US329304A - Meeeitt gally - Google Patents

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US329304A US329304DA US329304A US 329304 A US329304 A US 329304A US 329304D A US329304D A US 329304DA US 329304 A US329304 A US 329304A
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    • G10F1/00Automatic musical instruments
    • G10F1/02Pianofortes with keyboard


(No Model.) 2 Sheets-$heet 1. M. GALLY.
MEGHANIGAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENT. N0. 329,304. Patented Oct. 27, 1885.
Witnesses Inventor. I
N. PETERS, Pbowumo n lm Waihirlgton, 11c,
2 t e e h S 8 b e e h S 2 Y L L A G a d 0 M 0 m MECHANICAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
No. 329,304. Patented Oct. 27, 1885.
Witnesses Invefitor.
N. PETERS, Phan-Lithogflwr, Wish'mglon. D C.
plan of expression device.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 329,304, dated October 27,1885.
Application filed February 12, 1885.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that 1, MERRITT GALLY, residing at New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Musical Instruments, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a transverse section of the instrument, showing the several parts in operating position. Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section, plan, and side View of reed-valve pneumatic. Fig. 3 is a Fig. 1 shows the construction of the music-sheet, and Fig. 5 shows a modified construction of the hammer.
The action, Fig. 1, is provided with both reeds and strings as sounding devices, to be played either separately orin accompaniment, and the instrument is constructed and arranged to be operated either mechanically or manually, at will.
The operating musicsheet V and trackerrange L are placed above the manual keyboard K to be in convenient position within reach of the performer. and the pneumatic action and other operating parts are placed below the manual key-board. In order to make a connection between the tracker-range L and the pneumatic action, I pass the leadertubes through the manual, as shown. This I accomplish by either using tubing for the pins on which the keys rock and connecting thereto, as I, or cut into the body of each key sufficiently to form open spaces between the keys of sufiicient capacity to allow the passage of tubes between the keys, as I. These keys lead both to the pneumatic action in the exhaust-chest G for operating the reed- Iatent No. 214,121, dated April 8, 187 9, ditfering, however, in position and arrangement.
, In the present case the pneumatics H H are "arranged to strike upward, either forcing the Serial No. 155,696. (No model.)
hammer A against the under face of the manual-keys K, or, if it be desirable to avoid movement of the finger end of manual-key, against the piece K which is pivoted to and forms a part of the key proper. This upward movement of hammer A operates mechanically the piano-action T The pivoted levers (Z keep the pivoted hammer-barsff in direct line during their movement. The expression as to loud and soft, &c., is produced in similar manner as described in my Patent No. 249,330, dated November 8, 1881, but the devices differ in a number of particulars as to construction, and are improvements on those heretofore shown. To the striking-bar f is pivoted a short vibrating bar, B, and to this bar B is pivoted the hammer A. A spring, h, is attached to bar B and presses on the projecting hammer A. This spring is provided with a set-screw, with which to give the spring more or less tension, as desired. \Vhen the hammer strikes in position as shown, its blow is most powerful, as the device is in this po-' sition most rigid. \Vhen the bar 13 with its hammer is vibrated or thrown backward, as shown by the dotted lines, the leverage of the hammer against the yielding spring makes the stroke lighter. The stroke is increased or diminished by changing the position of the hammer to different points of its are of movement. The pneumatic, D, and connectingrod 0, operated by means of the expressionperforations in the music-sheet V, draws the hammer backward, and when relieved it is returned by a returningspring, m. (Shown in Fig. 3.) The stroke of the hammer A is produced by means of the pneumatics II II, and is modified as to loud and soft by means of pneumatics D. In Fig. 8 a connectingrod, 0, is shown for each key, and these rods connect in series with rocking bars I). Each of the bars b is provided with a number of pneumatics, D, having different distances of movement. By this means the expression is changed to different degrees, as indicated in Fig. 1 by the letters P P, P, Z, F, F F. After drawing back the barb, by means of one of its pneumatics D, to position indicated by such pneumatic, in order that it will not be necessary to-continue the perforations in the music-sheet for the entire time such position is required to be maintained, a friction eccentric-clutch a 00, Fig. 3, is employed in connection with a reciprocating rod, 1. This friction-clutch holds bar I) in position until a throw-off perforation in the music-sheet operates pneumatic N when bar I) is relieved and is returned to place by means of its returningspring m or spring-pneumatic.
The hammer A is an improvement on that of my former patent in that its yielding spring-tension is adjustable, and the material for padding the hammer is placed directly on its face, and adheres better to a wood surface than to metal. To regulate the hammers to a perfectly-even touch throughout the scale it is only necessary to draw them all back to position for producing the softest touch, and then adjust the springs of each until the tone of its string is simply audible. The entire range of hammers will then be even in touch in all their corresponding changes of position.
In addition to changes in the force of the blow I produce expression by differing quantities of touch. This I do by a peculiar construction of the covering of the face of hammer A, as shown in Fig. 5. The face of the heel of the hammer I cover with a much harder material than the remainder of the face, and shade the quality for different portions of the face by using different kinds of material, the pieces overlapping each other, as shown. In this manner I produce a greater variety and quality of touch than can be produced by the human hand. For example, the ends of the lingers of the hand must be used rigidly for producing a fortissimo stroke; but this also produces a wire-tone from the string, which is only occasionally desirable, as in heroic passages, or the time-beat of marches. The human hand cannot produce the pure tone of the string with great power.
In constructing the face of hammer A, I place on the extreme heel a substance sufficiently hard to produce the wire-tone on the fortissimo. Immediately following this I place another material less dense, and of a quality to produce the pure tone without the wire effect, and still preserve the fortissimo power. It will be readily seen that great variety as to quality of touch may thus be produced on different portions of the face of the hammer.
In the matter of expression three things are to be considered; first, the power of thestroke; second, the quality of the touch; and, third, the suddenness of the blow.
To produce variety in the attack orsuddenness of the blow, I construct the musicsheet in peculiar manner, as shown in Fig. 4. This is a modification in construction of the music-sheet of my patent of May 7, 1878, in which a group or succession of perforations represents and produces a continuous tone. In the notes, as shown in the righthand por tion of sheet of Fig. 4., the perforations in a group or succession of perforations are uniform, or nearly so, and at an equal distance from each other, or nearly so. The direction of the movement of the sheet is shown by the direction of the arrows therefore the bottom perforation in each note is its leading perforation. Notes 1, 2, and 5 have their leading perforations elongated, or the bridge or bridges between the leading perforations cut away. These fill more suddenly the pneumatic motors than successive perforations, and more or less so according to the length of the leading perforation up to the limit of the entire movement of the pneumatic. the remaining perforations holding the note as to its time of duration. The pneumatic moves with equal power in every case, as the power is measured by the pneumatic area of pressure; but the attack is more or less sudden as the leading perforation is longer or shorter, up to a certain limit, which is at the point when the hammer is at full velocity. In this manner the inertia is overcome more or less quickly, which produces a variety of effectsas to accent, securing a more or less positive tone from the strings, and a more or less explosive tone from the reeds. The notes 1 and 2 and 5 are accented notes. Notes 6 and 10 are short notes strongly accented. It is sometimes desirable to make a note a little longer than any exact number of perforations. To do this, I elongate the last perforation of the note, or some one or more of the perforations in the note, sufficiently removed from the leading perforations not to produce an accented note, as shown in notes 7 and 9. Note 7 is increased onehalf a perforation. This is done by simply lapping the perforations on each other. Artistic music cannot be produced by notes cut by exact mechanical regularity in numbers of perforations, and this I avoid by the method described.
Another feature shown in the music-sheet, Fig. 4, is exhibited in notes 11 and 12. Note 11 precedes note 12, but not the measure of a complete perforation. Such construction is necessary in producing chords in arpcggio movement, and also in producing the different notes of a scale in prompt and even utterance. The bass-notes of the instrument, especially in the reeds, are not so prompt in speaking capacity as those of the higher part of the scale. To secure an even prompt utterance, I lead the bass notes 2 and 5. \Vheu it is necessary to avoid accenting the leading note, all its perforations are made to slightly precede the perforations of the other notes.
In the machine for cutting the music I divide the stepby-step movement which measures the spaces for the succeeding perforations into sub-steps. This allows me to place the perforations of any note on any series of substeps, and the perforations of the several notes of a chord are not, necessarily, in transverse line across the music-sheet. The music-sheet ICC . the other parts of the instrument with the features described. The diagram Fig. 4 exhibits by its transverse lines the regular steps or ordinary positions of the perforations, and the dotted lines represent the sub-steps on which the perforations may be placed when desired. In the diagram, 1 is an example of ordinary note on the regular steps. 2 is ordinary note on sub-steps. 3 is accented note. 4 is note lightly held, and 5 is tremolo-note. The difference in position of notes 1 and 2 illustrates the arrangement for arpeggio-chords or for leading bass-notes. The elongation of one of the perforations of 3 illustrates the manner of producing the accent, or of elongating a note less than the addition of a complete perforation. After the pneumatic for operating the reed-valve or for striking the string has made its entire movement, thecontinuing perfora tions of the note may be much smaller, if desired, as such are sufficient to hold the note, as 4 in the diagram. The distance between repeated notes must be sufficient to cut off by the sheet the opening in the tracker-range, and the distance between the perforations of a note must be less than sufficient for a cut-off. If the perforations of a note are placed at such a distance from each other as to almost, but not fully, produce a cut-off, a tremulant tone is produced. To produce the tremulant with more rapid vibrations I use smaller perforations on the regular steps, as 5 of the diagram, or at such distances as will produce the tremulant desired. I use these small perforations also for trills, as by their use the cut-off is more perfectly produced in rapid succession. If the trill is to be light in tone, the small perforations are sufficient; if more prominent, I elongate the small perforations transversely, as 6 of the diagram. This method of cutting I also employ in producing the effect of cornet tonguing.
Mechanical musical instruments operated by means of a perforated music-sheet have ordinarily, of necessity, a somewhat limited scale, to prevent the music sheet from being too wide to be successfully operative. For this reason a compromised scale is usually employed instead of the regular chromatic scale of ordinary manual instruments.
In order to secure as much body as possible to the music with a comparatively short scale, I construct the scale in a peculiar manner, as shown in the examples in V and V, Fig. 4. The first scale is in its main part regularly chromatic. To this I add a few notes out of the regular progression of the scale proper taken from the heavy bass below,indicated in the drawings by large letters. These are used, when they can be brought in, as a re- .enforcement of the regular bass of the scale or as pedal-notes. In this mannerI add much to the weight of the music by adding only a little to the length of the scale of the musicsheet. This allows the instrument to be comparatively small and the music-sheet comparatively narrow.
V shows an example in which an ordinary compromised scale is the scale proper, and out of the regular order of this compromised progression I add a few auxiliary notes taken from the heavy bass below, making a short scale with a greater capacity than could be secured by the use of an ordinary compromised scale of equal length.
In order that the range of the reeds and their operating pneumatics may be no longer than the range of the piano-action, I condense the reed pneumatic action by constructing the pneumatics as shown in Fig. 2. A narrow pneumatic bellows, as ordinarily constructed with a hinge at one end, would not be powerful enough to successfully operate the reedvalves. Itherefore use valve-lever s, as shown, and connect with it a long pneumatic, 9, free at both ends. This pneumatic I pivot centrally to the lever to secure adirect movement with full power, and make the pivoted joint in such a manner as to keep the pneumatic follower directly in line with the lever. I curve the ends of the pneumatic so that the flexible sides shall have no folded corners. The movement of the follower is only slight, and therefore the flexible sides do not require any regular folds. I therefore make the flexible portion of the pneumatic of a strip of soft flexible material, passing around and connecting the two bellows-boards. To secure the necessary atmospheric counterpoise for operating the pneumatic, I either connect its interior with the exhaust-chest by means of a duct much smaller than the duct leading to the music-sheet, as described in my patent of April 8,1879, or use porous material for some portion of the body of the pneumatic. In the longitudinal section of Fig. 2 I show a passage through the follower covered with porous material, and in the side View show the flexible sides as porous. \Vith either con struction the amount of air passing through the pores of the material must not be greater than that which would pass through the small duct above referred to. It is therefore an equivalent device, and is newonlyin the manner of its construction.
A modified construction of the hammer A is shown in Fig. 5, in which the spring for producing the yielding of the hammer is screwed one end to the hammer and the other end to a rocking joint, B, the joint and spring forming together the vibrating bar for changing the position of the hammer. The hammer, when striking on the heel, remains rigid, the force being against the spring endwisc. Toward the toe of the hammer the leverage increases, and the hammer yields accordingly. This is a simple and practical construction, and in some respects is superior.
If the bellows of the instrument are constructed to produce a variable air-tension, the
-pneun1atics D have a variable power, and if such variability is sufficient to unfavoraloly "affect their operation in connection with spring m, I use the modification m'.
This is a pneumatic of sufficient power to produce the return movement at the lowest air-tension. This pneumatic is in constant connection with the bellows, and serves as an air-spring. The
pneumatics D are made sufficiently larger than pneumatic m to produce sufficient power in excess to operatethe barb at lowest air-tension. The increase or decrease of tension affecting .both D and m alike leaves the operation of both always certain.
I do not herein claim, broadly, mechanism for operating the hammers by a pneumatic action by an upward stroke; nor he combination of such with a manual key-board; nor
' a manual key-lever, a part of which is independently movable, combined with a hammer operated by a mechanical-playing apparatus; nor a mechanically-operated hammer which works with an "upward stroke; nor the combination, with the manual-key, of an independently-moving connection to a pneumatic motor; nor the modification of spring-support for hammer shown in Fig. 5 of the drawings, the same being claimed in another application filed by me on the 18th day of July, 1885.
What I claim as my invention is- 1. In a musical instrument constructed to be operated both mechanically and manually, the combination, with a pneumatic action placed below the manual keys or key-levers, of pneumatic tubes passing through or between said key-levers toward a perforated music-;
sheet placed above them, substantially as set forth.
2. The combination, with the pneumatic tube or duct leading from the music-sheet tracker-range, of the tubular key-pin passing through the manual key-lever toward the pneumatic action.
3. In a mechanical musical instrument, a
tracker-range, a tube having a single opening in said range, and connections from said tube leading to the pneumatics, which operate sepaand a plurality of pneumatics connected to said hammer mechanism,saidpneumatics having different amounts of movement to control the positions of the hammer.
7. In combination with the actuating mechanism of a mechanical musical instrument, a hammer interposed between the actuating and the wire striking devices, said hammer hav ing separate parts of its striking-face covered with material of different degrees of hardness. I
8. The reciprocating expression-bar 1), connected with the reciprocating hammer or hammers, -in combination with the friction retaining-clutch and its releasing pneumatic, substantially asand for the purpose specified.
9. The elongated rced valve pneumatic having both ends free to move independently of the lever, and lying lengthwise in the direction of the lever, in combination with the valve-lever having its bearing on the central part of the pneumatic, all in combination,substantially as stated.
10. A pneumatic motor of the character described, having a vent in its body portion, said vent being covered by a porous material, substantially as described. a
11. The perforated music-sheet in which a group or succession of perforations represents a continued tone, having notes the leading perforation of which is elongated, substantially as and for the purpose specified. 12.- The music-sheet in which a group or succession of perforations represents a continuous tone, having notes made longer than any exact number of regular perforations by the elongation of one or more of its perforations.
13. The perforated music-sheet in which a group or succession of perforations represents a continuous tone having arpeggio-chords,tl1e beginning of one note of the chord preceding another by less than the measure of a complete perforation.
14. The perforated music-sheet having bassnotes cut to begin in advance of higher notes in the scale, for the purpose specified.
15. The perforated music-sheet in which a f group or succession of perforations represents a continuous tone, containing notes composed I of perforations differing in diameter crosswise of the sheet, substantially as and for the purpose specified.
16. The perforated music-sheet in which a group or succession of perforations represents a continuous tone, having perforations for producing trills or tremolo effects of less size than the perforations forming the ordinary) of which are arranged from a scale, and having added thereto auxiliary bass-notes not in the progression of the scale, substantially as and for the purpose specified.
20. The combination, with bar I) and its motor pneumatic D, of the pneumatic returning-spring m substantially as specified.
21. The reed-valve pneumatic having curved ends, substantially as and for the purpose specified. 10
In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two Witnesses.
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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US8187204B2 (en) 2007-10-01 2012-05-29 Suros Surgical Systems, Inc. Surgical device and method for using same
US8277393B2 (en) 2000-11-06 2012-10-02 Suros Surgical Systems, Inc. Biopsy apparatus
US8808200B2 (en) 2007-10-01 2014-08-19 Suros Surgical Systems, Inc. Surgical device and method of using same

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8277393B2 (en) 2000-11-06 2012-10-02 Suros Surgical Systems, Inc. Biopsy apparatus
US8187204B2 (en) 2007-10-01 2012-05-29 Suros Surgical Systems, Inc. Surgical device and method for using same
US8202229B2 (en) 2007-10-01 2012-06-19 Suros Surgical Systems, Inc. Surgical device
US8808200B2 (en) 2007-10-01 2014-08-19 Suros Surgical Systems, Inc. Surgical device and method of using same

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