US3438161A - Wall construction - Google Patents

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US3438161A
US3438161A US3438161DA US3438161A US 3438161 A US3438161 A US 3438161A US 3438161D A US3438161D A US 3438161DA US 3438161 A US3438161 A US 3438161A
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core
members
spike
plug
poured
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Robert Carl Koch
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Robert Carl Koch
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ

Description

April 15, 1969 Filed July 15, 1965 R. c. KOCH 3,438,161
WALL CONSTRUCTION SheetiofZ 1"? z; .9 fi 44 7 9 C -43 -i "11L 1.. AL
, INVENTOR.
ROBERT C. KOCH United States Patent ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The wall construction involves placing between spaced parallel forms to confine poured concrete, a core of a material of the class of expanded polystyrene in flat slab form, which core may be constituted of one or more such slabs in face contact with the other; said core being spaced from the form members by means of a plurality of inexpensive core positioners which, either wholly or partly, may remain in the finished poured wall. The core positioners are of several simple types designed according to the function to be performed thereby, either in spacing the core from the upright walls of the forms, or in spacing the cores endwise from one another, or in spacing the lower edges of the cores from a base support upon which concrete is to be poured. If the core includes two slabs, the positioners perform the added function of securing the slabs against planar displacement relative to one another.
This invention relates to a wall construction and method of production.
The present wall construction involves the use of rigid form members to determine the desired wall dimensions, a core of light-weight heat-insulating panels interposed between the form members and about which may be poured a monolithic settable material such as concrete, and means to support the core panels in a particular manner preparatory to pouring the monolithic material about the panels and within the confines of the form members.
An object of the invention is to facilitate and expedite the formation of an improved wall, or wall section, suitable for the erection of buildings or other structures of a substantial nature.
Another object of the invention is to provide a highly durable wall or wall section which is substantially soundproof, vermin-proof, impervious to air, heat, cold and moisture, and light in weight to facilitate handling.
A further object is to provide a method and apparaus of the character and for the purposes stated, whereby may be realized substantial savings of time and labor in production and in erection of the improved wall construction, so that the various advantages above mentioned may be attained with minimal expense.
The foregoing and other objects are attained by the means described herein and as disclosed in the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a side view of the improved wall construction in the course of formation, some of the side wall form members being omitted in the interest of clarity of disclosure.
FIG. 2 is a vertical cross-section taken on line 22 of FIG. 1, with both side wall form members shown.
FIG. 3 is a cross'sectional view taken on line 33 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 2, showing a monolithic settable plastic material such as concrete poured between the form members.
FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 3, showing the wall or wall section poured as in FIG. 4.
FIGS. 6 and 7 are side and end elevations, respectively, of a core positioner.
FIG. 8 is a side elevational view of a core-spacing aligner.
3,438,161 Patented Apr. 15, 1969 FIG. 9 is a side elevational view of a core panel connector.
FIGS. 10 and 11 are end and side elevations, respectively, of a plug-type core positioner which may be removed from the wall construction after the monolithic material has solidified, thereby eliminating exposure of the core positioner ends in the finished wall surfaces.
FIG. 12 is a side elevation partly in cross-section, showing an alternative form of plug-type core positioner to remain in the wall structure after solidification.
In the drawings, the reference characters 16 and 18 indicate the spaced side members of a wall form, between which may be poured a quantity of fluid concrete or other solidifiable material, suitable to constitute a durable wall or wall section. The material generally used is a monolithic substance such as concrete, from which the form members may be stripped after solidification.
The form side members may be erected upon a supporting structure 20, which may be either the usual footer of a foundation, or a bottom form member used temporarily in manufacturing individual wall sections to be transported to and erected at a job site. Such individual wall sections may be pre-cast at a manufacturing plant, along with other structural features required in the design of a building or other structure to be erected. Pre-cast wall sections may be transported to and placed upon an existing footer in various ways, including the currently popular tilt-up method wherein the sections are swung from a horizontal position to a vertical position upon the footer, and then bonded to one another in the vertical position. The bonding or connecting of the vertically disposed sections may be effected in any approved manner, this being immaterial to the present invention.
The form side members 16, 18, may comprise flat panels of plywood, metal, or the like, reinforced by horizontal upper and lower frame struts 22, 24, and vertical frame stiles 26, 26, rigidly connected at the ends thereof. The lower struts 24- are adapted to rest upon support 20 as the wall or wall section is poured.
Stringers such as 28 maintain adjacent form side members in coplanar relationship, while spacer rods 30 establish the spacing of all opposed side members, and consequently, the thickness of the wall to be produced. Rods 30 preferably pass through stringers 28, and through the core itself to preclude flotation of the core in the fluid concrete. When the form members are stripped from the wall, portions of rods 30 may remain embedded therein.
As was previously mentioned, the wall or wall section includes one or more light-weight embedded core elements 32. The core elements preferably are panels or slabs of cellular or foamed synthetic material of the class of expanded polystyrene, which reduce substantially the amount of concrete accommodated by the wall form. The material of the core elements, in addition to limiting the weight of the wall or wall section, imparts thereto sound-deadening and heat insulating characteristics which are highly desirable in many wall constructions. The core elements provide also a barrier to moisture transfer through the Wall. The material of the core elements, moreover, will not support insect life and will accordingly render the Wall or wall section vermin-proof.
Means are provided for supporting the core elements between the Wall forms, for full embedment within the monolithic material poured between the form members. In the accompanying drawings, each core element 32 is shown constituted of two slabs or panels 34, 36, placed in flatwise contact one against the other, the two slabs or panels being equal in size and dimensions. In practice, the core may be much thicker than shown, and in some instances may comprise more than two slabs or panels, depending upon the thickness of the wall to be produced, and the service it is to perform. The core may,
of course, be a single slab or panel, of a required thickness.
When a core is to be constituted of a plurality of panels, the panels may be held in flatwise contact one upon the other by means of several core panel connectors 38, FIGS. 9 and 2. The panel connector 38 may comprise a rod or spike having opposite ends pointed as at 40, to readily penetrate the panel material. At a location approximately midway between the pointed ends 40, the spike may carry a fixed washer, disc, or abutment 42 to limit and equalize penetration of the spike ends in the material of the abutted panels. Thus, two or more core panels may be integrated to serve as a single one-piece core member of a thickness equal to the sum of the panel thicknesses.
The cores preferably are held elevated above the support or base 20 by means of core positioners 44, shown in FIG. 1 and detailed in FIGS. 6 and 7. The core positioner may be in the form of a spike or rod having a pointed end 46 and a blunt end 48, with a fixed washer, disc, or abutment 50 disposed about midway between the ends. The pointed end is adapted to enter the material of the core to the extent permitted by the Washer, and the blunt end 48 is adapted to abut a form member so as to space the core for embedment in the poured monolithic material.
Core positioners such as 44 may be used not only to support the core above base member 20, but also to space the core from the side members 16 and 18, according to FIG. 2. Due to the cellular nature of the core material, the core positioners are easily applied thereto for spacing purposes. If desired, the core may be perforated as at 33, to form a concrete tie, 330, FIG. 4.
In the construction of a continuous wall, or where several cores such as 32 are to be placed edgewise between side wall forms (FIG. 1), it may be desirable to secure and space the cores edgewise one from another to permit pouring a vertical column of monolithic material between adjacent cores. In that event, the cores may be interconnected and spaced edgewise one relative to another by means of core connectors 52. Such core connectors 52, one of which is detailed in FIG. 8, may comprise a rod or spike having pointed opposite ends 54 to enter the material of adjacent cores, with the extent of penetration limited by two spaced washers or discs 56 fixed to the spike at substantially equal distances from the spike ends. The space between washers or discs 56 determines the width of any upright column to be poured between adjacent cores, and may be varied as required by approved engineering practice.
It is apparent by reference to FIG. 2, that upon stripping the form members from the poured and solidified wall, the outer ends of core positioners 44 will be exposed at the opposite faces of the poured wall. This is sometimes objectionable, particularly if the positioners are subject to rusting or corroding. The objection may be eliminated, however, by utilizing core positioners of the type illustrated by FIGS. and 11, in constructing the wall or wall section.
According to FIGS. 10 and 11, the rod or spike 60 has a screw-threaded end 62 upon which may be removably mounted a tapered plug 64. The outer enlarged end 66 of the plug abuts the side wall form to space the core therefrom, and after the Wall has been poured and solidified, and the form dismantled, the plug may be unscrewed from the spike to leave a hole in the side of the concrete wall. The hole subsequently may be filled to present a neat appearance.
In FIGS. 1-0 and 11, the spike 60 carries a fixed anchor plate 68 welded or otherwise affixed thereto, for embedment in the concrete of the wall. If desired, the plate may may carry offset mutilations or ears 70 to anchor the plate against rotation With the plug as the plug is removed by turning. The plug may be provided with an end socket 72 to accommodate a wrench or extracting tool.
In a modification of FIG. 11, the tapered plug and spike 60 might be formed in one piece, omitting the anchor plate 68, so that both the plug and the spike might be extracted after the wall has been solidified and stripped. The resulting opening in the poured Wall would then be filled as stated above.
The device of FIGS. 10 and 11 may be constructed of metal or plastic, or a combination of the two, and this applies also to the devices of FIGS. 6, 8 and 9.
The core positioner of FIG. 12, which is a device alternative to that of FIG. 11, may comprise a spike or rod 74 having a mutilated end 76 embedded in a tapered plug 78, the taper being opposite to the taper of the FIG. 11 device. As herein shown, the plug is of concrete or cement, with the reduced end 80 thereof disposed opposite to the pointed end 82 of the spike.
When assembling the form as in FIG. 2, the core positioner of FIG. 12 would space the core from the form side wall, with the reduced end 80 contacting the side wall, of the form. Then upon pouring and setting of the wall, and removal of the form, the plug 78 will be found securely and immovably integrated with the wall material, leaving no hole to be filled later. In this respect, the device of FIG. 12 may be considered preferable to that of FIG. 11 and its aforementioned modification. The device of FIG. 12, however, is not subject to re-use like the device of FIG. 11 wherein the plug is removable from the wall structure.
It is to be understood that various modifications and changes may be made in the structural details of the apparatus, within the scope of the appended claims, Without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A wall in the process of construction, comprising in combination: a removable form including a pair of spaced side members to confine a quantity of solidifiable fluid concrete poured into the form; a core of material of the class of expanded polystyrene in slab form, the core being of a thickness less than the space between the form side members; a plurality of core positioners each comprising an elongate spike having opposite ends; a plug on one of said ends, leaving the remaining end free to be driven into the material of the core; said plug having an inner end to abut the core, and an outer end to abut a member of the form for spacing the core from the form member; means precluding shifting of the core in paral lelism with the form side members; and means for maintaining a predetermined spacing of the form side members from one another.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the plug aforesaid is of substantial truncated cone shape, with ends of different area sizes, the larger area thereof being in abutment upon the core, and the smaller area thereof being in abutment with one of the form side members.
3. Apparatus according to claim 2, wherein the plug is formed of concrete to bond with the concrete poured into the form.
4. A wall in the process of construction, comprising in combination: a removable form including a pair of spaced side members to confine a quantity of solidifiable fluid concrete poured into the form; a core of material of the class of expanded polystyrene in slab form, the core being of a thickness less than the space between the form side members; a plurality of core positioners each comprising an elongate spike having a pointed end, a screw-threaded end, and a plug member, said plug member having an inner end correspondingly threaded to detachably receive the threaded end of the spike, and an outer end recessed to accommodate a plug member extracting tool; means on the spike to bond with the poured concrete when solidified, to preclude rotation of the spike with the plug member when the plug member is rotated to unthread and disconnect the plug member from the threaded end of the spike; said spike having its pointed end driven into the material of the core, to dispose the outer end of the plug member in abutting relationship with one of the form side members so as to space the core from said one side member; means precluding shifting of the core in parallelism with the form side members; and means for maintaining a predetermined spacing of the form side members from one another.
5. Apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the plug member is tapered at convergency toward the pointed end of the spike.
6. A wall in the process of construction, comprising in combination: a removable form including a pair of spaced side members to confine a quantity of solidifiable fluid concrete poured into the form; a core of material of the class of expanded polystyrene in slab form, the core being of a thickness less than the space between the form side members; a plurality of core positioners each comprising an elongate spike having a pointed end, a butt end, and a plug member, said plug member having an outer end, and an inner end fixed relative to the butt end of the spike for abutting the core; means at said outer end of the plug member to engage an extracting tool; said spike having its pointed end driven into the material of the core, to dispose the outer end of the plug member in abutting relationship with one of the form side members so as to space the core from said one side member; and means precluding shifting of the core in its plane incident to pouring of concrete into the form and about the core.
7. Apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the plug member is tapered at convergency toward the pointed end of the spike.
8. A wall in the process of construction comprising in combination: a removable form including a pair of spaced side members to confine a quantity of solidifiable fluid concrete poured into the form; a core of material of the class of expanded polystyrene in slab form having upright side faces, side edges and a bottom edge, the core being of a thickness less than the space between the form side members; a plurality of core positioners each comprising an elongated spike having a pointed end, a blunt end, and an abutment fixed upon the spike intermediate the ends thereof, the pointed end being of a length approximately the thickness of the core, and the blunt end being of a length less than half the distance between the spaced form side members; said core positioners having their pointed ends driven into the side faces of the core to an extent determined by the abutments, with the blunt ends outwardly extended into butting contact with the inside face of the form side members to space the core from said members, means including positioners driven in the side edges for precluding shifting of the core in parallelism with the form side members incident to the pouring of fluid concrete about the core, and means for maintaining a predetermined spacing of the form side members from one another.
9. A core assembly for embedment in a poured concrete wall comprising in combination: a substantially fiat slab of material of the class of expanded polystyrene, having opposite planar faces and top, bottom, and opposed side edges, a plurality of slab positioners each comprising an elongate spike having a pointed end, a blunt end, and an abutment member fixed upon the spike intermediate the ends of the spike to limit penetration of the pointed end portion of the spike into the material of the slab, the pointed end portion of each spike being of a length approximately the thickness of the slab, the positioners being driven into the opposite planar faces and at least one side edge of the slab with the blunt end portion exposed to an extent limited by the abutment members and the blunt ends of the positioners driven into said opposed planar faces lying in planes parallel to the respective adjacent planar face.
10. A core assembly for embedment in a poured concrete wall comprising in combination: a core comprising a plurality of substantially flat slabs of material of the class of expanded polystyrene, means in the form of double-pointed connectors disposed between adjacent slabs for penetrating the slabs and holding the slabs in face contact one against another, to provide a composite core having outer planar faces and top, bottom, and opposed side edges, a plurality of core positioners each comprising an elongate spike having a pointed end, a blunt end, and an abutment member fixed upon the spike intermediate the ends of the spike to limit penetration of the pointed end portion of the spike into the material of the composite core, the pointed end portion of each spike being of a length approximately the combined thickness of the slabs comprising the core, the positioners being driven into the planar outer faces of the composite core, and into at least one side edge thereof with the blunt end portion of the positioners exposed to an extent determined by the abutment members, and the blunt ends of the positioners driven into said planar outer faces lying in planes parallel to the respective adjacent planar face.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 878,000 2/1908 Holman 249-40 1,777,926 10/1930 Lillard 52-585 1,951,421 3/1934 Kleitz 52-410 2,382,474 8/ 1945 Gambo 52-361 2,595,123 5/1952 Callan 52-410 2,653,469 9/1953 Callan 52-410 3,237,357 3/1966 Hutchings 52-410 1,011,702 12/1911 Zipfel 25-131 1,174,519 3/1916 Pray 52-381 1,229,365 6/1917 Wiegand 52-677 1,675,282 6/1928 Strand -14 2,110,300 3/1938 Kemper 52679 2,859,503 11/1958 Hennig 25 2,887,757 5/1959 Miles 25 3,295,278 1/1967 Muhm 52-309 FOREIGN PATENTS 105,758 10/ 1938 Australia.
128,603 8/1948 Australia.
980,953 1/ 1965 Great Britain.
695,031 9/ 1930 France.
ALFRED G. PERHAM, Primary Examiner.
JAMES L. RIDGILL, ]R., Assistant Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R.
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Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3803784A (en) * 1971-06-25 1974-04-16 O Becker Composite wall element for thermal and acoustic insulation
US3856254A (en) * 1972-11-17 1974-12-24 A Fattor Form for wall panels with imbedded heating tubes
US3909168A (en) * 1972-03-16 1975-09-30 Joseph L Greenwell Injection tube assembly and concrete panel form
US4117639A (en) * 1977-06-29 1978-10-03 Butler Manufacturing Company Reinforced insulated concrete building panel
US4125980A (en) * 1976-12-30 1978-11-21 Miraldi Robert V Foundation, method of constructing same and parts useable therein
US4188760A (en) * 1978-06-20 1980-02-19 Frost John L Masonry building block and method for forming such a block
US4189886A (en) * 1974-07-01 1980-02-26 W. R. Grace & Co. Ventilated insulated roofing system
US4211385A (en) * 1978-11-16 1980-07-08 Foam-Ply, Inc. Concrete form structure
EP0033942A2 (en) * 1980-02-07 1981-08-19 Dan Shoham Method of constructing in-situ cast concrete internally insulated building walls
EP0039251A2 (en) * 1980-04-30 1981-11-04 Robert T. Long Composite insulated wall
EP0073553A2 (en) * 1981-04-30 1983-03-09 International Housing Limited Insulated wall construction apparatus
US4454702A (en) * 1981-03-24 1984-06-19 Bonilla Lugo Juan Building construction and method of constructing same
US5301487A (en) * 1991-03-29 1994-04-12 Wiebe Jacob R Wooden structural member for use in a building
US5924830A (en) * 1993-04-15 1999-07-20 De Groot; Klaas Willem Nail element and method for its manufacture
US6058672A (en) * 1998-06-03 2000-05-09 Mcclellan; Robert B. Construction of wall panel and panel structure
US6079176A (en) * 1997-09-29 2000-06-27 Westra; Albert P. Insulated concrete wall
US6351918B1 (en) * 1997-09-29 2002-03-05 Albert P. Westra Insulated concrete wall
US6634148B2 (en) 2001-11-29 2003-10-21 Edward C. Shidler Insulated poured wall system
US20040226259A1 (en) * 2004-07-15 2004-11-18 Thermoformed Block Corp. System for the placement of modular fill material forming co-joined assemblies
US20060277855A1 (en) * 2005-06-13 2006-12-14 Westra Gregory A Method and apparatus for insulating a concrete wall
US20090049782A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Long Sr Robert T Interior and exterior surface anchoring system
US20090173870A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2009-07-09 Long Sr Robert T Concrete Forming Apparatus
US20110239566A1 (en) * 2010-04-02 2011-10-06 Romeo Ilarian Ciuperca Insulated concrete form and method of using same
USD757304S1 (en) * 2013-01-15 2016-05-24 Harsco Infrastructure Services Gmbh Form panel for manufacturing a concrete wall
US20170298617A1 (en) * 2016-02-11 2017-10-19 Cetres Holdings, Llc Concrete anchor bodies and plugs
US9903111B1 (en) * 2017-02-14 2018-02-27 Orial Nir Construction assembly and method for laying blocks

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Cited By (40)

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USRE29517E (en) * 1971-06-25 1978-01-17 Composite wall element for thermal and acoustic insulation
US3803784A (en) * 1971-06-25 1974-04-16 O Becker Composite wall element for thermal and acoustic insulation
US3909168A (en) * 1972-03-16 1975-09-30 Joseph L Greenwell Injection tube assembly and concrete panel form
US3856254A (en) * 1972-11-17 1974-12-24 A Fattor Form for wall panels with imbedded heating tubes
US4189886A (en) * 1974-07-01 1980-02-26 W. R. Grace & Co. Ventilated insulated roofing system
US4125980A (en) * 1976-12-30 1978-11-21 Miraldi Robert V Foundation, method of constructing same and parts useable therein
US4117639A (en) * 1977-06-29 1978-10-03 Butler Manufacturing Company Reinforced insulated concrete building panel
US4188760A (en) * 1978-06-20 1980-02-19 Frost John L Masonry building block and method for forming such a block
US4211385A (en) * 1978-11-16 1980-07-08 Foam-Ply, Inc. Concrete form structure
EP0033942A3 (en) * 1980-02-07 1982-03-24 Dan Shoham A method of putting in a partition of insulation material inside concrete walls which are cast in a vertical position in an industrial building site
EP0033942A2 (en) * 1980-02-07 1981-08-19 Dan Shoham Method of constructing in-situ cast concrete internally insulated building walls
EP0039251A2 (en) * 1980-04-30 1981-11-04 Robert T. Long Composite insulated wall
EP0039251A3 (en) * 1980-04-30 1982-06-30 Robert T. Long Composite insulated wall
US4454702A (en) * 1981-03-24 1984-06-19 Bonilla Lugo Juan Building construction and method of constructing same
EP0073553A2 (en) * 1981-04-30 1983-03-09 International Housing Limited Insulated wall construction apparatus
EP0073553A3 (en) * 1981-04-30 1983-07-20 International Housing Limited Insulated wall construction apparatus
US5301487A (en) * 1991-03-29 1994-04-12 Wiebe Jacob R Wooden structural member for use in a building
US5924830A (en) * 1993-04-15 1999-07-20 De Groot; Klaas Willem Nail element and method for its manufacture
US6079176A (en) * 1997-09-29 2000-06-27 Westra; Albert P. Insulated concrete wall
US6351918B1 (en) * 1997-09-29 2002-03-05 Albert P. Westra Insulated concrete wall
US6058672A (en) * 1998-06-03 2000-05-09 Mcclellan; Robert B. Construction of wall panel and panel structure
US6634148B2 (en) 2001-11-29 2003-10-21 Edward C. Shidler Insulated poured wall system
US8181418B2 (en) * 2004-07-15 2012-05-22 Thermoformed Block Corp. System for the placement of modular fill material forming co-joined assemblies
US20040226259A1 (en) * 2004-07-15 2004-11-18 Thermoformed Block Corp. System for the placement of modular fill material forming co-joined assemblies
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