US3380445A - Electrical pickup structure for electrocardiographs and the like - Google Patents

Electrical pickup structure for electrocardiographs and the like Download PDF

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US3380445A
US3380445A US48991565A US3380445A US 3380445 A US3380445 A US 3380445A US 48991565 A US48991565 A US 48991565A US 3380445 A US3380445 A US 3380445A
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electrodes
body
invention
structure
cups
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Jordan D Frasier
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Infineon Technologies Americas Corp
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Infineon Technologies Americas Corp
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/04Detecting, measuring or recording bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/0402Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
    • A61B5/0408Electrodes specially adapted therefor
    • A61B5/04085Multiple electrode holders
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes

Description

J. D. FRASIER April 30, 1968 3,380,445

ELECTRICAL PICKUP STRUCTURE FOR ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHS AND THE LIKE Filed Sept. 24, 1965 1 N VEN'I'OR Maid/4N 12 1964676? United States Patent 3,380,445 ELECTRICAL PICKUP STRUCTURE FOR ELECTRO- CARDIOGRAPHS AND THE LIKE Jordan D. Frasier, Orange, Califi, assignor to International Rectifier Corporation, El Segundo, Calif., a corporation of California 7 Filed Sept. 24, 1965, Ser. No. 489,915 Claims. (Cl. 1282.06)

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An electrical pickup structure for an electrocardiograph consisting of three electrodes mounted in the lobes of a cloverle'af shaped flexible support having a thin central web. The leads for each of the electrodes are taken out through a common stem.

This invention relates to an electrical pickup structure, and more particularly relates to a novel electrode construction for the electrodes of an ele'ctrocardiog'raph, or for a heart pulse pickup.

It is well known to connect electrodes to the human body with the use of a suitable jelly for decreasing contact resistance, whereby the output electrical signals developed between various electrodes will indicate various functions or the heart. In addition, such arrangements may be used for monitoring the heartbeat.

In the standard prior art arrangement of such electrodes, the electrodes are individually applied to the body resulting in a large number of awkwardly placed lead Wire's inhibiting the patients movement. If these electrodes must remain in place over a long period of time, as when used for intensive care patients, the patients movements are unduly hampered and, more serious, his move ment can cause the generation of spurious signals into the monitoring electrical equipment because of physical movement of the electrode with respect to his body.

Furthermore, with the prior art arrangement and where the electrodes must remain attached to the body for an appreciable period of time, the jelly used for improving contact resistance is exposed to the air and will dry out rapidly unless covered with a suitable bandage.

A further problem with the prior art individu'al electrode arrangement, especially inan emergency situation, is the relatively long length of time required to individually coat the electrodes with jelly, individually place them on the body and hold them secure to the body.

The present invention provides a novel electrode structure adapted for connection to standard cardioscopes or other electrical signaling monitoring equipment in which a plurality of electrodes are contained within respective cups formed in a common resilient, rubber-like body.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the support body arrangement resembles a shamrock wherein the central web provides great flexibility to the extending lobes which have electrodes embedded therein. These electrodes, which are contained within cup-shaped lobes, then may be covered with "a suitable jelly simply by dropping some suitable amount of jelly within each of the cups, whereupon the entire assemblage can be immediately placed upon the patients body in any suitable location.

The leads extending from the individual electrodes are carried out through 'a common cable conductor which is terminated by a suitable cable multi-terminal connector. Thus, only a single wire extends from the multi-electrode structure as contrasted to the nest of wires commonly associated with electrocardiogram monitoring equipment. Moreover, since the jelly is contained within cups which a're intimately secured 'to the body, the jelly does not 3,380,445 Patented Apr. 30, 1968 ice dry out as rapidly as when it is exposed. Furthermore, where the structure is to be secured against patient movement, a simple st-rip of tape will retain all of the electrodes rigidly in position with respect to the patients body, thereby decreasing possibility of spurious signal generat-i-on due to the relative movement of the electrode and the body.

In the novel arrangement, with each of the electrodes contained in a common flexible body and with the electrodes embedded in cups which serve as jelly receptacles, the device can be immediately utilized in emergency situations, or at least provides an exceptionally convenient instrument for the use of a doctor or technician in nonemergency situations.

Moreover, by carrying the electrodes in a flexible body, each of the electrodes can deflect with respect to the remaining electrodes and follow the contours of the body port-ion on which the assemblage is placed.

Accordingly, a primary object of this invention is to provide a novel electrode structure for use with medical electrical equipment,

Yet another object of this invention is to provide a convenient means for connecting a plurality of electrodes to the hum-an body.

A further object of this invention is to provide a multielectrode structure for connection to the human body which can be rapidly used in an emergency situation.

Another object of this invention is to provide a novel m'ulti-elect-rode structure wherein the individual electrodes are contained within a common flexible support which can follow the contours of the human body.

A still further object of this invention is to provide a novel multi-electrode structure for cardioscopes, or the like, which decreases the generation of spurious signals to the cardioscope.

These and other objects of this invention will become apparent from the following description when taken in connection with the drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a rear plan view of 'a first embodiment of the invention wherein three electrodes are contained within a shamrock-shaped flexible container.

FIGURE 2 is a side view of FIGURE 1 partially in cross-section to illustrate the configuration of the cup walls which contain the electrodes.

FIGURE 3 is a front view of the device of FIGURES 1 and 2 and particularly illustrates the cups and the exposed electrode surfaces for the electrodes contained within the cups.

FIGURE 4 is a schematic circuit diagram illustrating the electrical conductors extending from the electrodes through the terminal cable.

FIGURE 5 is a front view of a second embodiment of the invention in which the support structure is triangular in shape.

FIGURE 6 is a front view of the third embodiment of the invention wherein the support is of a rectangular shape.

Referring now to FIGURES 1, 2 and 3, which illustrate the shamrock-shaped embodiment of the invention, a plurality of electrodes 10, 1.1 and 12, which are each suitable for connection to the human body, are contained within respective cups 13, 14 and -15 which are (formed integrally in a common flexible support body having the central connecting web 16.

A sheath 17 which is integral with the web 1 6 extends downwardly between the lobes defining cups [l3 and 15, and an electrical cable 18 extends from the end of sheath 17.

The individual electrodes 10, 1-1 and 12 may be of the standard type used in electrocardiograph work. Good results have been obtained through the use of a nickel- 3 silver disk having a diameter of 1 /3 inches and a thickness of 0.03 inch. It has been found useful to sandblast the outer surfaces of electrodes 10, '1'1 and '12, mainly to prevent their discoloration by the commercially available jellies which are normally used.

Each of electrodes 10,11 and 12 then have respective conductors electrically connected thereto, as schematically illustrated in FIGURE 4, as the conductors 20, 21 and 22, respectively.

In forming the assemblage, as will be described more fully hereinafter, the conductors through 22 extend below the integrally molded ribs 23, 24 and 25, respectively, at the generally flat rear surface of the assemblage, and extend downwardly to the common shielded cable 18. Note that the cable 18 will be relatively long and could have a length, for example, of 12 feet, and is terminated by a standard multi-terminal connector that will be connectable to any standard cardioscope.

Each of the cups 13, 14 and 15 have a wall shape best shown in FIGURE 2 at the upper portion thereof for the wall 140 of cup 1 4. Note that the electrode 11 is captured within a shoulder formed at the interior beginning of wall 14a. Each of electrodes 10, 1'1 and 12 are captured within their respective cups 13, 14 and 15 in the same manner.

In forming the novel structure of the invention, the electrodes 10, '11 and 12 are connected to their respective conductors 20, 21 and 22 which terminate the preformed cable 18 and are stripped at the ends thereof to permit the desired electrical connection. Thereafter, the electrodes are placed within a plastic mold into which the flexible material is poured to form the shape shown in FIGURES 1, 2 and 3 after setting.

In particular, any typical well-known flexible material could be used in the molding operation.

As a typical example of the dimensions which could be used with the present invention, in the device of FIGURES 1, 2 and 3, the lobes are separated from one another by approximately 105. The overall thickness or height of the cup was /2 inch, While the thickness of the central web 16 was A; inch. The electrodes 11, C12 and 13 extended approximately /52 of an inch into the walls of their cups, thereby obtaining good securement, and the cup walls extended approximately /s of an inch beyond the ends of the electrodes. The length of sheath 17 from the center of web 16 was approximately 2% inches, and the distance from the center of the web to the outer periphery of cups 13, :14 and 15 was also approximately 2% inches.

Thus, the entire molded arrangement could lie within a circle having a radius of 2% inches. The ribs 23, 24 and 25 extended approximately Ms of an inch beyond the flat surface of the rear of the support at the center of web 16 and taper downwardly 'as they approach the outer periphery of their respective cups. Each of the cups then had a diameter of approximately 1% inches at their outer periphery.

Clearly, any suitable method of manufacture or of embedding electrodes within a common flexible support could be used within the scope of the present invention.

While the shamrock-shape of FIGURES 1 through 4 has been found to give particularly good results, especial- .4 J I I ly when using a thin, "central web '16 to provide the required flexibility, it will be apparent that other shapes could also be used, and that other numbers of electrodes could be carried in the common support.

By way of example, FIGURE 5 illustrates that the electrodes 10, 1 1 and 12 can be formed within cups 40, 4'1 and 42 which are integral with a triangular base 48 having an integral output sheath 44. In a similar manner, a rectangular support could be used, as shown in FIGURE 6, wherein the electrodes 10, I l and 12 are contained within jelly-receiving cups 50, 51 and 52 carried on the rectangular web 53 having the output sheath '54. Clearly, any other number of shapes such as oval shapes, diamond shapes, or the like, which would permit suflicient flexure of the individual cups to conform to the contours of the body would be suitable for use with the present invention.

Although this invention has been described with respect to its preferred embodiments, it should be under-stood that many variations and modifications will now be obvious to those skilled in the art, and it is preferred, therefore, that the scope of the invention be limited not by the specific disclosure herein, but only by the appended claims.

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive privilege or property is claimed are defined as follows:

1. A multiple electrode structure comprising a generally fiat flexible base structure, a plurality of flat electrodes secured to the same surface of said flat flexible base structure, said plurality of flat electrodes spaced from one another and coplanar with said flexible base structure, a lurality of lead wires each respectively connected to a respective electrodes of said plurality of electrodes, and a common sheath containing extending portions of said plurality of lead wires, said base structure comprising a thin central connecting web having a plurality of lobes extending therefrom; each of said electrodes secured to a respective lob of said plurality of lobes.

2. The device substantially as set forth in claim 1 wherein each of said plurality of flat electrodes is surrounded by flexible cup-shaped walls extending from said surface of said base structure.

-3. The device substantially as set forth in claim 2 wherein said plurality of electrodes extend into the bottom of their said surrounding walls.

4. The device substantially as set forth in claim 3 wherein said lwalls, base and common sheath are integral with one another.

5. The device substantially as set forth in claim 4 wherein said common sheath etxends from said central connecting web between two adjacent lobes.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,943,628 7/1960 Howell 128418 3,187,745 6/1965 Baum et al l28-2.06

FOREIGN PATENTS 274,612 7/ 1951 Switzerland.

RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner.

W. E. KAMM, Examiner.

US3380445A 1965-09-24 1965-09-24 Electrical pickup structure for electrocardiographs and the like Expired - Lifetime US3380445A (en)

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US3565060A (en) * 1968-08-21 1971-02-23 Us Navy Biopotential sensor employing integrated circuitry
US3696807A (en) * 1970-02-13 1972-10-10 Mdm Corp Medical electrode with relatively rigid electrolyte cup
US3724467A (en) * 1971-04-23 1973-04-03 Avery Labor Inc Electrode implant for the neuro-stimulation of the spinal cord
US3776228A (en) * 1971-09-20 1973-12-04 H Semler Portable self-contained electrical cardiometric device with three fixed-position nonuniformly spaced input probes
DE2337321A1 (en) * 1972-07-24 1974-02-07 Medical Plastics Inc Electrode to create an ECG
US3830227A (en) * 1966-05-17 1974-08-20 H Green Hand-held cardiac sound tone diagnostic device and method
US3927662A (en) * 1971-12-08 1975-12-23 Hoffmann La Roche Ultrasonic transducer assembly
US3960141A (en) * 1975-03-06 1976-06-01 Bolduc Lee R Electrosurgical and ECG monitoring system
US4033333A (en) * 1975-12-10 1977-07-05 Combined Scientific Resources Corporation Electrode arrangement for taking electrocardiograms
US4051842A (en) * 1975-09-15 1977-10-04 International Medical Corporation Electrode and interfacing pad for electrical physiological systems
FR2373265A1 (en) * 1976-12-13 1978-07-07 Mi Systems Inc electrocardiographic control buffer
DE2742058A1 (en) * 1977-09-19 1979-03-29 Guenter Prof Dipl Ing Dr R Rau Fixture for data pick=up and measuring electrode - has flexible one-piece suction cup of plastics esp. for use on skin surfaces
US4233987A (en) * 1978-08-18 1980-11-18 Alfred Feingold Curvilinear electrocardiograph electrode strip
EP0029245A1 (en) * 1979-11-20 1981-05-27 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Arrangement for supplying or picking up electrical signals
US4328814A (en) * 1980-06-04 1982-05-11 The Kendall Company Precordial ECG strip
US4381789A (en) * 1979-11-20 1983-05-03 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Electrode system
US4393584A (en) * 1979-12-06 1983-07-19 C. R. Bard, Inc. Method of manufacture of electrode construction
US4522211A (en) * 1979-12-06 1985-06-11 C. R. Bard, Inc. Medical electrode construction
US4573473A (en) * 1984-04-13 1986-03-04 Cordis Corporation Cardiac mapping probe
US4583549A (en) * 1984-05-30 1986-04-22 Samir Manoli ECG electrode pad
US4595013A (en) * 1984-08-17 1986-06-17 Neurologics, Inc. Electrode harness
US4628939A (en) * 1980-09-11 1986-12-16 Hughes Aircraft Company Method and improved apparatus for analyzing heart activity
US4841966A (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-06-27 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Electrode consisting of at least three elements useful for a HF surgical instrument
FR2652505A1 (en) * 1989-10-03 1991-04-05 Mirowski Mieczyslaw Electrode defibrilation exonerating controlled.
US5042481A (en) * 1989-01-31 1991-08-27 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Body electrode holder
US5111812A (en) * 1990-01-23 1992-05-12 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Defilbrillation electrode having smooth current distribution
US5114424A (en) * 1989-09-07 1992-05-19 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Multipart planar electrode for an hf-surgery device
US5391200A (en) * 1992-09-30 1995-02-21 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Defibrillation patch electrode having conductor-free resilient zone for minimally invasive deployment
US5813404A (en) * 1995-10-20 1998-09-29 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Electrode connector system
US20060224150A1 (en) * 2005-03-31 2006-10-05 Sherwood Services Ag Temperature regulating patient return electrode and return electrode monitoring system
US20070073284A1 (en) * 2002-09-25 2007-03-29 Sturm Thomas A Multiple RF return pad contact detection system
US20070161979A1 (en) * 2006-01-12 2007-07-12 Sherwood Services Ag RF return pad current detection system
US20070167942A1 (en) * 2006-01-18 2007-07-19 Sherwood Services Ag RF return pad current distribution system
US20070238944A1 (en) * 2003-02-06 2007-10-11 Jens Axelgaard Multi-electrode with lateral conductivity control
US20070244478A1 (en) * 2006-04-18 2007-10-18 Sherwood Services Ag System and method for reducing patient return electrode current concentrations
US20080009846A1 (en) * 2006-07-06 2008-01-10 Sherwood Services Ag Electrosurgical return electrode with an involuted edge
US20080050984A1 (en) * 2001-06-01 2008-02-28 Ehr Chris J Return pad cable connector
US20080082092A1 (en) * 2006-09-28 2008-04-03 Sherwood Services Ag Temperature sensing return electrode pad
US20080083813A1 (en) * 2006-10-05 2008-04-10 Michael Zemlok Method and force-limiting handle mechanism for a surgical instrument
US20080249520A1 (en) * 2007-04-03 2008-10-09 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for providing even heat distribution and cooling return pads
US20080249524A1 (en) * 2007-04-03 2008-10-09 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for providing even heat distribution and cooling return pads
US20080281311A1 (en) * 2007-05-11 2008-11-13 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Temperature monitoring return electrode
US20080281180A1 (en) * 2007-05-07 2008-11-13 William Chongwon Choe Electrocardiograph monitoring device and connector
US20080281309A1 (en) * 2007-05-07 2008-11-13 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Capacitive electrosurgical return pad with contact quality monitoring
US20080281310A1 (en) * 2007-05-11 2008-11-13 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Temperature monitoring return electrode
US20090036885A1 (en) * 2007-08-01 2009-02-05 Gregg William N System and method for return electrode monitoring
US20090036884A1 (en) * 2007-08-01 2009-02-05 Gregg William N System and method for return electrode monitoring
US20090221897A1 (en) * 2005-12-23 2009-09-03 Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepast- Natuurwetenschappelijke Onderzoek Tno Diagnostic Electrode Configuration
US20090228072A1 (en) * 2008-03-06 2009-09-10 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. System and method of aligning an implantable antenna
US7637907B2 (en) 2006-09-19 2009-12-29 Covidien Ag System and method for return electrode monitoring
US7658196B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2010-02-09 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. System and method for determining implanted device orientation
US20100185195A1 (en) * 2006-09-28 2010-07-22 Mcpherson James W Smart Return Electrode Pad
US7775966B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2010-08-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Non-invasive pressure measurement in a fluid adjustable restrictive device
US7775215B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2010-08-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. System and method for determining implanted device positioning and obtaining pressure data
US7844342B2 (en) 2008-02-07 2010-11-30 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Powering implantable restriction systems using light
US7927270B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2011-04-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. External mechanical pressure sensor for gastric band pressure measurements
US8016745B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2011-09-13 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Monitoring of a food intake restriction device
US8016744B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2011-09-13 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. External pressure-based gastric band adjustment system and method
US8034065B2 (en) 2008-02-26 2011-10-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Controlling pressure in adjustable restriction devices
US8057492B2 (en) 2008-02-12 2011-11-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Automatically adjusting band system with MEMS pump
US8066629B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2011-11-29 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Apparatus for adjustment and sensing of gastric band pressure
WO2011157669A1 (en) 2010-06-14 2011-12-22 Alberto Marcolongo Electrode for electrocardiograph and chest belt therefor
US8100870B2 (en) 2007-12-14 2012-01-24 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Adjustable height gastric restriction devices and methods
US8114345B2 (en) 2008-02-08 2012-02-14 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. System and method of sterilizing an implantable medical device
US8142452B2 (en) 2007-12-27 2012-03-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Controlling pressure in adjustable restriction devices
US8152710B2 (en) 2006-04-06 2012-04-10 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Physiological parameter analysis for an implantable restriction device and a data logger
US8187163B2 (en) 2007-12-10 2012-05-29 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Methods for implanting a gastric restriction device
US8187162B2 (en) 2008-03-06 2012-05-29 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Reorientation port
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US8221439B2 (en) 2008-02-07 2012-07-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Powering implantable restriction systems using kinetic motion
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US8377079B2 (en) 2007-12-27 2013-02-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Constant force mechanisms for regulating restriction devices
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US8591532B2 (en) 2008-02-12 2013-11-26 Ethicon Endo-Sugery, Inc. Automatically adjusting band system
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Cited By (109)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3830227A (en) * 1966-05-17 1974-08-20 H Green Hand-held cardiac sound tone diagnostic device and method
US3565060A (en) * 1968-08-21 1971-02-23 Us Navy Biopotential sensor employing integrated circuitry
US3696807A (en) * 1970-02-13 1972-10-10 Mdm Corp Medical electrode with relatively rigid electrolyte cup
US3724467A (en) * 1971-04-23 1973-04-03 Avery Labor Inc Electrode implant for the neuro-stimulation of the spinal cord
US3776228A (en) * 1971-09-20 1973-12-04 H Semler Portable self-contained electrical cardiometric device with three fixed-position nonuniformly spaced input probes
US3927662A (en) * 1971-12-08 1975-12-23 Hoffmann La Roche Ultrasonic transducer assembly
DE2337321A1 (en) * 1972-07-24 1974-02-07 Medical Plastics Inc Electrode to create an ECG
US3960141A (en) * 1975-03-06 1976-06-01 Bolduc Lee R Electrosurgical and ECG monitoring system
US4051842A (en) * 1975-09-15 1977-10-04 International Medical Corporation Electrode and interfacing pad for electrical physiological systems
US4033333A (en) * 1975-12-10 1977-07-05 Combined Scientific Resources Corporation Electrode arrangement for taking electrocardiograms
FR2373265A1 (en) * 1976-12-13 1978-07-07 Mi Systems Inc electrocardiographic control buffer
DE2742058A1 (en) * 1977-09-19 1979-03-29 Guenter Prof Dipl Ing Dr R Rau Fixture for data pick=up and measuring electrode - has flexible one-piece suction cup of plastics esp. for use on skin surfaces
US4233987A (en) * 1978-08-18 1980-11-18 Alfred Feingold Curvilinear electrocardiograph electrode strip
EP0029245A1 (en) * 1979-11-20 1981-05-27 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Arrangement for supplying or picking up electrical signals
US4381789A (en) * 1979-11-20 1983-05-03 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Electrode system
US4522211A (en) * 1979-12-06 1985-06-11 C. R. Bard, Inc. Medical electrode construction
US4393584A (en) * 1979-12-06 1983-07-19 C. R. Bard, Inc. Method of manufacture of electrode construction
US4328814A (en) * 1980-06-04 1982-05-11 The Kendall Company Precordial ECG strip
US4628939A (en) * 1980-09-11 1986-12-16 Hughes Aircraft Company Method and improved apparatus for analyzing heart activity
US4573473A (en) * 1984-04-13 1986-03-04 Cordis Corporation Cardiac mapping probe
US4583549A (en) * 1984-05-30 1986-04-22 Samir Manoli ECG electrode pad
US4595013A (en) * 1984-08-17 1986-06-17 Neurologics, Inc. Electrode harness
US4841966A (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-06-27 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Electrode consisting of at least three elements useful for a HF surgical instrument
US5042481A (en) * 1989-01-31 1991-08-27 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Body electrode holder
US5114424A (en) * 1989-09-07 1992-05-19 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Multipart planar electrode for an hf-surgery device
FR2652505A1 (en) * 1989-10-03 1991-04-05 Mirowski Mieczyslaw Electrode defibrilation exonerating controlled.
US5063932A (en) * 1989-10-03 1991-11-12 Mieczyslaw Mirowski Controlled discharge defibrillation electrode
US5111812A (en) * 1990-01-23 1992-05-12 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Defilbrillation electrode having smooth current distribution
US5391200A (en) * 1992-09-30 1995-02-21 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Defibrillation patch electrode having conductor-free resilient zone for minimally invasive deployment
US5813404A (en) * 1995-10-20 1998-09-29 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Electrode connector system
US6236874B1 (en) 1995-10-20 2001-05-22 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Electrode connector system
US20080050984A1 (en) * 2001-06-01 2008-02-28 Ehr Chris J Return pad cable connector
US7722412B2 (en) 2001-06-01 2010-05-25 Covidien Ag Return pad cable connector
US7938825B2 (en) 2002-09-25 2011-05-10 Covidien Ag Multiple RF return pad contact detection system
US20070073284A1 (en) * 2002-09-25 2007-03-29 Sturm Thomas A Multiple RF return pad contact detection system
US9962538B2 (en) * 2003-02-06 2018-05-08 Axelgaard Manufacturing Company, Ltd. Multi-electrode with lateral conductivity control
US20070238944A1 (en) * 2003-02-06 2007-10-11 Jens Axelgaard Multi-electrode with lateral conductivity control
US8016745B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2011-09-13 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Monitoring of a food intake restriction device
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