US3612312A - Method for handling very heavy unit loads - Google Patents

Method for handling very heavy unit loads Download PDF

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US3612312A
US3612312A US736464A US3612312DA US3612312A US 3612312 A US3612312 A US 3612312A US 736464 A US736464 A US 736464A US 3612312D A US3612312D A US 3612312DA US 3612312 A US3612312 A US 3612312A
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vehicles
lifting means
vehicle
unit load
ship
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George Behrmann
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Schmidt Karl Heinz
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D13/00Steering specially adapted for trailers
    • B62D13/005Steering specially adapted for trailers operated from tractor steering system
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K1/00Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
    • B60K1/02Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units comprising more than one electric motor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L1/00Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles
    • B60L1/003Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles to auxiliary motors, e.g. for pumps, compressors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L3/00Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes; Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration or energy consumption
    • B60L3/0023Detecting, eliminating, remedying or compensating for drive train abnormalities, e.g. failures within the drive train
    • B60L3/0061Detecting, eliminating, remedying or compensating for drive train abnormalities, e.g. failures within the drive train relating to electrical machines
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63CLAUNCHING, HAULING-OUT, OR DRY-DOCKING OF VESSELS; LIFE-SAVING IN WATER; EQUIPMENT FOR DWELLING OR WORKING UNDER WATER; MEANS FOR SALVAGING OR SEARCHING FOR UNDERWATER OBJECTS
    • B63C13/00Equipment forming part of or attachable to vessels facilitating transport over land
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2200/00Type of vehicles
    • B60L2200/36Vehicles designed to transport cargo, e.g. trucks
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2220/00Electrical machine types; Structures or applications thereof
    • B60L2220/40Electrical machine applications
    • B60L2220/46Wheel motors, i.e. motor connected to only one wheel
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/10Vehicle control parameters
    • B60L2240/12Speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/70Interactions with external data bases, e.g. traffic centres
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2250/00Driver interactions
    • B60L2250/10Driver interactions by alarm
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2260/00Operating Modes
    • B60L2260/20Drive modes; Transition between modes
    • B60L2260/28Four wheel or all wheel drive
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2270/00Problem solutions or means not otherwise provided for
    • B60L2270/10Emission reduction
    • B60L2270/14Emission reduction of noise
    • B60L2270/145Structure borne vibrations
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/16Information or communication technologies improving the operation of electric vehicles

Abstract

The handling of very heavy unit loads, such as semifinished or finished sections of ships'' hulls, ships'' superstructures and sections of ships'' superstructures in which at least one lifting means provided with holding means is mounted on at least one multiwheeled vehicle capable of being steered throughout 360*. The vehicle is moved into position beneath the unit load, the lifting means and holding means actuated to elevate and hold the load, the vehicle is then driven to the desired location and by maneuvering of the vehicle, the lifting means and the holding means, the unit load is placed in the required position.

Description

United States Patent Inventor George Behrmann Lani, Pegnitz, Germany Appl. No. 736,464 Filed June 12, 1968 Patented Oct. 12, 1971 Assignee Karl Heinz Schmidt Hersbruck, Germany Priority June 12, 1967 Germany METHOD FOR HANDLING VERY HEAVY UNIT LOADS Primary Examiner-Albert J. Maltay Attorney-Holman & Stern ABSTRACT: The handling of very heavy unit loads, such as semifinished or finished sections of ships hulls, ships superstructures and sections of ships superstructures in which at least one lifting means provided with holding means is mounted on at least one multiwheeled vehicle capable of being steered throughout 360. The vehicle is moved into position beneath the unit load, the lifting means and holding means actuated to elevate and hold the load, the vehicle is then driven to the desired location and by maneuvering of the vehicle, the lifting means and the holding means, the unit load is placed in the required position.
@oofioolf gp g 3 2 2 I? PATENTEU 00H 2 I97! SHEET U2 BF saw 63oF FIG 5 PATENTEB 0m 1 2 I971 PATENTEU GET 1 21m:
SHEU 0W 0F 16 PATENTED 0m 1 219m SHEEI 08 [1F o QI PATENTEB 0m 1 21971 sum 10 nr w mw QE PATENTED um I 2 IBYI SHEET llUF i6 @VQE PATENTED UB1 1 21971 SHEET lEUF 16 PATENTEU 0m 1 2 IHTI $HEU 13 0F PATENTEMCI 1 219m SHEET 1% BF METHOD FOR HANDLING VERY HEAVY UNIT LOADS This invention relates to a method for handling very heavy unit loads such as for example semifinished or finished sections of ships hulls, or ships superstructures or sections of shipssuperstructures.
It was customary in the construction of submarines as a result of large scale production due to war conditions, to fabricate the submarines hull from factory produced semifinished or substantially finished individual sections already equipped with a large portion of the submarines internal gear and which sections were then welded together in the ship yard in order to limit the work required to complete the submarine to a minimum.
Efforts to accomplish rationalization make it appear highly desirable to apply the above-mentioned method to the building of large ships or vessels so that the construction time which is still between approximately between 6 and 18 months at the present time dependent of course, upon the size of the ship, can be limited to approximately 1 month and achieve as wide a diversification of types as possible by having available a large number of standardized ships hulls and superstructure sections which are completed as far as possible thereby enabling shipping companies to have a choice between a large number of ships of the most varied tonnage, speed, and ultimate purpose which can be produced on a prefabricated unit system so to speak.
The prerequisite for a practical application of such a method of constructing large ships or vessels with prefabricated units is that it be feasible to produce sections of a ships hull and superstructure having dimensions of approximately 20 m. by 24 m. by l l m. and a weight of substantially 600 tons in the factory or plant by large scale constructional techniques. The factory production of this nature of such large structural units can hardly be accomplished out of doors but must take place in a closed structure which is in direct contact with the necessary part manufacturing shops with respect to organization of work.
The maximum load of workshop traveling cranes is about 250 tons for a span of some meters, about 10 tons for walltype workshop traveling cranes having a gib length of 10 meters and substantially 10 tons per cabletrolley for building slip cranes, with it being possible to combine up to some six cable trolleys for handling a single load. It will be readily apparent from the above that the handling of structural units possessing the above-mentioned dimensions and weight with hoisting equipment already in use causes the greatest difficulties in the shop but even more difficulties at the slip. Aside from the fact that at the present time there areno installations provided with crane equipment which can be driven to the slip area from the works shed, that is to say, transfer of the load from one lifting apparatus to another must always occur and swinging movements of the load due to the suspension thereof from the crane, arise particularly out of doors due to the wind pressures which are substantially always present and which with load components of the order of magnitude comprehended herein may reach 2.5 tons. Such swinging movements may result in delays of hours when parts which are to be joined together collide and in adverse weather conditions such as storms may make the joining together of such ship parts impossible for extended periods of time.
This invention is intended to solve the problem of handling very heavy loads of the abovementioned order of magnitude in a safe manner without undesirable movements or shifting of the load which occur or the transfer from one transport means to another transport means being necessary.
Generally, the invention is directed to a method of handling very heavy unit loads such as semifinished or finished sections of ships hulls, or ships superstructures of sections of ships superstructures which in complete departure from the customary methods includes one or more lifting means provided with holding means and being mounted on one or more multiwheeled vehicles capable of being steered throughout 360 and which vehicles are moved beneath the unit load in question, the load elevated, driven to its ultimate destination and by proper maneuvering of the vehicle or vehicles and lifting means is brought at such destination into the required position, If a plurality of multiwheeled vehicles are used, the movements of these vehicles and their lifting means are coordinated from a control station located on one of the vehicles or the position of which can be changed in some other manner or arranged in a stationary position. The transmission of com mands from the control station to the individual vehicles is effecte'd preferably by direct electrical or electronic remote control of the individual driving, steering, swiveling, lifting and holding means of the vehicles and the vehicles may be either manned or unmanned. in the case of a manned vehicle the transmission of command from the control station to the vehicles is brought about either exclusively or in addition to an available electrical or electronic remote control of the vehi cles via electrical or electronic transmission of acoustic and/or optical signals to the crews of the respective vehicles.
The invention further provides that within certain limits dif ferences in the individual movements actually effected by a suction and/or lifting and/or swiveling and/or steering means of the individual multiwheeled vehicles from the coordination commanded at any given time are permissable and that if one or more of such differences is exceeded in any situation, an alarm signal and/or the sudden arresting of all of the drives is activated.
Furthermore, the present invention provides the wheels of the multiwheeled vehicles capable of steering throughout 360 can be turned in two ways namely, the wheels are set in each situation simultaneously and synchronously to the same direction of travel or are so turned in each situation with respect to each other that the vehicles and the load travel along a specific curved path.
The present multiwheeled vehicle includes a star or spider shaped frame with the wheels capable of movement throughout 360 being arranged at the ends of legs carried by the frame and with one or more approximately centrally arranged upwardly projecting lifting means each of which is provided with holding means at their free ends and with the associated driving, steering, swiveling, lifting, braking and auxiliary assemblies together with the required transmission, control and monitoring equipment as well as areas necessary for fuels and the crew.
Heretofore, multiwheeled vehicles have been employed in the operation of shipyards or building, slips for handling large and heavy structural parts of ships such as bows, stern posts, propellers or the like, but these known vehicles are in the nature of rolling platforms or rolling platforms or rolling pallem equipped with solid rubber tires having a very small ground clearance and not possessing their own drive and lifting means. Consequently, these vehicles are not utilizable in the area of the keel or launching way of the slip or in the vicinity of closely set supporting blocks and serve in the handling of such ships components only as intermediate supports during the transfer of the load from one lifting apparatus to the other. Such vehicles do not suggest the present invention to any one skilled in this art.
The individual legs of the multiwheeled vehicles frame may be of the same length or the legs may be longer in one principal horizontal direction and shorter in another principal horizontal direction which is disposed! perpendicularly to the first-mentioned direction in order that the vehicle does not exceed in such direction the prescribed maximum width to be observed regarding travel along roads. In this latter situation, the shorter legs may be of variable length that is to say, the legs may be of telescopic construction or exchangeable and if necessary, a plurality of the star or spider-shaped frames may be combined to define a vehicle frame constituting a common part and which as a consequence is provided with a plurality of separate leg centers serving for mounting a plurality of lifting means.
The wheels of the multiwheeled vehicle which are adapted to be rotated about vertical swivel axis are combined in each situation in pairs or groups consisting of pairs of which each two wheels or groups of wheels respectively are coaxial with one another and which can be rotated about a vertical swivel axis located between the two wheels in the center of their axis and the wheels or groups of wheels may be driven individually preferably electrically or from a common vehicle driving motor. Similarly, the steering of the wheels may be accomplished either by means of individual steering motors or synchronously from a steering motor common to a plurality of wheels or groups of wheels of the vehicle.
The lifting means provided on the multiwheeled vehicle preferably are in the form of one or more telescopically extensible pressure medium jacks which may be articulated to the frame by ball and socket joints but are preferably rigidly connected thereto. The holding means arranged at the free ends of the lifting means which is preferably detachable is connected to such means via a ball and socket joint and the lifting means may be constructed in the fashion of shock absorber legs.
The holding means articulated to the free end of the lifting means may be defined as a spherical or ellipsoidal cup or a square, rectangular or triangular trough connected to a vacuum system and having its concave side facing upwardly and equipped at the periphery thereof with a sealing bead of rubber or some other closely conforming material. As a modification, thereof, the holding means may be adapted, with respect to its shape to the shape of the load at the place of attachment. Also, a powerful holding electromagnet may serve as a holding means and such holding means may be in the nature of a piston provided on its top with a resilient pad with the piston being surrounded by an annular cup of flexible material the edge of which is equipped with a peripheral sealing bead of yielding material and the interior thereof capable of being connected to a vacuum source.
In accordance with a modified embodiment of the invention in lieu of the holding means which is preferably removably mounted on the free end of the lifting means, it is possible to mount other load-engaging means on said lifting means such as hooks, clamping tongs, grippers, holding claws, crane jibs, lift or stacker forks, semicylindrical hollow cups or bearings or bar-type yokes with or without anchoring belts or chains, pivots, swivel bearings, saddling heads, pressure rams, platforms or pallets with or without lowerable supporting legs located exteriorally of the vehicle profile.
The invention also includes a combination of a plurality of multiwheeled vehicle of the above type in which the individual vehicles of such combination are driven either electrically and connected to a central power source by trailing cables ro being driven electrically by an internal combustion power machine.
Further objects and advantages of the invention will become more readily to persons skilled in the art from the fol lowing detailed description and accompanying drawings and in which drawings:
FIG. 1 is a side view diagrammatically illustrating a multiwheeled vehicle combination during the transport of a section of the ships hull,
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the vehicle combination and trans ported load illustrated in FIG. 1,
FIG. 3 is a view in side elevation of a single vehicle of the vehicle combination illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2,
FIG. 4 is a plan view of the vehicle shown in FIG. 3 in which the holding means has been deleted for greater clarity,
FIG. 5 is a side view partly in elevation and partly in cross section of a constructional form of a wheel fork of a multiwheeled vehicle,
FIG. 6 is a plan view of a holding means,
FIG. 7 is a view partly in section and partly in elevation of a modified form of holding means,
FIG. 8 is a plan view of another embodiment of a multiwheeled vehicle in which the holding means has been removed,
FIG. 9 is a view partly in section and partly in elevation of the multiwheeled vehicle illustrated in FIG. 8,
FIG. 10 is a front view illustrating diagrammatically a vehicle combination constituted of vehicles as illustrated in FIGS. 8 and 9 during the transport of a section of a hull of a ship,
FIG. 11 is a plan view of another form of multiwheeled vehicle in which the holding means has been deleted,
FIG. 12 is a side view diagrammatically illustrating the multiwheeled vehicle shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 and in which a semicylindrical hollow shell is mounted on the lifting means in lieu of the holding means,
FIG. 13 is a front view illustrating diagrammatically the multiwheeled vehicle shown in FIG. 12,
FIG. 14 is a view taken along the line XIV-XIV in FIG. 12, the view looking in the direction of the arrows,
FIG. 15 is a plan view diagrammatically showing a vehicle combination constituted of multi wheeled vehicles as shown in FIGS. l2-15 during the transport of a pipe of large diameter along a curved path,
FIG. 16 is a plan view showing diagrammatically the vehicle combination shown in FIG. 15 during the transport of the same pipe of large diameter transversely of its longitudinal axis,
FIG. 17 is a side view diagrammatically showing a vehicle combination formed of multiwheeled vehicles as shown in- FIGS. 3 and 4 with the employment of an intennediate low loading section,
FIG. 18 is a plan view of the vehicle combination disclosed in FIG. 17,
FIG. 19 is a side view of another vehicle combination formed of multiwheeled vehicles as illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4 with the use of a platformlike intermediate portion,
FIG. 20 is a plan view diagrammatically illustrating the vehicle combination shown in FIG. 19,
FIG. 21 is a side view diagrammatically illustrating a multiwheeled vehicle as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 and in which the holding means is replaced by a removable pallet provided with lowerable supporting legs located outside the vehicle profile,
FIG. 22 is a plan view of the multiwheeled vehicle shown in FIG. 21,
FIG. 23 is a plan view of a multiwheeled vehicle as illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4 and in which the holding means is replaced by a stacker fork mounted on the vehicle,
FIG. 24 is a rear view of the vehicle illustrated in FIG. 23, and
FIG. 25 is a view diagrammatically illustrating the manner in which the vehicle shown in FIGS. 23 and 24 eliminates the stacker fork.
In FIGS. 1 and 2 there is illustrated the handling of the very heavy load 1 of large volume such as for example, a section of a ships hull with a base area of approximately 20 m. by 25 m. a height of about 15 m. and a weight of approximately 1,000 tons, by means of a vehicle combination defined by multiwheeled vehicles 2 and in which the individual vehicles 2 support the load by holding means 3. The structural details and arrangement of the holding means 3 will be described in greater detail hereinafter and at this time it is sufficient to state that the holding means 3 are attached in each situation by ball and socket joints to substantially vertical raisable and lowerable lifting means provided on the individual vehicles 2 and the holding surfaces thereof are directed upwardly so that such surfaces rest against the load 1. The running gear and the lifting means of the vehicles 2 have a springiness or yieldingness in such a degree that movements of mutual vertical displacement of the individual vehicles of the vehicle combination which are caused by the particular contours of the ground are compensated for and during the holding of the load 1, the holding means 3 always adheres immovable to the relevant surface areas of the load to which the holding means have been applied.
The individual vehicles of the vehicle combination do not have to be coupled to one another. However, all of the individual vehicles 2 are driven so that such vehicles are also able to move independently outside of the combination. To this end, the individual vehicles 2 are each equipped with drivers cabs which however, are not illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 for greater clarity. The drive of the individual vehicles 2 may be effected either by an electric motor or an electrically driven internal combustion power machine. In the first case the vehicles 2 are connected by trailing cables 41 to a power source which is either stationary or as illustrated in FIGS. l and 2 arranged on a separate machinery and control vehicle 5.
As the simplest manner for performing the method, the individual multiwheeled vehicles are manned and steering of such vehicles and the initiation of the action of the lifting means of the individual vehicles are effected by the drivers in accordance with either an acoustic or an optical command which emanates from a central command or control station. The central command or control station may either be sta tionary in a suitable position, located on a special command vehicle or on board the vehicle 5. in the event of the individual vehicle 2 being driven electrically by an internal combustion power machine, the vehicle 5 serves only as a control vehicle. The transmission of commands to the individual vehicle 2 of the combination may be accomplished either by separate channels of the cables t or by radio and if necessary, only through loud speakers. it is further possible for one of the multiwheeled vehicles 2 per se to function as the control vehicle.
in lieu of the foregoing, as a modification of the method, the individual vehicles 2 may also be equipped in each situation with control amplifiers and control servomotors so that remote steering and remote control of the entire vehicle combination is achieved from the command or control station either by the trailing cables 4 or by radio and the activities of the drivers on the individual vehicles 2 are confined solely to supervising the operations occuring and reporting any special occurances back to the command station. This reporting back to the command station can be realized either by trailing cables, radio, or optical or acoustic signals.
Lastly, as a further modification of the method, the individual vehicles 2 may be unmanned and equipped with a completely independent remote control system which also embodies automatic reporting back of the execution of a particular command to the command station as well as the automatic reporting of trouble or faults to the command station.
in all situations it is provided that in the event of the predetermined spring movements or distances of displacement being exceeded on one or more of the vehicles 2 and as a consequence a danger of the holding means being disconnected from the load ll, an alarm signal is activated and if necessary, all of the drives of the entire vehicle combination are suddenly arrested.
The practical execution of the transmission of commands under remote control which have been mentioned and of the control and switching functions necessary to carry out the commands given is possible with means known today in the electronic, electrical, engineering, hydraulic and pneumatic fields and such is not an object of the present invention.
On the assumption that, as illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2, a very heavy load of large volume and with a weight of approximately 1,000 tons is to be moved at a maximum speed of approximately 6 km./hour, a driving output of about 70 kw. per vehicle is arrived at with a dead weight of substantially tons for a single-multiwheeled vehicle and with the use of 10 such vehicles within the combination. The above data is intended only to give an approximate idea of the orders or magnitude occuring and may, or course, differ markedly both in the upward and downward direction.
The handling of a very heavy load takes place approximately as follows in the situation of the selected example to the handling of a section of the ship's hull:
The section in question regardless of whether such section is a bow, a midships, or stem portion, is produced, departing from the usual practice, in accordance with mass production principles in a workshed of sufficient capacity and which has on at least one side thereof an extensible wall section which is of a height and width dimension to enable the finished section of the ships hull to be comfortably driven therefrom by a vehicle combination according to the invention. Advantageously, the ships hull section is produced in the shed in a stagelike or platformlike arrangement which is provided with openings in those locations where the individual vehicles 2 are subsequently to drive below the load and permit the free approach of the vehicles for the purpose of taking the load and the free departure therefrom of the entire vehicle combination after the load has been received. The ships hull section is completed in the workshed as fast as is possible so that not only the ships hull structure per se with the outer skin, frames, bulk heads, double bottom, longitudinal and transverse bracing is therefore completed but all fittings, pipings, shafts, intermediate bottoms and walls, electrical and sanitary installations, interior equipment of the individual holds, etc. are installed as completely as possible. in the event the hull section is to accommodate the ships engine room, all auxiliary machinery and piping should also be installed as completely as possible so that his only necessary to install the main driving engines at some later date.
When the section in question has been completed to this degree, the individual vehicles 2 drive into position substantially in accordance with the arrangement illustrated in FIGS. l and 2, then extend their lifting means upwardly and apply the holding means 3 against downwardly facing walls of the complete ships hull section. When a strong connection has been established in this manner between the individual vehicles 2 and the load 1, all of the vehicles 2 elevate the load ll together by simultaneously extending the lifting means upwardly so that the load is released from its platform arrangement. During this process, care is exercised so that the lifting devices of all of the vehicles 2 are located substantially uniformly and that the load l is elevated as straight as possible. That is to say, trimmed in a horizontal state. This can be accomplished in a simple fashion by mounting spirit levels at suitable locations of the load and by observing the lifting height and load pressure of the individual lifting means of the various vehicles 2 of the combination. In the case of electrical or electronic control of the functions of the individual vehicles 2, these observations and any corrections necessary as a result of such observations and may also be included in the electrical or electronic control process.
When the section ll of the ship's hull has been elevated from its platform arrangement and it is certain that the load is free on all sides and there are no longer any connections between the arrangement and the load, the sidewall of the workshed can be extended to enable the vehicle combination to move with the load out of the workshcd and transfer the load to a suitable storage place out of doors. In the storage place there is a suitable blocking or block arrangement or a plurality of devices which permits or permit the free approach of the vehicle combination with the load and the suitable setting down" of the load on the blocks or the respective devices. This setting down or lowering of the load occurs substantially in the reverse manner to the receiving of the: load. More specifically, the lifting means of the various individual vehicles 2 are lowered carefully so that the load is deposited gently on the blocks or the arrangement receiving the same. The holding means of the individual vehicles 2 are then released from the load and the vehicles can drive away separately or as a combination to be employed elsewhere from the storage space.
In this manner, it is possible to mass produce and maintain and stock a large number of ships hulls sections of the same size and for the same purpose. When a certain order for a ship of a particular size and speed and purpose is to be executed, a plurality of such stocks of ships hulls sections or superstructures or sections of ships superstructurres of different sizes and for different purposes then permits a suitable choice of the individual ships hulls sections or superstructures or sections of ships superstructures and the immediate removal thereof to the building slip for assembly purposes.
The transport of the particular ships sections selected from the storage place to the building slip can be effected in a manner similar to that employed for transporting the sections

Claims (6)

1. A method of handling very heavy unit loads and more particularly semifashioned sections of ship''s hulls, ship superstructures or sections of ship''s superstructures, comprising providing at least two multiwheeled vehicles capable of being steered throughout 360*, mounting at least one lifting means having holding means on each vehicle, moving the vehicles into position beneath the unit load, actuating the lifting means to elevate and hold the unit load, driving the vehicles with the thus held unit load to the desired destination, actuating the lifting means and holding means to bring the unit load to the required position, and coordinating the movements of the vehicles and their lifting means from a control station.
2. A method of handling very heavy unit loads and more particularly semifinished sections of ship''s hulls, superstructures or sections of ship''s superstructures, comprising providing at least two multiwheeled vehicles capable of being steered throughout 360*, mounting at least one lifting means having holding means on each vehicle, moving the vehicles into position beneath the unit load, actuating the lifting means to elevate and hold the unit load, driving the vehicles with the thus held unit load to the desired destination, coordinating the movements of the vehicles and their lifting means from a control station, and setting all of the wheels of the vehicle simultaneously to the same direction of
3. A method of hanging very heavy unit loads and more particularly semifinished sections of ship''s hulls, ship''s superstructures or sections of ship''s superstructures, comprising providing at least two multiwheeled vehicles capable of being steered throughout 360*, mounting at least one lifting means having holding means on each vehicle, moving the vehicles into position beneath the unit load, actuating the lifting means to elevate and hold the unit load, driving the vehicles with the thus held unit load to the desired destination, actuating the lifting means and holding means to bring the unit load to the required position, coordinating the movements of the vehicles and their lifting means from a control station, and remotely steering the wheels of the vehicle so that the vehicles and unit load travel along a specific curved path.
4. A method of handling very heavy unit loads and more particularly semifinished sections of ship''s hulls, ship superstructures or sections of ship''s superstructures, comprising providing at least two multiwheeled vehicles capable of being steered throughout 360*, mounting at least one lifting means having holding means on each vehicles, moving the vehicles into position beneath the unit load, actuating the lifting means to elevate and hold the unit load, driving the vehicles with the thus held unit load to the desired destination, actuating the lifting means and holding means to bring the unit load to the required position, and transmitting commands from a control station to the individual vehicles to control electrically the individual vehicles, lifting means, and holding means.
5. The method of handling very heavy unit loads as claimed in claim 4 further comprising transmitting commands from the control station to each vehicle via acoustic and/or optical signals.
6. The method of handling very heavy unit loads as claimed in claim 4 comprising transmitting commands from the control station to each vehicle via acoustic and/or optical signals, and further including initiation an alarm signal if a permitted difference in the vehicles'' movement from the commanded coordination is exceeded.
US736464A 1967-06-12 1968-06-12 Method for handling very heavy unit loads Expired - Lifetime US3612312A (en)

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FR2169145A1 (en) * 1972-01-24 1973-09-07 Parsons Co Ralph M
US4036377A (en) * 1974-04-05 1977-07-19 Fried. Krupp Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Device for transporting loads, especially for belt driving stations in open pit mining
US4312619A (en) * 1979-07-19 1982-01-26 Fmc Corporation Aircraft cargo loading method and apparatus
GB2136741A (en) * 1983-01-31 1984-09-26 Mothercare Limited Infant carriages
US4496274A (en) * 1982-08-11 1985-01-29 Eaton Corporation Material handling vehicle
US4840533A (en) * 1985-12-24 1989-06-20 O & K Orenstein & Koppel Ag Apparatus for transporting loads
US4854805A (en) * 1985-12-24 1989-08-08 O & K Orenstein & Koppel Ag Apparatus for transporting loads
US5110153A (en) * 1990-09-06 1992-05-05 Teledyne Industries, Inc. Vehicle for transporting loads
US5165838A (en) * 1990-09-06 1992-11-24 Teledyne Industries, Inc. Vehicle for transporting loads
EP1086853A1 (en) 1999-09-24 2001-03-28 Wolfgang Wägerle Heavy load transporting system with drive module and hydraulic unit
US6435796B1 (en) * 1997-10-20 2002-08-20 IVERSEN øYVIND T. Method and arrangement for transporting load units
DE10232450A1 (en) * 2002-07-17 2004-01-29 Firma Georg Kramp Modular heavy load transport equipment with hydraulic unit for pushing down load to be transported, has two drive units which are adjustable via cross-beam, and has hydraulic quantity divider for producing two independent circuits
WO2004087459A1 (en) * 2003-03-31 2004-10-14 Technische Universiteit Delft Recovery vehicle and recovery system for heavy loads such as an aeroplane
EP1686046A1 (en) * 2005-01-27 2006-08-02 Martin Nester Self-propelled handling trolley for a semitrailer
US20080184658A1 (en) * 2007-02-01 2008-08-07 James Rhodes Method for setting a building on a subdivision lot
DE202010012212U1 (en) 2010-09-04 2010-12-02 PRÄMAB Präszisionsmaschinen- und Anlagenbau GmbH und Co. KG Arrangement for transporting heavy loads
US20110097183A1 (en) * 2009-07-24 2011-04-28 Suncor Energy Inc. Method, apparatus, and system for transporting a slurry apparatus
US20110265274A1 (en) * 2010-04-30 2011-11-03 Beijing Wowjoint Machinery Co. Bridge Deck Replacement Machine and the Method of Bridge Deck Replacement Using the Same
US20120251279A1 (en) * 2009-12-11 2012-10-04 Grupo De Ingenieria Oceanica, S.L. System for transferring large loads and method for operating thereof
US20130015631A1 (en) * 2011-07-11 2013-01-17 Holland Moving & Rigging Supplies, Inc. Platform dolly system
DE202012102062U1 (en) * 2012-06-05 2013-09-12 Nikolaus Berzen Ratzel Crawler and system for transporting loads
US20150042068A1 (en) * 2013-08-08 2015-02-12 Mammoet USA South Inc. Transport Trailer with Adjustable-Width Swing Arms
EP2974905A1 (en) * 2014-07-15 2016-01-20 Mammoet Engineering B.V. Method and assembly for transport of heavy loads
US20160159263A1 (en) * 2013-07-24 2016-06-09 Agence Nationale Pour La Gestion Des Dechets Radioactifs Wheeled vehicle for transferring heavy loads, having a plurality of low-height articulated modules
CN108773457A (en) * 2018-05-31 2018-11-09 广船国际有限公司 A kind of large-sized annular block closes up localization method
US11186314B2 (en) 2018-08-22 2021-11-30 Plasan Sasa Ltd. Articulated vehicle assembly and articulation system for use therein
US11390364B2 (en) * 2017-11-27 2022-07-19 Bardex Corporation Systems, apparatus, and methods for transporting vessels

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Cited By (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2169145A1 (en) * 1972-01-24 1973-09-07 Parsons Co Ralph M
US4036377A (en) * 1974-04-05 1977-07-19 Fried. Krupp Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Device for transporting loads, especially for belt driving stations in open pit mining
US4312619A (en) * 1979-07-19 1982-01-26 Fmc Corporation Aircraft cargo loading method and apparatus
US4496274A (en) * 1982-08-11 1985-01-29 Eaton Corporation Material handling vehicle
GB2136741A (en) * 1983-01-31 1984-09-26 Mothercare Limited Infant carriages
US4840533A (en) * 1985-12-24 1989-06-20 O & K Orenstein & Koppel Ag Apparatus for transporting loads
US4854805A (en) * 1985-12-24 1989-08-08 O & K Orenstein & Koppel Ag Apparatus for transporting loads
US5165838A (en) * 1990-09-06 1992-11-24 Teledyne Industries, Inc. Vehicle for transporting loads
US5110153A (en) * 1990-09-06 1992-05-05 Teledyne Industries, Inc. Vehicle for transporting loads
US6435796B1 (en) * 1997-10-20 2002-08-20 IVERSEN øYVIND T. Method and arrangement for transporting load units
EP1086853A1 (en) 1999-09-24 2001-03-28 Wolfgang Wägerle Heavy load transporting system with drive module and hydraulic unit
US6430924B1 (en) 1999-09-24 2002-08-13 Wolfgang Waegerle Heavy-duty transporting system, as well as drive module and hydraulic unit for it
DE10232450A1 (en) * 2002-07-17 2004-01-29 Firma Georg Kramp Modular heavy load transport equipment with hydraulic unit for pushing down load to be transported, has two drive units which are adjustable via cross-beam, and has hydraulic quantity divider for producing two independent circuits
WO2004087459A1 (en) * 2003-03-31 2004-10-14 Technische Universiteit Delft Recovery vehicle and recovery system for heavy loads such as an aeroplane
EP1686046A1 (en) * 2005-01-27 2006-08-02 Martin Nester Self-propelled handling trolley for a semitrailer
US20080184658A1 (en) * 2007-02-01 2008-08-07 James Rhodes Method for setting a building on a subdivision lot
WO2008141209A1 (en) * 2007-05-09 2008-11-20 Custom Quality Homes L.L.C. Method for setting a building on a subdivision lot
US20110097183A1 (en) * 2009-07-24 2011-04-28 Suncor Energy Inc. Method, apparatus, and system for transporting a slurry apparatus
US20120251279A1 (en) * 2009-12-11 2012-10-04 Grupo De Ingenieria Oceanica, S.L. System for transferring large loads and method for operating thereof
US20110265274A1 (en) * 2010-04-30 2011-11-03 Beijing Wowjoint Machinery Co. Bridge Deck Replacement Machine and the Method of Bridge Deck Replacement Using the Same
DE202010012212U1 (en) 2010-09-04 2010-12-02 PRÄMAB Präszisionsmaschinen- und Anlagenbau GmbH und Co. KG Arrangement for transporting heavy loads
US8919476B2 (en) * 2011-07-11 2014-12-30 Holland Moving & Rigging Supplies, Inc. Platform dolly system
US20130015631A1 (en) * 2011-07-11 2013-01-17 Holland Moving & Rigging Supplies, Inc. Platform dolly system
US20150125252A1 (en) * 2012-06-05 2015-05-07 Nikolaus Berzen Ratzel Crawler for transporting heavy loads, system comprising a plurality of crawlers and method for transporting heavy loads
WO2013182448A2 (en) 2012-06-05 2013-12-12 Berzen Ratzel Nikolaus Crawler for transporting loads, and system and method for transporting loads
DE202012102062U1 (en) * 2012-06-05 2013-09-12 Nikolaus Berzen Ratzel Crawler and system for transporting loads
US20160159263A1 (en) * 2013-07-24 2016-06-09 Agence Nationale Pour La Gestion Des Dechets Radioactifs Wheeled vehicle for transferring heavy loads, having a plurality of low-height articulated modules
US9834124B2 (en) * 2013-07-24 2017-12-05 Agence Nationale Pour La Gestion Des Déchets Radioactifs Wheeled vehicle for transferring heavy loads, having a plurality of low-height articulated modules
EP3024694B1 (en) * 2013-07-24 2019-08-07 Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Déchets Radioactifs Wheeled vehicle for transferring heavy loads, having a plurality of low-height articulated modules
US20150042068A1 (en) * 2013-08-08 2015-02-12 Mammoet USA South Inc. Transport Trailer with Adjustable-Width Swing Arms
US9039029B2 (en) * 2013-08-08 2015-05-26 Mammoet Usa South, Inc. Transport trailer with adjustable-width swing arms
EP2974905A1 (en) * 2014-07-15 2016-01-20 Mammoet Engineering B.V. Method and assembly for transport of heavy loads
NL2013187B1 (en) * 2014-07-15 2016-09-13 Mammoet Eng B V Method and assembly for transport of heavy loads.
US11390364B2 (en) * 2017-11-27 2022-07-19 Bardex Corporation Systems, apparatus, and methods for transporting vessels
CN108773457A (en) * 2018-05-31 2018-11-09 广船国际有限公司 A kind of large-sized annular block closes up localization method
US11186314B2 (en) 2018-08-22 2021-11-30 Plasan Sasa Ltd. Articulated vehicle assembly and articulation system for use therein

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