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US3890892A - Ultrasonic marking - Google Patents

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Publication number
US3890892A
US3890892A US30505072A US3890892A US 3890892 A US3890892 A US 3890892A US 30505072 A US30505072 A US 30505072A US 3890892 A US3890892 A US 3890892A
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Prior art keywords
horn
anvil
web
indicia
material
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Guenter H Loose
William J Diesel
Thadeus S Graczyk
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Eastman Kodak Co
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Eastman Kodak Co
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/81General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/816General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the mounting of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/8161General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the mounting of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps said pressing elements being supported or backed-up by springs or by resilient material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C59/00Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C59/02Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor by mechanical means, e.g. pressing
    • B29C59/04Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor by mechanical means, e.g. pressing using rollers or endless belts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/08Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/08Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations
    • B29C65/081Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations having a component of vibration not perpendicular to the welding surface
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/08Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations
    • B29C65/083Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations using a rotary sonotrode or a rotary anvil
    • B29C65/085Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations using a rotary sonotrode or a rotary anvil using a rotary sonotrode
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/74Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by welding and severing, or by joining and severing, the severing being performed in the area to be joined, next to the area to be joined, in the joint area or next to the joint area
    • B29C65/743Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by welding and severing, or by joining and severing, the severing being performed in the area to be joined, next to the area to be joined, in the joint area or next to the joint area using the same tool for both joining and severing, said tool being monobloc or formed by several parts mounted together and forming a monobloc
    • B29C65/7443Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by welding and severing, or by joining and severing, the severing being performed in the area to be joined, next to the area to be joined, in the joint area or next to the joint area using the same tool for both joining and severing, said tool being monobloc or formed by several parts mounted together and forming a monobloc by means of ultrasonic vibrations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/74Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by welding and severing, or by joining and severing, the severing being performed in the area to be joined, next to the area to be joined, in the joint area or next to the joint area
    • B29C65/749Removing scrap
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/01General aspects dealing with the joint area or with the area to be joined
    • B29C66/05Particular design of joint configurations
    • B29C66/306Applying a mark during joining
    • B29C66/3062Applying a mark during joining in the form of letters or numbers
    • B29C66/30623Applying a mark during joining in the form of letters or numbers in the form of numbers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/70General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material
    • B29C66/73General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset
    • B29C66/739General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset
    • B29C66/7392General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of at least one of the parts being a thermoplastic
    • B29C66/73921General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of at least one of the parts being a thermoplastic characterised by the materials of both parts being thermoplastics
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/81General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/814General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps
    • B29C66/8141General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined
    • B29C66/81433General aspects of the pressing elements, i.e. the elements applying pressure on the parts to be joined in the area to be joined, e.g. the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the design of the pressing elements, e.g. of the welding jaws or clamps characterised by the surface geometry of the part of the pressing elements, e.g. welding jaws or clamps, coming into contact with the parts to be joined being toothed, i.e. comprising several teeth or pins, or being patterned
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/83General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof characterised by the movement of the joining or pressing tools
    • B29C66/836Moving relative to and tangentially to the parts to be joined, e.g. transversely to the displacement of the parts to be joined, e.g. using a X-Y table
    • B29C66/8362Rollers, cylinders or drums moving relative to and tangentially to the parts to be joined
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B44DECORATIVE ARTS
    • B44BMACHINES, APPARATUS OR TOOLS FOR ARTISTIC WORK, e.g. FOR SCULPTURING, GUILLOCHING, CARVING, BRANDING, INLAYING
    • B44B5/00Machines or apparatus for embossing decorations or marks, e.g. embossing coins
    • B44B5/0061Machines or apparatus for embossing decorations or marks, e.g. embossing coins characterised by the power drive
    • B44B5/0066Machines or apparatus for embossing decorations or marks, e.g. embossing coins characterised by the power drive producing a vibratory motion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B44DECORATIVE ARTS
    • B44CPRODUCING DECORATIVE EFFECTS; MOSAICS; TARSIA WORK; PAPERHANGING
    • B44C1/00Processes, not specifically provided for elsewhere, for producing decorative surface effects
    • B44C1/24Pressing or stamping ornamental designs on surfaces
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B21/00Projectors or projection-type viewers; Accessories therefor
    • G03B21/14Details
    • G03B21/32Details specially adapted for motion-picture projection
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/08Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations
    • B29C65/083Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations using a rotary sonotrode or a rotary anvil
    • B29C65/086Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations using a rotary sonotrode or a rotary anvil using a rotary anvil
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/70General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material
    • B29C66/71General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the composition of the plastics material of the parts to be joined
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/90Measuring or controlling the joining process
    • B29C66/95Measuring or controlling the joining process by measuring or controlling specific variables not covered by groups B29C66/91 - B29C66/94
    • B29C66/951Measuring or controlling the joining process by measuring or controlling specific variables not covered by groups B29C66/91 - B29C66/94 by measuring or controlling the vibration frequency and/or the vibration amplitude of vibrating joining tools, e.g. of ultrasonic welding tools
    • B29C66/9513Measuring or controlling the joining process by measuring or controlling specific variables not covered by groups B29C66/91 - B29C66/94 by measuring or controlling the vibration frequency and/or the vibration amplitude of vibrating joining tools, e.g. of ultrasonic welding tools characterised by specific vibration frequency values or ranges
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS
    • B29K2001/00Use of cellulose, modified cellulose or cellulose derivatives, e.g. viscose, as moulding material
    • B29K2001/08Cellulose derivatives
    • B29K2001/12Cellulose acetate

Abstract

A method for embossing indicia such as numbers, letters, or other symbols into an article of malleable material such as a thin sheet or web by providing an anvil which has the appropriate indicia defined by a plurality of individual protuberant dots, positioning the article against the anvil in contact with the protuberant dots, and applying an ultrasonically vibrating horn to the article and forcing it against the dots to form indentations. Relative translational movement can be effected between the horn and the article when the indicia cover a greater area than the surface of the horn. The horn can be non-rotating, or can rotate along the surface of the article. The method is particularly applicable to the marking of photographic film and paper.

Description

Loose et al.

1 1 ULTRASONIC MARKING [75] Inventors: Guenter H. Loose; William ,1. Diesel;

Thadeus S. Graczyk, all of Rochester, N.Y.

[73] Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company,

Rochester, N.Y.

[22] Filed: Nov. 9, 1972 [21] App], No.: 305,050

Related US. Application Data [63] Continuation of Ser. No. 85,595, Oct. 30, 1970,

abandoned.

[52] US. Cl. 101/32; 10l/D1G. 5; 274/42 P; 346/77 E [51] Int. Cl. B44c 1/24 [58] Field of Search 101/1, 3, 93 C, DIG. 5, 101/28, 32, 407, 368, 369, 19; 40/136; 346/69, 77 R, 77 E, 141, 136; 352/225; 310/813; 274/42 P [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2.7 2.7 5/1957 Toeppen et a1 101/936 1,889,179 11/1932 Lobl 40/136 2,027,637 1/1936 Eaton 101/297 2,522,078 9/1950 Walker.... 346/77 R 2,651,148 9/1953 Carwile l01/D1G. 5 2,748,298 5/1956 Calosi et a1. 101/D1G. 5 2,891,178 6/1959 Elmore l0l/D1G. 5

[ June 24, 1975 2,939,958 7/1960 -Andersson..... 101/369 X 2,942,928 6/1960 Levin 101/D1G. 5 3,055,294 9/1962 Amyx 101/D1G. 5 3,089,41 1 5/1963 Sollberger et a1 101/3 R 3,112,693 12/1963 Williams 101/D1G. 5 3,151,521 10/l964 Atkin et a1 352/225 X 3,175,383 3/1965 Levine 101/32 X 3,409,904 11/1968 Maiershofer 101/1 X 3,626,843 12/1971 Willing lOl/3 R 3,749,006 7/1973 Loose 101/32 Primary Examiner-E. H. Eickholt Attorney, Agent, or Firm-S. W. Gremban 5 7] ABSTRACT A method for embossing indicia such as numbers, letters, or other symbols into an article of malleable material such as a thin sheet or web by providing an anvil which has the appropriate indicia defined by a plurality of individual protuberant dots, positioning the article against the anvil in contact with the protuberant dots, and applying an ultrasonically vibrating horn to the article and forcing it against the dots to form indentations. Relative translational movement can be effected between the horn and the article when the indicia cover a greater area than the surface of the horn. The horn can be non-rotating, or can rotate along the surface of the article. The method is particularly applicable to the marking of photographic film and paper.

2 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures ULTRASONIC MARKING This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 85,595,

filed Oct. 30, 1970, now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a novel method for ultrasonically marking indicia in an article of malleable material such as a sheet or web of photograpic film or paper, aluminum or other metal foils, and various synthetic plastics such as polyethylene or polypropylene.

2. The Prior Art In the photographic products industry it has been customary to mark photographic film and paper by perforating indicia (such as numbers or letters) through the web, using a die set with many punches. Such a die set is very costly to produce and to maintain. Also, when perforating the web, problems are encountered as a result of the dust and chips that are produced, which may seriously interfere with subsequent procedures.

In US. Ser. No. 858,428, which was filed on Sept. 16, l969, by Guenter H Loose (one of the present inventors) and which is assigned to Eastman Kodak Company like the present application, there is described the ultrasonic embossing of a number or other indicia in a sheet by positioning a raised fully defined number in contact with one side of the web while an ultrasonic horn is applied to the opposite side of the web. This operation has proved to be very successful for embossing small numbers in webs. but when large-sized numbers greater than about one-sixteenth inch in the longest direction are to be embossed, undesirably great ultrasonic energy is required, it is not always possible to secure a complete impression, the numbers tend to be distorted and smeared, and light transmission is so poor that they cannot easily be read in a darkened room where photographic operations are conducted. Furthermore, numbering dies required for this operation are quite expensive to produce and maintain.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention, We have provided a novel method for embossing indicia such as numbers, letters, and other symbols into a thin sheet or other article of malleable material such as webs of photographic film (e.g., polyester or cellulose acetate) or paper, aluminum or other metal foils, and various synthetic plastics such as polyethylene and polypropylene, which overcomes the disadvantages of the prior art. We provide an anvil template of hard material such as steel which has the appropriate indicia delineated on the surface thereof by a plurality of individual tiny protuberant dots which are spaced apart and project above the surface of the anvil. We then position the sheet against this anvil with one side of the sheet in contact with the protuberant dots, and apply pressure impulses from an ultrasonically vibrating horn to the opposite side of the web, thus heating and forcing the web against the dots to form the indicia in the web as a series of small cavities or indentations.

With this technique, material is only displaced rather than removed from the web as in prior art punching operations so that the problem of dust and chips is eliminated. In a thermoplastic material, melting and resolidilication occur simultaneously during displacement.

Furthermore. the cost of producing and maintaining an anvil with protuberant dots is much less than when using a die set for perforation, or when employing fully I at the localities of the individual dots where the anvil.

is protected by a resistant covering. Such an etching technique is well known and isdescribed in the publication, Chemical Milling with Kodak Photosensitive Resists" (Kodak Publication P13 1 copyrighted in 1968 by Eastman Kodak Company.

The operation described above can be performed without effecting relative translational movement between the horn and the anvil when the indicia to be embossed cover a relatively small area no greater than the area of the end of the ultrasonic horn. However, it so happens that indicia frequently must be embossed over an area substantially greater than the area of the horn end, for example when numbers must be embossed at intervals across the entire width of a roll of photographic film or paper which may be as wide as 54 inches. Our novel method can be used under such circumstances by effecting relative movement between the ultrasonic horn and the web so that the end surface of the horn passes successively over the numbers. In one type of operation the web and anvil are held stationary while the horn is traversed across the web and the anvil by any suitable mechanism. In another type of operation the horn is held stationary while the anvil and the web are moved across the end surface of the horn.

Embossing can be accomplished by a non-rotating horn, or by a cylindrical horn having its cylindrical surface in contact with the web above the indicia, and rotating along the web during the embossing operation. Provision is made in the latter design for maintaining electrical connections to the ultrasonic transducer as it rotates. A suitable construction is described in US. Pat. No. 3,201,864 to J. B. Jones et al, for Method and Apparatus for Ultrasonic Welding,"

THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a schematic plan view showing a web positioned on an anvil template for ultrasonic embossing in accordance with the invention;

FIG. 2 is a schematic front elevational view showing apparatus in position for ultransonically embossing a web with a non-rotating horn;

FIG. 3 is a side elevational view on a greatly enlarged scale showing an anvil template with protuberant dots for outlining indicia;

FIG. 4 is a front elevational view showing an alternative apparatus for ultrasonically embossing a web, using a rotating cylindrical horn; and

FIG. 5 is a sectional view, partly in elevation, taken along line 55 in FIG. 4.

THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2 there is shown an anvil template 11 comprised of a hard material such as steel or other metal whose top surface is provided with appropriate indicia formed by series of protuberant generally cylindrical dots 12, which in the example shown form a plus symbol and a series of mirror image numbers. Thus, the anvil operates as a template having the appropriate indicia thereon for embossing onto a sheet such as the web 13 of photographic film or paper lying on top of the anvil ll. Anvil 11 is shown as a plate which is bolted or otherwise secured to a heavy backup plate, but it can as well be a thinner strip, or a unitary structure.

An ultrasonic transducer T comprising a horn I5 is positioned with a bottom surface 17 in position to vibrate vertically down against the web 13 and force it down over the protuberant dots so as to cause them to penetrate part way or all the way through the web and form the indicia therein. Even with complete penetration, there is no release of dust and fragments because material is only displaced rather than removed. The bottom surface of horn 15 can be planar or curved slightly, or planar with curved edges.

When the indicia cover a relatively small area, move ment of the horn 15 across the work is not necessary. However, when a series of indicia such as numbers extend over a substantial area greater than that of the horn surface 17, then embossing is accomplished by moving the transducer T with its horn 15 across the work in any desired way, as by rotating a lead screw (FIG. 4) within a support 19 to cause a travelling nut (FIG. 4) which carries transducer T to move across the support 19 from an initial position A to a final position Similar results can be obtained by holding the horn l5 stationary and causing the anvil 11 to move under the horn in a straight line, or in a circle if the indicia are provided on the surface of a rotatable cylindrical anvil over which the web is continuously moving, as in U.S. application Ser. No. 858,428.

FIG. 3 shows the general shape of the dots or protuberances 12, which generally project a distance slightly greater than the thickness of the sheet to be embossed. The depth of penetration is then controlled by properly adjusting the downward force exerted by the horn, and

the power supplied to the transducer. In some cases,

complete penetration through the sheet is desired; in other cases, only partial penetration. Individual dot diameters of 0.017 inch, plus or minus 0.005 inch, have been employed, but much smaller diameters can be employed, such as 0.003 inch.

Referring to FIGS. 4 and 5, the ultrasonic horn 15 has the shape of a wheel or cylinder with its cylindrical surface in contact with the web 13 on anvil 11. Starting from the positionA', the horn is moved across the work to position B by any suitable traversing mechanism such as a lead screw 20 and a travelling nut 21 within support 19, as described in connection with FIG. 2. During such movement the cylindrical horn 15 rotates freely along the surface of web 13 on an axis which is perpendicular to the length of the web, and vibrates longitudinally to exert a wiping action on the web.

FIG. 5 shows the construction of the ultrasonic transducer T which permits rotation of the horn 15' without interrupting the flow of electric current to the transducer. Transducer T is mounted rigidly within a cylindrical housing which in turn is rotatably supported within a cylindrical-support 41 by means of a pair of spaced ball bearings 43 and 45 which are wedged between the two.

With the described construction. the entire transducer T rotates as horn 15' is moved across the work. This necessitates suitable means for assuring continuity of the electrical supply to the transducer as it rotates. A tube 49 projects from the rear end of transducer T and rotates therewith. The outside of tube 49 carries a pair of longitudinally spaced circular electrical conductors 51 and 53 which rotate in contact with stationary electrical conductors such as brushes 55 and 57. The conductors 51 and 53 are individually connected by insulated wires within the tube 49 (not shown) to the transducer.

The ultransonic transducer can be constructed in any well-known way such as in Calosi et al, US. Pat. No. 2,748,298, which describes a magnetostrictive transducer. or in Jacke et al, US. Pat. No. 3.328,6l0, describing a piezoelectric transducer, both designed to vibrate the horn back and forth in a lengthwise direction. Vibrations ranging from 20 to kilohertz (I KHZ equals 1,000 periods or cycles per second) can be employed successfully.

The method described in detail above overcomes the disadvantages of the prior art discussed previously herein. Moreover, another important advantage is secured in that when a coated film or paper is embossed in the described way, the coatings at the points of indentation become stretched and fragmented with the result that even through the major portion of the web may be opaque to light, it becomes transparent or translucent at the indentations so that the indicia may be read even in the presence of the weak red or green lights that are customary in photographic operations. This is indeed a great advantage.

Indicia as large as /8 by A inch have been successfully formed with indentations about 0.0 I 7 inch in diameter, but much smaller indicia such as l/l6 inch square can be formed with indentations as small as 0.003 inch in diameter. A punch and die set could not be made to create such small indentations.

The invention has been described in detail with particular reference to preferred embodiments thereof, but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention.

We claim: 1. A method for embossing indicia into a thin sheet of malleable thermoplastic material which comprises: providing an anvil having an indicia defined thereon by a plurality of individual spaced dot-like protuberances projecting from the surface of said anvil;

positioning a thermoplastic material over the anvil with one side of said material resting upon and in engagement with the dot-like protuberances; and

applying ultrasonically vibrating pressure impulses generated by an ultrasonic vibrating device comprising a transducer and horn to the opposite side of said thermoplastic material for applying heat and pressure to said material causing said material in register with and resting on the protuberances to melt, be displaced and to resolidify forming a plurality of clear. undistorted, indentations extending partially through said material and which due to the reduced thickness at said indentations are substantially transparent and clearly visible in the presence of a weak light.

2. The invention according to claim 1 comprising the step of effecting relative translational movement between the vibrating device and the article and anvil as a unit substantially simultaneously with the step of applying the ultrasonically vibrating pressure impulses.

Claims (2)

1. A method for embossing indicia into a thin sheet of malleable thermoplastic material which comprises: providing an anvil having an indicia defined thereon by a plurality of individual spaced dot-like protuberances projecting from the surface of said anvil; positioning a thermoplastic material over the anvil with one side of said material resting upon and in engagement with the dot-like protuberances; and applying ultrasonically vibrating pressure impulses generated by an ultrasonic vibrating device comprising a transducer and horn to the opposite side of said thermoplastic material for applying heat and pressure to said material causing said material in register with and resting on the protuberances to melt, be displaced and to resolidify forming a plurality of clear, undistorted, indentations extending partially through said material and which due to the reduced thickness at said indentations are substantially transparent and clearly visible in the presence of a weak light.
2. The invention according to claim 1 comprising the step of effecting relative translational movement between the vibrating device and the article and anvil as a unit substantially simultaneously with the step of applying the ultrasonically vibrating pressure impulses.
US3890892A 1970-10-30 1972-11-09 Ultrasonic marking Expired - Lifetime US3890892A (en)

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Cited By (15)

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US3998153A (en) * 1975-03-18 1976-12-21 Sperry Rand Corporation High frequency power integrating printer
US4247273A (en) * 1978-07-27 1981-01-27 Agfa-Gevaert, A.G. Method and an apparatus for cambering the edges of webs of thermoplastic materials on one and both sides using the energy of ultrasonic vibration
US4759131A (en) * 1984-04-24 1988-07-26 Wild Heerbrugg Ag Method and apparatus for marking image points in photogrammetric surveys
EP0340334A2 (en) * 1988-05-05 1989-11-08 Drescher Geschäftsdrucke Gmbh Apparatus for joining two or multilayered paper articles together
US5393589A (en) * 1992-06-24 1995-02-28 Eastman Kodak Company Apparatus and method for variably knurling edges of web and product produced thereby
FR2712228A1 (en) * 1993-11-09 1995-05-19 Sfc Butt joining of heat sealable films
WO1996023645A1 (en) * 1995-01-31 1996-08-08 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Rotary sealing system
EP0842756A1 (en) * 1996-11-08 1998-05-20 Milliken Research Corporation Ultrasonically spliced roll towel
FR2792575A1 (en) * 1999-04-23 2000-10-27 Cera France Stamping method for fixing indelible identification on product includes placing product between sonotrode and stamp, pressing locally on product, and applying ultrasonic energy through sonotrode
WO2003057461A1 (en) * 2001-12-28 2003-07-17 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Method for simultaneously imprinting a pattern and bonding cellulose webs using ultrasonic energy
GB2423281A (en) * 2005-02-18 2006-08-23 Kalogridis International Ltd Fire-resistant ultra-lightweight panel with three-dimensional surface design
US20070240586A1 (en) * 2006-04-17 2007-10-18 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Embossing or bonding device containing facetted impression elements
WO2010026421A1 (en) * 2008-09-03 2010-03-11 Innovia Films Limited Film
US20100154972A1 (en) * 2007-08-22 2010-06-24 Xerox Corporation Flexible imaging member belt seam smoothing process
GB2487830A (en) * 2011-02-01 2012-08-08 Porsche Ag Producing a decoration in a flexible convertible-top cloth for a convertible

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US3998153A (en) * 1975-03-18 1976-12-21 Sperry Rand Corporation High frequency power integrating printer
US4247273A (en) * 1978-07-27 1981-01-27 Agfa-Gevaert, A.G. Method and an apparatus for cambering the edges of webs of thermoplastic materials on one and both sides using the energy of ultrasonic vibration
US4759131A (en) * 1984-04-24 1988-07-26 Wild Heerbrugg Ag Method and apparatus for marking image points in photogrammetric surveys
EP0340334A2 (en) * 1988-05-05 1989-11-08 Drescher Geschäftsdrucke Gmbh Apparatus for joining two or multilayered paper articles together
EP0340334A3 (en) * 1988-05-05 1991-03-06 Drescher Geschäftsdrucke Gmbh Apparatus for joining two or multilayered paper articles together
US5393589A (en) * 1992-06-24 1995-02-28 Eastman Kodak Company Apparatus and method for variably knurling edges of web and product produced thereby
FR2712228A1 (en) * 1993-11-09 1995-05-19 Sfc Butt joining of heat sealable films
WO1996023645A1 (en) * 1995-01-31 1996-08-08 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Rotary sealing system
US5660679A (en) * 1995-01-31 1997-08-26 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Rotary sealing system
EP0842756A1 (en) * 1996-11-08 1998-05-20 Milliken Research Corporation Ultrasonically spliced roll towel
US6001442A (en) * 1996-11-08 1999-12-14 Milliken & Company Ultrasonically spliced roll towel
FR2792575A1 (en) * 1999-04-23 2000-10-27 Cera France Stamping method for fixing indelible identification on product includes placing product between sonotrode and stamp, pressing locally on product, and applying ultrasonic energy through sonotrode
WO2003057461A1 (en) * 2001-12-28 2003-07-17 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Method for simultaneously imprinting a pattern and bonding cellulose webs using ultrasonic energy
GB2423281A (en) * 2005-02-18 2006-08-23 Kalogridis International Ltd Fire-resistant ultra-lightweight panel with three-dimensional surface design
US20060189236A1 (en) * 2005-02-18 2006-08-24 Davis George K Fire-resistant ultra-lightweight panel with three-dimensional surface design
US9598861B2 (en) 2005-02-18 2017-03-21 George Kalogridis Davis Fire-resistant ultra-lightweight panel with three-dimensional surface design
US20070240586A1 (en) * 2006-04-17 2007-10-18 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Embossing or bonding device containing facetted impression elements
US7971526B2 (en) 2006-04-17 2011-07-05 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Embossing or bonding device containing facetted impression elements
WO2007119184A1 (en) * 2006-04-17 2007-10-25 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Embossing or bonding device containing facetted impression elements
US20100154972A1 (en) * 2007-08-22 2010-06-24 Xerox Corporation Flexible imaging member belt seam smoothing process
WO2010026421A1 (en) * 2008-09-03 2010-03-11 Innovia Films Limited Film
GB2487830A (en) * 2011-02-01 2012-08-08 Porsche Ag Producing a decoration in a flexible convertible-top cloth for a convertible
GB2487830B (en) * 2011-02-01 2013-04-24 Porsche Ag Production method for a flexible convertible-top cloth for a convertible

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