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/814General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/8141General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined
    • B29C66/81411General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined characterised by its cross-section, e.g. transversal or longitudinal, being non-flat
    • B29C66/81421General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined characterised by its cross-section, e.g. transversal or longitudinal, being non-flat being convex or concave
    • B29C66/81423General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined characterised by its cross-section, e.g. transversal or longitudinal, being non-flat being convex or concave being concave
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/81General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/814General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/8141General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined
    • B29C66/81433General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined being toothed, i.e. comprising several teeth or pins, or being patterned
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/83General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof characterised by the movement of the joining or pressing tools
    • B29C66/834General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof characterised by the movement of the joining or pressing tools moving with the parts to be joined
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    • B29C66/83411Roller, cylinder or drum types
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
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    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/83General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof characterised by the movement of the joining or pressing tools
    • B29C66/834General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof characterised by the movement of the joining or pressing tools moving with the parts to be joined
    • B29C66/8351Jaws mounted on rollers, cylinders, drums, bands, belts or chains; Flying jaws
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
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    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/90Measuring or controlling the joining process
    • B29C66/95Measuring or controlling the joining process by measuring or controlling specific variables not covered by groups B29C66/91 - B29C66/94
    • B29C66/951Measuring or controlling the joining process by measuring or controlling specific variables not covered by groups B29C66/91 - B29C66/94 by measuring or controlling the vibration frequency and/or the vibration amplitude of vibrating joining tools, e.g. of ultrasonic welding tools
    • B29C66/9513Measuring or controlling the joining process by measuring or controlling specific variables not covered by groups B29C66/91 - B29C66/94 by measuring or controlling the vibration frequency and/or the vibration amplitude of vibrating joining tools, e.g. of ultrasonic welding tools characterised by specific vibration frequency values or ranges
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
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    • B29C2793/0045Perforating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
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    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/40General aspects of joining substantially flat articles, e.g. plates, sheets or web-like materials; Making flat seams in tubular or hollow articles; Joining single elements to substantially flat surfaces
    • B29C66/47Joining single elements to sheets, plates or other substantially flat surfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
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    • B29C66/70General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material
    • B29C66/71General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the composition of the plastics material of the parts to be joined
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
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    • B29C66/70General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/90Measuring or controlling the joining process
    • B29C66/95Measuring or controlling the joining process by measuring or controlling specific variables not covered by groups B29C66/91 - B29C66/94
    • B29C66/951Measuring or controlling the joining process by measuring or controlling specific variables not covered by groups B29C66/91 - B29C66/94 by measuring or controlling the vibration frequency and/or the vibration amplitude of vibrating joining tools, e.g. of ultrasonic welding tools
    • B29C66/9517Measuring or controlling the joining process by measuring or controlling specific variables not covered by groups B29C66/91 - B29C66/94 by measuring or controlling the vibration frequency and/or the vibration amplitude of vibrating joining tools, e.g. of ultrasonic welding tools characterised by specific vibration amplitude values or ranges
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS
    • B29K2001/00Use of cellulose, modified cellulose or cellulose derivatives, e.g. viscose, as moulding material
    • B29K2001/08Cellulose derivatives
    • B29K2001/12Cellulose acetate
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T156/00Adhesive bonding and miscellaneous chemical manufacture
    • Y10T156/10Methods of surface bonding and/or assembly therefor
    • Y10T156/1052Methods of surface bonding and/or assembly therefor with cutting, punching, tearing or severing
    • Y10T156/1056Perforating lamina
    • Y10T156/1057Subsequent to assembly of laminae
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T83/00Cutting
    • Y10T83/04Processes
    • Y10T83/0405With preparatory or simultaneous ancillary treatment of work
    • Y10T83/041By heating or cooling
    • Y10T83/0414At localized area [e.g., line of separation]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T83/00Cutting
    • Y10T83/04Processes
    • Y10T83/0448With subsequent handling [i.e., of product]

Abstract

A hole is punched through a sheet of photographic film or paper by positioning the sheet with one side in contact with a hollow punch, and applying ultrasonic energy to the opposite side to force the punch through the sheet. A long web of such material can be passed continuously past an ultrasonic horn while a series of punches are successively brought into register with the horn to pierce a series of spaced holes. Such a series of punches can be carried by a rotating cylindrical anvil over which the web is passing. cores or chips from the holes are removed by causing them to adhere to a secondary sheet or web which is in contact with the sheet or web being perforated, adherence being assured by the ultrasonic vibration which soften thermoplastic material of either the chips or the secondary sheet.

Description

Sept. 4, 1973 T. s. GRACZYK 3,756,880

ULTRASONIC PERFORA'IING A SHEET OF FILM, PAPER OR THE LIKE, WITH CHIP REMOVAL Filed March 19, 1971 malfl llgllgll lwew THADEUS 8. GRACZYK INVENTOR.

A TTORNEY United States Patent 3,756,880 ULTRASONIC PERFORATING A SHEET OF FILM, PAPER OR THE LIKE, WITH CHIP REMOVAL Thadeus S. Graczyk, Rochester, N.Y., assignor to Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY. Filed Mar. 19, 1971, Ser. No. 126,163 Int. Cl. 133% 31 16'; B26d 7/06 U.S. Cl. 15673 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A hole is punched through a sheet of photographic film or paper by positioning the sheet with one side in contact with a hollow punch, and applying ultrasonic energy to the opposite side to force the punch through the sheet. A long web of such material can be passed continuously past an ultrasonic horn while a series of punches are successively brought into register with the horn to pierce a series of spaced holes. Such a series of punches can be carried by a rotating cylindrical anvil over which the web is passing. Cores or chips from the holes are removed by causing them to adhere to a secondary sheet or web which is in contact with the sheet or web being perforated, adherence being assured by the ultrasonic vibration which soften thermoplastic material of either the chips or the secondary sheet.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention The present invention relates to a novel method of and apparatus for perforating a sheet of material such as photographic film or paper, or similar material.

The prior art In the past, webs of such material (for example motion picture film) have been perforated along one or both edges by the intermittent operation of a punch and die set, with periodic indexing of the Web. Other methods for perforation have involved laser beams and electrical discharge means. The most commonly used are punch and die combinations because of the great accuracy that can be obtained. However, the speed of operation is lower than desirable, intermittent movement of the film rather than continuous movement is required, a substantial quantity of undesirable dust is created, and separation of coated layers from one another may occur adjacent each hole when punching photographic film or paper. Moreover, the conventional punch and die sets require expensive precision grinding (theoretically zero tolerance) for tight fit. Both parts are subject to considerable stress and wear as they punch with high force into the hard, unsoftened material and rub against hard surfaces. Consequently, both parts have to be frequently reground or replaced at considerable cost.

In the past some difficulty has been encountered in re moving the cores or chips which have been punched out of the web. In some cases it has been proposed that they remain within the hollow punch (as in US. Pat. 1,389, 645); and in others they have been deposited in cavities in a secondary Web which travels along with and under the primary web being perforated (as in Us. Pat. 2,018, 366).

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention the disadvantages discussed above have been overcome by positioning a sheet of film or paper with one side thereof in contact with a punch, and then applying ultrasonic energy to the opposite side of the sheet to force the punch through the sheet. Ultrasonic energy is applied by a horn vibrating at between about 20 and about 40 kHz, or more, and exert- See ing a mechanical force against the sheet while also heating it locally at the interface with the punch so as to soften the material and reduce energy requirements, while also reducing the possibility of dust being formed. The procedural steps just described apply to the perforation of a continuously moving web which is passing across the ultrasonic horn while a series of accurately spaced punches are successively brought into contact with the opposite side of the web. The speed of operation can be considerably higher than that of conventional perforators.

In order to remove the chips or cores, I position a secondary imperforate sheet or web on the primary sheet or web being perforated, betwen the ultrasonic horn and the die. At least one of the sheets should have at least a surface comprising a thermoplastic adhesive resin, and advantageously should be mainly composed of such a resin, as in photographic film, so that the core or chip adheres to the secondary sheet as a result of the ultrasonic vibrations which soften the thermoplastic resin. Thereafter, the two sheets are separated from one another, with the cleanly perforated primary sheet travelling in one direction and the secondary sheet carrying the adherent chips or cores travelling in a different direction.

THE DRAWINGS The principles of the invention will become apparent from the following description having reference to the accompanying drawing wherein:

FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view, partly in side elevation, showing on an exaggerated scale an arrangement of apparatus for ultrasonically perforating one or more holes in a sheet of material;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing a single hollow punch useful for performing the invention;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view showing a perforated primary sheet in relation to the secondary sheet carrying the removed cores; and

FIG. 4 is a side elevational view schematically showing an apparatus for continuously and repetitively ultrasonically perforating a series of accurately spaced holes through a continuously moving long web of material.

THE SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2 there is shown an anvil 11 of a dense rigid material such as steel or other metal, having hollow punches or studs 13 mounted within bores therein and protruding above the top surface of the anvil by a distance equal to, or slightly greater than, the thick ness of primary sheet 15, to be perforated. A secondary sheet 16 is positioned on top of sheet 15 for the purpose of carrying away the chip or core 18 which is removed from sheet 15. An ultrasonic horn 17 is positioned with its bottom surface adjacent the top side of web 16, so that when horn 17 is vibrated rapidly up and down by an ultrasonic transducer of a type which is well known, the horn forces sheets 16 and 15 down toward punch 13 While at the same time heating the sheet 15 at its interface with punch 13, thus forming a hole therein by cutting out a core or chip 18.

When a single hole is to be perforated, horn 17 is stationary. When a plurality of holes are to be perforated relative movement between born 17 and the sheets 15 and 16 across successive punches 13 can be effected in any desired way, as by moving the horn 17 in the direction shown by the arrow, or by moving the anvil and sheets under the horn 17. To avoid damage to the sheets during such movement, one edge of born 17 is chamfered at 17a; and it is also advantageous for the bottom surface 17b of the horn to be fiat with the plane thereof inclined slightly away from the fiat surface of anvil 11 in the direction of advance of the horn relative to the anvil, say at a 1-1.5

acute angle, thus reducing friction between the horn and sheet 16 as the horn passes progressively over the leading edge and then the trailing edge of punch 13.

Ultrasonic transducers suitable for carrying out this operation are well known, and have been described in numerous patents such as US. 3,495,104 and 3,022,814.

Generally, such transducers vibrate at a frequency of up to 80 kHz., e.g. 20 or 40 kHz., and may have an amplitude of between .001 and .005 inch, more or less. The transducer generally is carried by a suitable support (not shown) which permits the horn 17 to float rather than being rigidly mounted, thereby permitting the horn to drop down slightly as sheet 15 is forced over punches 13. However, even with a rigidly mounted transducer, the excursion of the end of horn 17 can be relied upon to perforate the web.

Punch 13 can have any desired shape so that its open end will punch holes of circular, rectangular or other shape as desired. Advantageously the punch is externally cylindrical, is hollow, and is internally bevelled to provide a frustoconical internal wall, say with an included angle of about 30, and a sharp cutting edge 13a as shown in FIG. 2. The internal bevel assures that the core 18 will be pressed against secondary web 16 to adhere thereto.

My novel perforating method has been successfully used for perforating holes of various shapes in acetate type and poly(ethylene terephthalate) type photographic film 15 ranging from 2.5 to mils thickness, using paper 16 of thickness in the same range. Examples of holes punched are circular holes of 100 mils diameter, and rectangular holes 57 x 80 mils. The sharp edge punch 13 penetrates about 2 mils into the paper, and core 18 is welded thereto by the ultrasonic energy acting on the inclined wall of the punch.

FIG. 3 shows the appearance of webs and 16, respectively, after the holes have been punched in web 15 and the frustoconical chips or cores 18 adhere to the web 16 for subsequent removal therewith.

When employing the principles described above for perforating a long web by effecting relative movement between a horn and the web, such as a web of photographic film or paper, rapid and continuous operation is desired. This can be secured with the apparatus shown in FIG. 4 wherein a steel or other metal anvil 21 is cylindrical in shape and is mounted for continuous rotation adjacent the end of an ultrasonic horn 23, to carry a long web 25 of photographic film or paper continuously across the horn.

The anvil 21 carries a series of equally spaced radially extending hollow punches 27 which are successively brought into register with horn 23 to perforate long primary web 25 as it passes continuously across energized horn 23. At the same time there is passed between the web 25 and the horn 23 a secondary web 29 of material such as paper for the purpose of removing the cores or chips 30 away from film 25. Webs 25 and 29 are transported over conventional rollers driven by conventional drive mechanisms which are so positioned as to bring the two webs together from spaced positions, and subsequently to separate the webs from one another so as to carry the chips away. Anvil 21 can be driven directly, or can be driven by the motion of webs 25 and 29.

The end of horn 23 is slightly curved to conform with the surface of anvil 21, and has a chamfered corner 23a to assure that damage to the webs will be avoided.

Instead of employing a stationary horn 23, perforating may be accomplished with a rotatable cylindrical ultrasonic horn of the type shown in US. Pat. 3,210,864 of T. B. Jones et al. entitled Method and Apparatus for Ultrasonic Welding.

The principles of the invention can be applied to sheet or web materials of many types as long as one of the contacting surfaces of superposed sheets or webs comprises a thermoplastic adhesive material which is softened by the ultrasonic vibrations and causes chips from the primary sheet to adhere to the secondary sheet. Generally the primary sheets 15 and 25 comprise a thermoplastic photographic film such as cellulose acetate, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl choride, a copoymer of polyvinyl acetate and chloride, polyvinylidene chloride or poly(ethylene terephthalate). The secondary sheets 16 and 29 generally are paper. Alternatively, either or both of the sheets can comprise a non thermoplastic material such as metal or paper, having a thin coating of a thermoplastic resin on the surface which contacts the other sheet, for example, polyethylene or any of the other thermoplastic materials mentioned above.

The ultrasonic perforating method as described above provides important advantages. It requires only the punch (or hollow cutting stud), without a precision ground die.

The stress and friction between the punch and the material being worked, are very significantly reduced due to the fact that the ultrasonic energy induces transient plasticity in this material. The punch advances into the presoftened film progressively from the leading to the trailing surface of the hole being perforated, as the high frequency slightly inclined vibrating horn surface slides over.

Thus, the punch works on presoftened materials only and never touches any hard metal surfaces. (There is soft separation tape acting as a buffer between the punch and the metal tip of the ultrasonic transducer.) The horn slides on the buffer material only, friction is reduced to a minimum due to the high frequency vibrations, and the horns surface remains essentially unchanged for life.

In conclusion, the ultrasonic perforator of this invention very significantly reduces tool wear, minimizes builtin stresses in the perforated material, is simpler to install, and requires less maintenance than punch and die devices.

The invention has been described in detail with particular reference to preferred embodiments thereof, but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention.

1 claim: 1. A method for ultrasonically perforating a first sheet of material by removing a chip therefrom and carrying said chip away on a second sheet, at least one of said sheets having at least a surface thereof comprising a thermoplastic resin, said method comprising providing at least one perforating punch; positioning said first sheet on said perforating punch; positioning said second sheet with one surface thereof on said first sheet; said thermoplastic surface of one sheet being in contact with the other sheet;

positioning an ultrasonic horn adjacent the opposite surface of said second sheet and in register with said perforating punch;

applying ultrasonic energy by said ultrasonic horn to an area on said opposite surface of said second sheet over said punch thereby causing said punch to penetrate through said first sheet removing a chip therefrom, and concurrently softening said thermoplastic surface causing said chip to adhere to said second sheet; and

separating said first sheet from said second sheet and the chip thereon.

2. A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein said thermoplastic resin comprises at least a surface of said first sheet.

3. A method in accordance with claim 2 wherein said first sheet is photographic film and said second sheet is paper.

4. A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein said first sheet is positioned on a plurality of said perforating punches, said method also comprising applying such ultrasonic energy by applying an ultrasonic horn to said second sheet, and effecting relative movement between said horn and said sheets in a direction across said punches.

5. A method in accordance with claim 4 wherein such 6 relative movement is effected by translating said horn across stationary sheets. References Cited 6. A method in accordance with claim 4 wherein such UNITED STATES PATENTS relative movement is effected by translating said sheets and punches across a stationary horn. 5 5 et "52:2;

7. A method in accordance with claim 6 wherein said organ punches are translated across said horn by rotation in a DOUGLAS J DRUMMOND Primary Examiner circle; and wherein said sheets are webs, said method comprising moving said webs together between said US CL punches and said horn, after separating said webs from 10 one another thereafter. 53

@ 3 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE v CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,756,880 Dated September 4, 1973 Inventr(3) Thadeas S. Graczyk It is certifi'ed'that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 2, line 5 after "perforation of a" insert--stationary web as wellas to the repetitive perforation of a--.

Signed and sealed this llrth day of May 197A.

(SEAL) Attest:

' EDI-IARD PLFLETCHERJR. c. MARSHALL DAIIN' Atte sting Officer Commissioner of Patents

US3756880A 1971-03-19 1971-03-19 Moval ultrasonic perforating a sheet of film paper or the like with chip re Expired - Lifetime US3756880A (en)

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4227959A (en) * 1978-12-27 1980-10-14 Chatham Manufacturing Company Sonic or ultrasonic apparatus for simultaneously cutting and seaming sheet material
US4295478A (en) * 1979-04-11 1981-10-20 Rjr Archer, Inc. Composite tipping structure for use on an air-ventilated cigarette and method of manufacturing same
FR2602992A1 (en) * 1986-08-20 1988-02-26 American White Cross Lab Inc continuously perforating device ultrasonically
FR2633547A1 (en) * 1988-06-30 1990-01-05 Rhone Poulenc Films Process for the thermoplastic film by ultrasonic microperforation
US5064130A (en) * 1988-10-04 1991-11-12 Gfm Holding Aktiengesellschaft Cutting plant for cutting blanks out of a starting strip
US5269981A (en) * 1991-09-30 1993-12-14 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Process for hydrosonically microaperturing
US5314737A (en) * 1991-09-30 1994-05-24 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Area thinned thin sheet materials
US5336452A (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-08-09 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Process for hydrosonically area embossing thin thermoplastic film materials
US5368464A (en) * 1992-12-31 1994-11-29 Eastman Kodak Company Ultrasonic apparatus for cutting and placing individual chips of light lock material
US5370830A (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-12-06 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Hydrosonic process for forming electret filter media
US5443886A (en) * 1991-09-30 1995-08-22 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Hydrosonically embedded soft thin film materials
US5554250A (en) * 1993-08-31 1996-09-10 Dowbrands L.P. Apparatus for microperforating zippered film useful for manufacturing a reclosable zippered bag
US5735984A (en) * 1994-11-08 1998-04-07 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of aperturing thin sheet materials
US5879494A (en) * 1996-09-23 1999-03-09 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of aperturing thin sheet materials
US20110162495A1 (en) * 2008-09-18 2011-07-07 Stanley Electric Co., Ltd. Method for manufacturing imaging element
WO2012042055A1 (en) 2010-10-01 2012-04-05 Concepts For Success (C4S) Forming of consolidation regions in a web and a web comprising such regions

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4227959A (en) * 1978-12-27 1980-10-14 Chatham Manufacturing Company Sonic or ultrasonic apparatus for simultaneously cutting and seaming sheet material
US4295478A (en) * 1979-04-11 1981-10-20 Rjr Archer, Inc. Composite tipping structure for use on an air-ventilated cigarette and method of manufacturing same
FR2602992A1 (en) * 1986-08-20 1988-02-26 American White Cross Lab Inc continuously perforating device ultrasonically
US4747895A (en) * 1986-08-20 1988-05-31 American White Cross Laboratories, Inc. Continuous ultrasonic perforating system and method
FR2633547A1 (en) * 1988-06-30 1990-01-05 Rhone Poulenc Films Process for the thermoplastic film by ultrasonic microperforation
WO1990000110A1 (en) * 1988-06-30 1990-01-11 Rhone-Poulenc Films An ultrasonic process for the microperforation of thermoplastic films
US5064130A (en) * 1988-10-04 1991-11-12 Gfm Holding Aktiengesellschaft Cutting plant for cutting blanks out of a starting strip
US5443886A (en) * 1991-09-30 1995-08-22 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Hydrosonically embedded soft thin film materials
US5269981A (en) * 1991-09-30 1993-12-14 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Process for hydrosonically microaperturing
US5314737A (en) * 1991-09-30 1994-05-24 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Area thinned thin sheet materials
US5514308A (en) * 1991-09-30 1996-05-07 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Method for hydrosonically embedding a material in a soft thin film material
US5336452A (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-08-09 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Process for hydrosonically area embossing thin thermoplastic film materials
US5370830A (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-12-06 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Hydrosonic process for forming electret filter media
US5512132A (en) * 1992-12-31 1996-04-30 Eastman Kodak Company Method for cutting and placing individual chips of light lock material
US5368464A (en) * 1992-12-31 1994-11-29 Eastman Kodak Company Ultrasonic apparatus for cutting and placing individual chips of light lock material
US5554250A (en) * 1993-08-31 1996-09-10 Dowbrands L.P. Apparatus for microperforating zippered film useful for manufacturing a reclosable zippered bag
US5735984A (en) * 1994-11-08 1998-04-07 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of aperturing thin sheet materials
US5879494A (en) * 1996-09-23 1999-03-09 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of aperturing thin sheet materials
US20110162495A1 (en) * 2008-09-18 2011-07-07 Stanley Electric Co., Ltd. Method for manufacturing imaging element
US8584561B2 (en) * 2008-09-18 2013-11-19 Stanley Electric Co., Ltd. Method for manufacturing imaging element
WO2012042055A1 (en) 2010-10-01 2012-04-05 Concepts For Success (C4S) Forming of consolidation regions in a web and a web comprising such regions
US9254585B2 (en) 2010-10-01 2016-02-09 Concepts For Success (C4S) Forming of consolidation regions in a web and a web comprising such regions

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