US3739440A - Ozone generator and method of making same - Google Patents

Ozone generator and method of making same Download PDF

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US3739440A
US3739440A US3739440DA US3739440A US 3739440 A US3739440 A US 3739440A US 3739440D A US3739440D A US 3739440DA US 3739440 A US3739440 A US 3739440A
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tube
air
tubes
ozone
ozone generator
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N Lund
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LUND N
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LUND N
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B13/00Oxygen; Ozone; Oxides or hydroxides in general
    • C01B13/10Preparation of ozone
    • C01B13/11Preparation of ozone by electric discharge
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2201/00Preparation of ozone by electrical discharge
    • C01B2201/10Dischargers used for production of ozone
    • C01B2201/14Concentric/tubular dischargers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2201/00Preparation of ozone by electrical discharge
    • C01B2201/20Electrodes used for obtaining electrical discharge
    • C01B2201/24Composition of the electrodes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2201/00Preparation of ozone by electrical discharge
    • C01B2201/60Feed streams for electrical dischargers
    • C01B2201/62Air

Abstract

An ozone generator apparatus and method of making same having inner and outer tubes connected together with spacers therebetween leaving air space between the tubes. The smaller tube has a copper rod attached along its axis and is filled with a brine solution and the larger tube is either metal or has a metallic coating with a voltage source connected between the larger tube and the copper rod. Air is forced and directed between the larger and smaller tubes where ozone is generated.

Description

1 United States Patent 11 1 1111 3,739,440 Lund et al.1 1 June 19, 1973 54] OZONE GENERATOR AND METHOD OF 3,214,364 10/1965 Van Tuyle 6161 204 321 MAKINGSAME FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS Inventors Norman Llmd; Norman Lund, 749,939 1/1967 Canada 204/320 both of PO. Box 246, 6511 New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, Fla. 3290] Filed: June 2, 1971 Appl. No.: 149,234

Primary ExaminerCharles W. Lanham Assistant Examiner.l. W. Davie Att0rney-Duckworth and Hobby [57] ABSTRACT An ozone generator apparatus and method of making 2% F' 'i 29/2s13 204/1 same having inner and outer tubes connected together 'r i with spacers therebetween leaving air space between o i can: 1 5 5 the tubes. The smaller tube has a copper rod attached along its axis and is filled with a brine solution and the larger tube is either metal or has a metallic coating with [56] References C'ted a voltage source connected between the larger tube UNITED STATES PATENTS and the copper rod. Air is forced and directed between 1,579,162 3/1926 Starke et a1 204/321 X the lar er and smaller tubes where ozone is enerated.

g 2 3,214,364 10/1965 Van Tuyle et al.... 204/321 1,579,162 3/1926 $121116 61411 204/321 x 3 Chums, 5 Drawing F Igures 2,952,606 9/1960 Pascale et a]. 204/320 X W 2 |--4 J; i/ 4/ t 3 j 6 I "Km,

I11 I *1? '4. i v--- v 2 1\\ 5 25 22 J i 37 l- 4 l -3 PATENTEB JUN 1 9 I975 m w, W m a V f LZW I 11 W5 A MW; 2 vet m m mm MM 4 $NAQ-N v N d Q MM \w MM v i OZONE GENERATOR AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to an ozone generator or ozonator and more particularly to an ozonator having a high output, but which is small, compact, and easy to assembleand operate, yet operates on commercially available current.

BRIEF DISCUSSION OF THE PRIOR ART Itlis well known that the basic ozonator comprises a pair of elongated metal electrodes separated by aninsulator. When a current of air is passed between the electrodes and a high voltage alternating current is applied to theelectrodes, ozone is formed. The reaction E; =Peak voltage across electrode For any given ozonator C, C, and E, are constants.

Thus, where is converted into 0 it would appear thatlit is only necessary to design an ozonator configuration where the most voltage can be applied in a given space at the highest possible frequency, and where 0 is the raw input this is true.

However, it must be. remembered that air and not oxygen is the raw material. To carry out the reaction, positive ions in 0 must be attracted to a negative charge on the electrode. This then repels the negative ions which unite with other atoms of 0 to form unstable 0;,. Because of the instability of 0 it will revert back to 0 if allowed to drift back into air.

In addition, since air contains moisture, H O hydrogen ionsare also attracted in a similar manner. Nitrogen in air existsin a nitrogen/ oxygen ratio of about 4 to 1 and is relatively inert. However, nitrogen reacts with ozone in. a hot tube forming principally nitrogen dioxide as follows:

Thus, a high; power in a small volume tube according to the foregoing equation given will produce considerable .heat enhancing the nitrous oxide reaction.

Also, the hydrogen ions assemble around the electrode form water, i.e., thepipe will sweat, preventing efficient functioning of the ozonator at the same time that the. nitrogen forms undesired compoundswith the ozonereducing the amount of ozone available. The reactions do not proceed .stoichiometrically, and, the amountof undesired components depends on a variety of fflCtOtSwBUt, nevertheless, it is highly desirable to provide an arrangement which will inhibit the hydrogen andinitrogen reactionsso as to favor the formation of unstable 0;.

Generally speaking, the present invention contemplates an ozonator having an inner metal electrode surrounded by a higher polymer inner tube with an electrolyte between the inner electrode and the inner tube. The inner tube is surrounded by an outer higher polymer tube around which are wrapped several sheets of a metal foil, e.g., copper or aluminum, forming an outer electrode. The two electrodes are connected to a source of voltage of upwards of 10,000 volts, AC. When air is blown between the inner and outer tubes from one end of the tube and a high voltage is applied between electrodes, ozone will flow from the other end of the tube and the formation of undesired reactants will be substantially inhibited.

The process of the present invention covers the steps of cutting two pieces of plastic pipe to predetermined lengths, one pipe being smaller in diameter than the second, then locating and sealing the smaller pipe in the larger one with nonconductive spaces therebetween, attaching a copper rod in the smaller diameter pipe along its longitudinal axis and filling this pipe with a brine solution, wrapping and attaching the larger diameter tube with a metal fold and connecting leads from a voltage source to the copper tubing and metal fold. The outer tubing may be substituted with a metal tubing such as an aluminum tube in place of the plastic tube with metal coating.

The invention as well as other objects and advantages thereof will become more apparent from the following detailed description when taken together with the accompanying drawing in which:

FIG. 1 is a longitudinal perspective view of the apparatus contemplated herein;

FIG. 2 shows a longitudinal schematic and sectional view of the apparatus of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a view along line 3---3 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a view along line 4-4 of FIG. 2; and

FIG. 5 illustrates in cross section the electrode connection.

The ozone generator or ozonator contemplated herein generally comprises an inner polyvinyl chloride (hereinafter called PVC), tube 13 with an axial conducting copper rod 15 inside. The PVC is filled with a liquid electrolitic solution 17 comprised of common salt in solution or solution of water and sulfuric acid or other suitable liquid conductor. The inner tube 13 is sealed with seals 19, 21, water-tight at both ends to prevent leakage. The copper rod has an extension 23 which extends far enough at one end to join a terminal 25 to which a wire 27 is attached to go to one side of 15,000 volts AC transformer 29.

The inner tube 13 is placed inside another outer PVC tube 31 of a little larger diameter to allow a space 33 of approximately one-quarter inch all around. This distance is maintained by means of spacers 35 placed equidistant on all sides to support the outer tube in place.

The outer tube 31 is wrapped with several turns of aluminum foil to provide a metal sheath 37 around the PVC tubing. Transformer 29 and a wire 27a from the other terminal are attached to the aluminum foil at a junction 39 which preferably should be an ohmic junction to insure high voltage. The metal sheath 37 provides an electric field of high voltage upon a dielectric surface which reacts with the opposite electrode contained in the inner tube so as to create an arcing flow of current between the two PVC tubes to produce a coronadischarge which converts the oxygen in the forced air flow into ozone.

An outer shell of PVC tubing 41 is fitted over the aluminum covered shell and inner tube providing an enclosed unit which is fitted with an opening at one end for air inlet 43 and at the other end there is an outlet 45 for the ozone mixture. Inside the cap of the air inlet 43 a perforated disc 47 is placed to distribute the incoming air evenly about the inner tube so that maximum advantage of the area of discharge is used.

The voltage may be regulated to a precise 1 V on the primary side by increasing or decreasing the strength of the electrolytic solution or thickness of PVC walls, thus eliminating the use of a variac or voltage regulator.

The size of this generator is limited only by the availability of larger sizes of PVC tubing. The generator is energized by a standard 115 V AC to 15,000 V AC neon transformer. The applied voltage may also be regulated by a voltage regulator or variac.

By the foregoing construction, two separate electrically reacting chambers are used. First there is the inner chamber with the liquid electrolytic solution. Then, there is the outer chamber between the inner and outer PVC tubes where the passing air and ozone acts as a dielectric. The moisture in the air separating into H O and H is controlled by the inner chamber electrolyte. Meanwhile, the formation of nitrogen oxide is also inhibited because nitrogen dioxide is an oxidizing agent and tends to react with the axial copper rod according to the reaction Also, it tend to react with the sulfuric acid electrolyte to form nitrosylsulfuric acid. Therefore, the construction described effectively favors the formation of the ozone and inhibits other reactions as the copper rod and liquid electrolyte tend to prevent the dissipation of the formed ozone into nitrogen dioxide.

The present invention is produced by cutting two lengths of plastic tubing or one length of metal tubing and one length of plastic tubing, such as commercially available polyvinyl chloride tubing; one length of tubing being of sufficiently smaller diameter than the other so that one can fit inside the other with space therebetween. Spacers of a nonconductive material are used in a plurality of spaces between the tubes to keep them separated a predetermined distance. A copper rod is attached in the inner tube along the tubes longitudinal axis by rubber stoppers or of sealing caps which caps also seal a brine solution in the inner tube. The copper rod is connected to one side of a high voltage source from a transformer and the outer tube if nonconductive is wrapped with a metal fold, such as aluminum fold, and the other lead from the voltage source attached thereto. The larger tube can also be a metal tube and can be capped to direct the flow of air between the tubes with a flow directing screen for controlling the flow of air placed at one end. A fan may be located to force air between the tubes. This method provides for the inexpensive production of ozonators from commonly available materials and products, which is both reliable and easily repaired.

The present invention is not to be construed as limited to the particular forms disclosed herein since these are to be regarded as illustrative rather than restrictive.

I claim:

1. The process of making an ozone generator comprising the steps of:

a. cutting nonconductive pipe of predetermined diameter to a predetermined length;

b. cutting a second pipe of predetermined diameter to a predetermined length;

c. attaching said nonconductive pipe inside said second pipe and spaced from the inside of said second P p d. attaching a metallic rod along the longitudinal axis of said nonconductive pipe;

e. filling said nonconductive pipe with a predetermined solution; and

f. attaching a voltage source across said metallic rod and said second pipe to produce an ozonator.

2. The method according to claim 1 including the steps of attaching a metallic coating to the outside of said second pipe.

3. The method according to claim 2 including attaching a flow directing member to one end of said pipes for forcing air between said pipes.

Claims (2)

  1. 2. The methoD according to claim 1 including the steps of attaching a metallic coating to the outside of said second pipe.
  2. 3. The method according to claim 2 including attaching a flow directing member to one end of said pipes for forcing air between said pipes.
US3739440A 1971-06-02 1971-06-02 Ozone generator and method of making same Expired - Lifetime US3739440A (en)

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3948774A (en) * 1973-10-05 1976-04-06 Environment Improvement, Inc. Water purification process and apparatus
FR2341519A1 (en) * 1976-02-19 1977-09-16 Gneupel Arthur ozonizer
FR2405896A1 (en) * 1977-10-14 1979-05-11 Elf Aquitaine Ozone prodn. by passing air through pipe at zero potential - contg. coaxial metal wire at high potential, with surface projections maximising efficiency
US4541989A (en) * 1983-01-27 1985-09-17 Oxytech, Inc. Process and device for the generation of ozone via the anodic oxidation of water
US4764349A (en) * 1986-05-09 1988-08-16 Ozotech, Inc. Ozone generator
US4966666A (en) * 1986-11-24 1990-10-30 Waltonen Laboratories Fluid energizing method and apparatus
US5124132A (en) * 1991-06-20 1992-06-23 Plasma Technics, Inc. Corona discharge ozone generator
US5409673A (en) * 1992-02-10 1995-04-25 O'three Limited Ozone generator having an electrode formed of a mass of helical windings and associated method
WO1999059914A2 (en) * 1998-05-14 1999-11-25 Fantom Technologies Inc. Ozone generator
WO2002009869A1 (en) * 2000-07-31 2002-02-07 John Algis Ruseckas Tesla field device for the production of ozone and methods for operating the same
US6517731B2 (en) 2000-06-16 2003-02-11 Fantom Technologies Inc. Ozonation process
US20030128551A1 (en) * 2002-01-10 2003-07-10 Tzu-Chen Liu Tinge structure of a flexible light
US20060042958A1 (en) * 2004-08-25 2006-03-02 Frank Cole Device and method for treating water and removing contaminants from soil
US20070071658A1 (en) * 2002-06-11 2007-03-29 Kasten Stephen P Corona discharge ozone generator

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1579162A (en) * 1923-02-02 1926-03-30 Firm Of Ozonhochfrequenz G M B Process for producing ozone
US2952606A (en) * 1959-09-04 1960-09-13 Sweet Aire Mfg Company Inc Ozonizer for treating air
US3214364A (en) * 1961-07-07 1965-10-26 Emery Industries Inc Ozone generator
CA749939A (en) * 1967-01-03 Fahlman Stellan Ozonizer tube

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA749939A (en) * 1967-01-03 Fahlman Stellan Ozonizer tube
US1579162A (en) * 1923-02-02 1926-03-30 Firm Of Ozonhochfrequenz G M B Process for producing ozone
US2952606A (en) * 1959-09-04 1960-09-13 Sweet Aire Mfg Company Inc Ozonizer for treating air
US3214364A (en) * 1961-07-07 1965-10-26 Emery Industries Inc Ozone generator

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3948774A (en) * 1973-10-05 1976-04-06 Environment Improvement, Inc. Water purification process and apparatus
FR2341519A1 (en) * 1976-02-19 1977-09-16 Gneupel Arthur ozonizer
FR2405896A1 (en) * 1977-10-14 1979-05-11 Elf Aquitaine Ozone prodn. by passing air through pipe at zero potential - contg. coaxial metal wire at high potential, with surface projections maximising efficiency
US4541989A (en) * 1983-01-27 1985-09-17 Oxytech, Inc. Process and device for the generation of ozone via the anodic oxidation of water
US4764349A (en) * 1986-05-09 1988-08-16 Ozotech, Inc. Ozone generator
US4966666A (en) * 1986-11-24 1990-10-30 Waltonen Laboratories Fluid energizing method and apparatus
US5124132A (en) * 1991-06-20 1992-06-23 Plasma Technics, Inc. Corona discharge ozone generator
US5409673A (en) * 1992-02-10 1995-04-25 O'three Limited Ozone generator having an electrode formed of a mass of helical windings and associated method
US6190622B1 (en) 1998-05-14 2001-02-20 Fantom Technologies Inc. Ozone generator
WO1999059914A3 (en) * 1998-05-14 2000-02-03 Fantom Tech Inc Ozone generator
WO1999059914A2 (en) * 1998-05-14 1999-11-25 Fantom Technologies Inc. Ozone generator
US6517731B2 (en) 2000-06-16 2003-02-11 Fantom Technologies Inc. Ozonation process
WO2002009869A1 (en) * 2000-07-31 2002-02-07 John Algis Ruseckas Tesla field device for the production of ozone and methods for operating the same
US20030128551A1 (en) * 2002-01-10 2003-07-10 Tzu-Chen Liu Tinge structure of a flexible light
US20070071658A1 (en) * 2002-06-11 2007-03-29 Kasten Stephen P Corona discharge ozone generator
US20060042958A1 (en) * 2004-08-25 2006-03-02 Frank Cole Device and method for treating water and removing contaminants from soil

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