US3274935A - Practice ammunition - Google Patents

Practice ammunition Download PDF

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Publication number
US3274935A
US3274935A US408711A US40871164A US3274935A US 3274935 A US3274935 A US 3274935A US 408711 A US408711 A US 408711A US 40871164 A US40871164 A US 40871164A US 3274935 A US3274935 A US 3274935A
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United States
Prior art keywords
shell
barrel
practice
dummy
ejector
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Expired - Lifetime
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US408711A
Inventor
Stadler Hans
Gawlick Heinz
Stahhmann Rudolf
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Dynamit Nobel AG
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Dynamit Nobel AG
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B8/00Practice or training ammunition
    • F42B8/12Projectiles or missiles
    • F42B8/20Mortar grenades

Description

Sept. 27, 1966 DL ETAL 3,274,935
PRACTICE AMMUNITION Filed Aug. 12, 1964 INVENTORS. HANS STADLER HEINZ GAWLICK BY RUDOLF STAHLMANN A TTORN 'YS.
United States Patent 20 Claims. bl. 102-41 The present invention relates to practice ammunition, and more particularly to practice ammunition for mortars, consisting of a projectile or shell dummy forming an inset barrel for small-caliber shells.
Different types of practice or training ammunition for mortars are already known as such in the prior art. The known practice ammunition consists of a projectile or shell dummy for which emptied or unloaded live shell may be used and into which is inserted an inset barrel for a small-caliber practice grenade or shell. The cartridge chamber for accommodating a propellant charge cartridge for the practice grenade is provided rearwardly in the inset barrel. An ejector charge for the dummy is seated in the tail piece of the projectile or shell dummy which after loading of the mortar barrel is ignited by the impact of the practice ammunition against the mortar barrel bottom. The ejector charge of the dummy and the propellant charge of the practice shell are so selected and dimensioned that the practice grenade is shot out during the movement of the dummy in the mortar barrel and the dummy together with the inset barrel is propelled only a short distance in front of the barrel mouth.
This known type of practice ammunition has for both the propellant charge of the practice grenade as well as for also the ejector charge of the projectile or shell dummy a separate primer or ignition pin which, of course, require constant watching and servicing. Additionally, both ignition pins are thereby so arranged in the prior art construction that the ignition pin seated on the bottom of the mortar barrel and provided there for normal use, is not used at all with the practice ammunition.
The present invention now aims at a simplification of the practice ammunition in that the provision of separate ignition pins is obviated, yet a safe ignition both of the ejector charge of the dummy as Well as of the propellant charge of the practice shell or grenade is assured.
With the new and improved practice ammunition for mortars according to the present invention in which an inset barrel for small-caliber training grenade is seated and accommodated within a dummy shell and in which an ejector charge, ignited during loading of the mortar is located in the tail piece of the dummy, and where by the firing of the practice shell or grenade takes place during the movement of the dummy shell in the mortar barrel, the propellant charge of the small-caliber training grenade is ignited according to the present invention by the ejector charge of the dummy by way of a firing channel between the seat of the ejector charge cartridge and the propellant charge in the tail of a small-caliber practice grenade. The firing channel thereby terminates advantageously in a transmission pellet seated to the rear of the propellant charge. The cross section of the firing channel amounts thereby preferably to to /200 of the cross section for the gas discharge of the ejector charge gases into the mortar barrel. The weight of the small-caliber practice grenade thereby lies between to of the weight of the dummy shell together with the inset barrel.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a practice ammunition, particularly for mortars which obviates the aforementioned shortcomings and drawbacks encountered in the prior art constructions by simple and relatively inexpensive ones.
Patented Sept. 27, 1966 Another object of the present invention resides in the provision of a training ammunition which is of considerably more simple construction by dispensing with the need for separate ignition pins.
Still a further object of the present invention resides in the provision of a training ammunition in which a safe ignition of the ejector charge for the dummy shell as well as of the propellant charge for the practice shell is assured notwithstanding the simple construction of the ignition mechanism.
A further object of the present invention resides in the provision of the practice ammunition consisting of a dummy shell and of a practice shell received within an inset barrel formed in the dummy shell in which the usual ignition pin located at the bottom of the mortar barrel may be used for igniting the ejector and the propellant charges by impact of the ammunition.
Still another object of the present invention resides in the provision of a training ammunition in which the propellant charge for the training shell is ignited by the ejector charge for the dummy shell.
These and other objects, features, and advantages of the present invention will become more obvious from the following description when taken in connection with the accompanying drawing which shows, for the purposes of illustration only, one embodiment in accordance with the present invention, and wherein the single figure of the drawing shows a partial center longitudinal cross section through the tail piece of the new practice ammunition in accordance with the present invention, whereby the dummy shell is only shown in cross section in the tail piece thereof.
Referring now to the single figure of the drawing, reference numeral 10 designates therein the dummy shell of any conventional construction. A longitudinal bore 11 extends through the dummy shell 10 which constitutes the inset barrel. The inset barrel 11 is provided at the rear end thereof with the cartridge chamher for the practice shell cartridge. The practice shell cartridge consists of a cartridge case 12 into which is inserted the small-caliber practice projectile or shell 13. The practice projectile or shell 13 has preferably the form of a mortar shell with guide fins or vanes at the tail piece thereof. Such small-caliber practice shells are known already in the prior art. The tail piece of the practice shell is bored out in the rear thereof. A propellant charge cartridge 22 and therebehind a transfer charge 17 are inserted into the bored out portion of the tail piece of the practice shell 12. An axial aperture is provided in the bottom of the cartridge case 12 which opens upon and terminates in the transfer charge 17. Gas discharge apertures are bored into the wall of the hollow tail piece of the practice shell 12 at the height of the propellant charge cartridge 22.
The inset barrel bore 11 is closed at the rear end thereof by a breech casing 18 which is screwed into the rear end of the tail piece of the dummy shell 10 by means of locking cams in the manner of a conventional, interrupted screw-type breech block.
An ejector charge cartridge 19 is inserted from the rear into the breech-casing 18 and a primer or percussion cap 20 is seated in the bottom of catridge case 19. The ejector cartridge case 19 is secured by a cap screw 21. An axial bore is provided in the bottom of this cap screw 21 behind the primer or percussion cap 20.
Gas discharge apertures are bored into the wall of the breech casing 18 at the height of the ejector cartridge case 19. The ejector charge itself is covered in front thereof by an apertured disk 14 whose axial aperture 15 is closed off by a diaphragm 16 adapted to be punctured or pierced.
An axial firing channel 23 extends through the ceiling of the breech casing 18 which firing channel 23 terminates in the transfer charge 17 within the practice grenade 13.
OPERATION The new practice ammunition according to the present invention operates as follows:
After unscrewing the breech casing 18, the smallcaliber practice cartridge 13, 12 is inserted into the inset barrel 11 from the rear and is secured by threadably resecuring the breech casing 18. After unscrewing the cap screw 21, the eject-or charge cartridge 19 is then insezted into the breech casing 18 and is secured therein by screwing the cap screw 21 again onto the breech casing 18.
The dummy shell is now .armed or loaded. For purposes of firing, the dummy shell is inserted in front into the mortar barrel. Upon impact against the mortar barrel bottom the ignition pin rigidly secured on the barrel bottom pierces the primer or percussion cap 20 of the ejector cartridge 19. The now developing gases puncture or break the cartridge case thereof so that they can escape toward the side into the mortar barrel through the gas discharge apertures.
At the same time, as gases from the ejector charge rupture or pierce the membrane 16 and a flash shoots through the firing channel 23 and ignites the transfer pellet 17 which in turn ignites the propellant charge 22 of the practice grenade 13. Since, the propellant charge 22 burns faster than the ejector charge, it throws the practice grenade 13 through the inset barrel 11 and through the mortar barrel in the forward direction. In the meantime, sufficient ejection pressure has developed in the mortar barrel which ejects the dummy shell out of the mortar barrel at the front end. Since, the ejector charge is correspondingly selected and dimensioned, the dummy will fall to the ground not far from the mortar barrel mouth.
While we have shown and described one embodiment in accordance with the present invention, it is understood that the same is not limited thereto but is susceptible of numerous changes and modifications as known to a person skilled in the art, and we therefore do not wish to be limited to the details shown and described herein but intend to cover all such changes and modifications as are encompassed by the scope of the appended claims.
1. A practice ammunition, especially for mortars,
We claim: comprising:
a shell dummy provided with inset barrel means and having a tail portion,
ejector charge means located within said tail portion and ignited during loading of the mortar,
a small-caliber training shell accommodated within said inset barrel means and including propellant charge means,
and means for igniting said propellant charge means by said ejector charge means.
2. A practice ammunition, especially for mortars,
comprising:
a shell dummy provided with inset barrel means and having a tail portion,
ejector charge means located within said tail portion and ignited during loading of the mortar,
a small-caliber training shell accommodated within said inset barrel means and including propellant charge means,
and means for igniting said propellant charge means by said ejector charge means, including further means forming a firing channel between said ejector charge means and said propellant charge means in the tail portion of said practice shell.
3. A practice ammunition, especially for mortars,
comprising:
a shell dummy provided with inset barrel means and having a tail portion,
ejector charge means located within said tail portion and ignited during loading of the mortar,
a small-caliber training shell accommodated Within said inset barrel means and including propellant charge means,
and means for igniting sa-id propellant charge means by said ejector charge means, including further means forming a firing channel between said ejector charge means and said propellant charge means in the tail portion of said practice shell,
said firing channel constituted by said further means terminating in a transmission pellet disposed to the rear of the propellant charge means.
4. A practice ammunition, especially for mortars,
comprising:
a shell dummy provided with inset barrel means and having a tail portion,
ejector charge means located within said tail portion and ignited during loading of the mortar,
gas discharge aperture means being provided in said shell dummy for the escape of the ejection gases into the barrel,
a small-caliber training shell accommodated within said inset barrel means and including propellant charge means,
and means for igniting said propellant charge means by said ejector charge means, including further means forming a firing channel between said ejector charge means and said propellant charge means in the tail portion of said practice shell,
the cross section of the firing channel amounting to about between 20 to of the cross section of said gas discharge aperture means.
5. A practice ammunition, especially for mortars,
comprising:
a shell dummy provided with inset barrel means and having a tail portion,
ejector charge means located within said tail portion and ignited during loading of the mortar,
a small-caliber training shell accommodated within said inset barrel means and including propellant charge means,
and means for igniting said propellant charge means by said ejector charge means, including further means forming a firing channel between said ejector charge means and said propellant charge means in the tail portion of said practice shell,
and the weight of the practice shell amounting to between to A of the weight of the shell dummy including the inset barrel means thereof.
6. A practice ammunition, especially for mortars,
comprising:
a shell dummy provided with inset barrel means and having a tail portion,
ejector charge means located within said tail portion and ignited during loading of the mortar,
gas discharge aperture means being provided in said shell dummy for the escape of the ejection gases into the barrel,
a small-caliber training shell accommodated within said inset barrel means and including propellant charge means,
and means for igniting said propellant charge means by said ejector charge means, including further means forming a firing channel between said ejector charge means and said propellant charge means in the tail portion of said practice shell,
the cross section of the firing channel amounting to about between /30 to V of the cross section of said gas discharge aperture means,
and the weight of the practice shell amounting to between to ,4 of the weight of the shell dummy including the inset barrel means thereof.
7. A practice ammunition, especially for mortars, comprising:
a shell dummy provided with inset barrel means and having a tail portion,
ejector charge means located within said tail portion and ignited during loading of the mortar,
gas discharge aperture means being provided in said shell dummy for the escape of the ejection gases into the barrel,
a small-caliber training shell accommodated within said inset barrel means and including propellant charge means,
and means for igniting said propellant charge means by said ejector charge means,
the cross section of the firing channel amounting to about between to of the cross section of said gas discharge aperture means.
8. A practice ammunition, especially for mortars, comprising:
a shell dummy provided with inset barrel means and having a tail portion,
ejector charge means located within said tail portion and ignited during loading of the mortar,
a small-caliber training shell accommodated within said inset barrel means and including propellant charge means,
and means for igniting said propellant charge means by said ejector charge means,
and the weight of the practice shell amounting to between to 4 of the weight of the shell dummy including the inset barrel means thereof.
9. A practice ammunition, especially for mortars, comprising:
a shell dummy provided with inset barrel means and having a tail portion,
ejector charge means located within said tail portion and ignited during loading of the mortar,
gas discharge aperture means being provided in said shell dummy for the escape of the ejection gases into the barrel,
a small-caliber training shell accommodated within said inset barrel means and including propellant charge means,
and means for igniting said propellant charge means by said ejector charge means including further means forming a firing channel betwen said ejector charge means and said propellant charge means in the tail portion of said practice shell,
said firing channel constituted by said further means terminating in a transmission pellet disposed to the rear of the propellant charge means,
the cross section of the firing channel amounting to about between to of the cross section of said gas discharge aperture means,
and the weight of the practice shell amounting to between to of the weight of the shell dummy including the inset barrel means thereof.
10. Practice ammunition for mortars, comprising a mortar shell dummy provided with inset barrel means and having a tail portion; ejector change means located within said tail portion for ignition during loading of the mortar operable to eject said mortar shell dummy from the mortar; a small calibre training shell accommodated within said insert barrel means including a projectile and propellant charge means operable to propel said projectile out of said inset barrel means; and means for igniting said propellant charge means by the flame from the ignition of said ejector charge means.
11. The device of claim 10, including gas discharge aperture means in said shell dummy operable to permit the escape of the ejection gases produced by said e ector charge means into the mortar barrel, and wherein the cross section of said firing channel is between to ,5 of the cross section of said gas discharge aperture means.
12. The device of claim 10, wherein the weight of said small calibre training shell is between to of the weight of the shell dummy including the inset barrel means.
13. The device of claim 10, wherein said means for igniting said propellant charge means includes further means forming a firing channel between said ejector charge means and said propellant charge means in the tail portion of said practice shell operable to transmit a flame front and substantially prevent the transfer of high pressure combustion gases.
14. The device of claim 13 wherein said means for igniting said propellant charge means further includes transfer charge means located between said propellant charge means and said firing channel,
15. The device of claim 13, including gas discharge aperture means in said shell dummy operable to permit the escape of the ejection gases produced by said ejector charge means into the mortar barrel, and wherein the cross section of said firing channel is between to of the cross section of said gas discharge aperture means.
16. The device of claim 15, wherein the weight of said small calibre training shell is between to ,3 of the weight of the shell dummy including the inset barrel means.
17. The device of claim 16, wherein said means for igniting said propellant charge means further includes transfer charge means located between said propellant charge means and said firing channel.
18. The device of claim 17, including breech casing means releasably secured to the tail portion of said shell dummy having an outwardly rearwardly opening aperture containing said ejector charge means and closed by a screw cap, said screw cap having an axial bore communicating with said ejector charge means for allowing the firing pin of the mortar to ignite said ejector charge means, said breech casing including said axial firing channel and wherein said gas discharge apertures radially communicate with said outwardly rearwardly opening aperture of said breech casing means.
19. The device of claim 18, wherein said small calibre training shell includes a cartridge case containing said projectile and said propellant charge means, said cartridge case having an axial aperture aligned and communicating with said axial firing channel, said cartridge case having a rearward rim of a larger diameter than said inset barrel means and clamped by said breech casing means, said projectile having an outwardly rearwardly opening chamber containing said propellant charge means and said transfer charge, said projectile chamber being in communication with said axial aperture in said cartridge case, and said projectile having radially extending gas discharge apertures communicating with said outwardly rearwardly opening chamber for the escape of the propellant gases into said cartridge case.
20. The device of claim 13, wherein the weight of said small calibre training shell is between to of the weight of said shell dummy including the inset barrel means.
6/ 1953 Great Britain. 2/ 1957 Great Britain.
BENJAMIN A. BORCHELT, Primary Examiner. R. F. STAHL, Assistant Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A PRACTICE AMMUNITION, ESPECIALLY FOR MORTARS, COMPRISING: A SHELL DUMMY PROVIDED WITH INSET BARREL MEANS AND HAVING A TAIL PORTION, EJECTOR CHARGE LOCATED WITHIN TAIL PORTION AND INGNITED DURING LOADING OF THE MOTAR,
US408711A 1963-08-13 1964-08-12 Practice ammunition Expired - Lifetime US3274935A (en)

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DED42233A DE1207833B (en) 1963-08-13 1963-08-13 Practice ammunition for mortars

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US3274935A true US3274935A (en) 1966-09-27

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BE (1) BE651701A (en)
CH (1) CH412640A (en)
DE (1) DE1207833B (en)
ES (1) ES302981A1 (en)
NL (1) NL6406765A (en)
NO (1) NO116111B (en)

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3333539A (en) * 1964-12-24 1967-08-01 Dynamit Nobel Ag Practice ammunition
US3374738A (en) * 1965-04-09 1968-03-26 Dynamit Nobel Ag Practice ammunition for mortars
US3638571A (en) * 1967-09-06 1972-02-01 Dynamit Nobel Ag Recoilless practice cartridge
US4694755A (en) * 1986-04-09 1987-09-22 Esperanza Y Cia, S.A. Shell for firing practice
US5228855A (en) * 1992-03-31 1993-07-20 Ffe International Mortar training ammunition device having independently rotatable vent closure rings
US7421934B1 (en) * 2005-09-01 2008-09-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Mortar tube for training

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1578180B1 (en) * 1966-01-07 1971-05-13 Nico Pyrotechnik Exercise device with an ejectable dummy bullet for grenade launchers
DE2537636C3 (en) * 1975-08-23 1984-09-13 Dynamit Nobel Ag, 5210 Troisdorf Practice ammunition for mortars
DE3565891D1 (en) * 1984-07-17 1988-12-01 Eidgenoess Munitionsfab Thun Missile for practice ammunition having a limited range, and use of the same

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB693335A (en) * 1950-08-05 1953-06-24 Energa Practice ammunition for instruction and training purposes
GB767488A (en) * 1954-06-14 1957-02-06 Losfeld Andre Improvements in and relating to projectiles
US2786415A (en) * 1951-06-15 1957-03-26 William D Alderson Mortar training device
US3085509A (en) * 1960-01-15 1963-04-16 Energa Practice grenade

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2821923A (en) * 1953-05-19 1958-02-04 Patent License Corp Mortar training device and components thereof

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB693335A (en) * 1950-08-05 1953-06-24 Energa Practice ammunition for instruction and training purposes
US2786415A (en) * 1951-06-15 1957-03-26 William D Alderson Mortar training device
GB767488A (en) * 1954-06-14 1957-02-06 Losfeld Andre Improvements in and relating to projectiles
US3085509A (en) * 1960-01-15 1963-04-16 Energa Practice grenade

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3333539A (en) * 1964-12-24 1967-08-01 Dynamit Nobel Ag Practice ammunition
US3374738A (en) * 1965-04-09 1968-03-26 Dynamit Nobel Ag Practice ammunition for mortars
US3638571A (en) * 1967-09-06 1972-02-01 Dynamit Nobel Ag Recoilless practice cartridge
US4694755A (en) * 1986-04-09 1987-09-22 Esperanza Y Cia, S.A. Shell for firing practice
US5228855A (en) * 1992-03-31 1993-07-20 Ffe International Mortar training ammunition device having independently rotatable vent closure rings
US7421934B1 (en) * 2005-09-01 2008-09-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Mortar tube for training

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE1207833B (en) 1965-12-23
BE651701A (en) 1964-12-01
ES302981A1 (en) 1965-01-16
NL6406765A (en) 1965-02-15
CH412640A (en) 1966-04-30
NO116111B (en) 1969-01-27

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