US2307369A - Projectile - Google Patents

Projectile Download PDF

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Publication number
US2307369A
US2307369A US389726A US38972641A US2307369A US 2307369 A US2307369 A US 2307369A US 389726 A US389726 A US 389726A US 38972641 A US38972641 A US 38972641A US 2307369 A US2307369 A US 2307369A
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Prior art keywords
projectile
cap
sleeve
firing
wave
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Expired - Lifetime
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US389726A
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Clyde B Ferrel
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Clyde B Ferrel
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B15/00Self-propelled projectiles or missiles, e.g. rockets; Guided missiles

Description

C. B. FERREL Jan. 5, W43.

PROJECTILE Filed April 22, 1 941 ATTORNEYS.

atented Jan. 5, 1943 PROJECTHLE Clyde B. Ferrel, San Francisco, Calif. Application April 22, 1941, Serial No.- 389,726

2 Claims.

This invention relates to projectiles for use in rifles and like firearms, and especially to a pro jectile which will be referred to as a combination cartridge and projectile.

The object of the present invention is generally to improve and simplify the construction and operation of projectiles of the character described; to provide a projectile which has an interior chamber formed therein to receive a propelling charge, so as to function both as a cartridgeand as a projectile, and to eliminate the necessity of extracting or expelling empty cartridges after firing; to provide a projectile the body of which is made of heat-treated hardened steel to permit the Fig. 1 is a central longitudinal section of the same, showing the projectile prior to loading;

Fig. 2 is an end view of Fig. 3; Fig. 3 is an enlarged longitudinal section of the rear end of the projectile, howing a combination firing cap and closure for the rear end of the projectile;

Figs. 4 and 5 are perspective views of the two parts forming the firing cap and closure; and

Fig. 6 is a longitudinal section of a portion of a gun barrel showing the projectile placed therein in position to be fired.

When an explosive such as gunpowder is ignited it burns from the surface inwardly with a velocity which depends upon the pressure, but even under several thousand atmospheres the velocity never exceeds a few meters per second, as the ignition is communicated from grain to grain through the mass by the heat generated. On the other hand, when a high explosive is detonated, the wave of detonation proceeds apparently through the mass of explosive with a velocity of several thousand meters per second, changing the material as it proceeds. When gunpowder burns, a high temperature is produced and a great quantity of gas ls developed, which is employed as a propelling agent when firing a gun. On the other hand, if a detonating type of explosive is employed, the temperature is comparatively low and the amount of gas developed is comparatively small; hence the wave of detonation is employed as the propelling agent, and as the greatest efiect is produced in the direction in which the wave of detonation travels, the most elfective part of a projectile is the outer or closed end thereof. The construction and general design of the projectile is therefore of considerable importance.

By referring to Fig. 1 it will be noted that the projectile is fairly long and has a main body portion A terminating in a closed pointed forward end 2. A longitudinally extending chamber 3 is formed within the projectile, and this opens into an enlarged rearwardly flaring end chamber 4, behind which is formed an annular inturned flange 5. The body A of the projectile is made of heat-treated hard steel, as the forces generated within it will be large, as will hereinafter be described. A soft metal jacket or sleeve, for instance of brass or the like, is applied to the exterior of the projectile, and is held in place by a rear shoulder 6 and a forward groove 1 into which the forward end of the sleeve is spun or pressed. Shoulders 8 and 9 are formed on the sleeve, and these engage with the riding of a gun barrel to insure spinning of the projectile about its longitudinal axis as it is discharged, as the forward shoulder is inclined toward the nose of the projectile to gradually take hold of the rifling.

When the projectile is to be loaded, the chamher 3 is first filled with a propellent charge of explosive, such as nitro-cellulose base explosives or the like. The two members shown in Figs. 4 and 5, already assembled to form a firing cap, are inserted in the rear chamber 8 and then spun outwardly as shown in Fig. 3, so as to be retained by the in-turned flange 5. The sleeve member shown at "I in Fig. 5 has a crossbar ll formed at its inner end. A sheet of paper or like material is supported by the crossbar, and a flange l2, and this paper contains a button l3 of detonating material, such as-fulminate of mercury or the like. A cup-shaped member l4 shown in Fig. 4 is next pressed into the sleeve l0, and in this assembled form the firing cap is inserted in the chamber 4 and spun outwardly to be retained by the in-turned flange 5.

It may also be stated that the bottom of the cup It has score lines l6 formed therein to weaken it. The purpose thereof will hereinafter be described.

The projectile when loaded may be placed in a gun or rifie barrel, as shown at til in Fig. 6. The rearmost end of the projectile is flared, as shown at 2|, and this engages a flaring seat 22 formed in the bolt head of the gun. This head also carries a firing pin 23, and when this strikes the bottom l5 or the head of the firing cap, a sufficient blow is imparted to detonate the button of fulminate of mercury or the like indicated at l3, which in turn detonates the main charge, indicated at 25.

The detonation wave travels in the direction of arrow 0. with a velocity of several thousand meters per second, and as the impact of the wave is mainly against the face 26 presented by the closed forward end 2 of the projectile, it is expelled from the outer end of the gun or rifie barrel with a proportionate velocity. A secondary wave of detonation is reflected rearwardly from the face 26 of the projectile with a somewhat lower velocity, and is again reflected in a forward direction by the face of-the bolt 22. This re-refiected detonating wave obviously assists in the propulsion or discharge of the projectile, and to a certain extent the force of the expanding gases discharging from the rear end of the projectile are also utilized, although these are of minor importance.

When the firing pin 23 strikes the cap, the cross-bar ll functions as an anvil to insure detonation of the button I3, and when the fulminate of mercury detonates, the end l5 of the cap bursts along the score lines 3, dividing it into a series of fingers, which are bent backwardly to permit free escape of the gases resulting from the detonation. Both of the sleeves I0 and It are, however, retained by the shoulder 5, and as the fingers and the cross-bar form an integral part of the respective sleeves the cap will be expelled with the projectile, and the barrel of the rifle or gun is thus instantly ready for the next projectile to be fired, as there is no empty cartridge or shell to be extracted or ejected.

In such firearms as machine guns, the rapidity with which the successive shots may be fired depends to a large extent upon the time required to insert and eject the cartridge shells. With a combination cartridge and projectile such as here disclosed, the ejecting operation is of course eliminated, and the rapidity with which the shots may be fired is proportionately increased. The

invention is not limited to machine guns, however, as it may be employed in connection with almost any type of rifie or gun, whether equipped with manual or with automatic loading devices.

In as much as the explosive charge is of the detonating type, great strength is required; hence a projectile constructed of steel is desirable, and preferably of a hardened steel, as the harder the metal of the projectile, the more efficient will be the impact action of the detonating wave. Although detonating waves will pass through any material, the softer the material the less efficient the impact action of the wave; however. while this and other features of my invention have been more or less specifically described, I wish it understood that changes may be resorted to within the scope of the appended claims, and that the materials and finish of the various parts may be such as the experience of the manufacturer and varying conditions of use demand.

Having thus described and illustrated my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

l. A tubular elongated projectile closed at its forward end and pointed, a propelling charge within the projectile, an enlarged chamber at the rear end of the projectile for the reception of a firing cap, said cap comprising a sleeve open at the outer end and partially closed at the inner end by an anvil bar, an inner sleeve open at the outer end adapted to telescope with relation to the first named sleeve and closed at the inner end by a head member, a detonating material disposed between the anvil bar and the head memher, and an annular in-turned flange on the projectile behind which the two sleeves of the cap are adapted to be pressed to retain the cap against separation from the projectile when it is fired.

2. A tubular elongated projectile closed at its forward end and pointed, a propelling charge within the projectile, an enlarged chamber at the rear end of the projectile for the reception of a firing cap, said cap comprising a sleeve open at the outer end and partially closed at the inner end by an anvil bar, an inner sleeve open at the outer end adapted to telescope with relation to the first named sleeve and closed at the inner end by a head member, a detonating material disposed between the anvil bar and the head 5 member, an annular ln-turned fiange on the projectile behind which the two sleeves of the cap are adapted to be pressed to retain the cap against separation from the projectile when it is fired, and score lines formed radially in the outer surface of the cap head to permit it to burst and form rearwardly bent fingers to permit free discharge of gases developed during detonation of the cap and the charge within the projectile.

CLYDE B. FERREL.

US389726A 1941-04-22 1941-04-22 Projectile Expired - Lifetime US2307369A (en)

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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2922341A (en) * 1955-11-07 1960-01-26 Olin Mathieson Projectile propelling system
US3020710A (en) * 1956-03-29 1962-02-13 Stephen H Herzog Sealing means for rocket nozzles
US3398684A (en) * 1966-06-28 1968-08-27 United Shoe Machinery Corp Caseless cartridges
US3601056A (en) * 1969-10-03 1971-08-24 Morris Roger Nicholson Rocket projectile cartridge
EP0157421A2 (en) * 1984-04-03 1985-10-09 Pyrotechnische Fabrik F. Feistel GmbH + Co KG Smoke-producing projectile
WO1986005582A1 (en) * 1985-03-22 1986-09-25 Nico-Pyrotechnik Hanns-Jürgen Diederichs Gmbh & Co Smoke-producing projectile
WO1999015850A2 (en) * 1997-09-26 1999-04-01 Ralph Gordon Morgado Semiautomatic pocket gun and ammunition
US20060138715A1 (en) * 2004-12-01 2006-06-29 Lim Leong C Doped ceramic materials and methods of forming the same
US20060230971A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2006-10-19 Harrison Leslie M Projectile
US20070144393A1 (en) * 2005-12-22 2007-06-28 Maximillian Kusz Caseless ammunition with internal propellant
US20090178585A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2009-07-16 Leslie Mervyn Harrison Projectile
JP2010522860A (en) * 2007-03-30 2010-07-08 テクベンチャー インベストメンツ プロプライエタリー リミテッドTechventure Investments Pty Ltd How to make ammunition
US20130233194A1 (en) * 2010-09-22 2013-09-12 Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepastnatuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek Tno Explosive cutting
WO2015013742A1 (en) * 2013-07-31 2015-02-05 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd A projectile body and corresponding ammunition round for small arms or a light firearm
US20160327380A1 (en) * 2016-01-15 2016-11-10 Joshua M. Kunz Projectile with enhanced ballistic efficiency

Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2922341A (en) * 1955-11-07 1960-01-26 Olin Mathieson Projectile propelling system
US3020710A (en) * 1956-03-29 1962-02-13 Stephen H Herzog Sealing means for rocket nozzles
US3398684A (en) * 1966-06-28 1968-08-27 United Shoe Machinery Corp Caseless cartridges
US3601056A (en) * 1969-10-03 1971-08-24 Morris Roger Nicholson Rocket projectile cartridge
EP0157421A2 (en) * 1984-04-03 1985-10-09 Pyrotechnische Fabrik F. Feistel GmbH + Co KG Smoke-producing projectile
EP0157421A3 (en) * 1984-04-03 1986-09-10 Pyrotechnische Fabrik F. Feistel Gmbh + Co Kg Smoke-producing projectile
WO1986005582A1 (en) * 1985-03-22 1986-09-25 Nico-Pyrotechnik Hanns-Jürgen Diederichs Gmbh & Co Smoke-producing projectile
US4727811A (en) * 1985-03-22 1988-03-01 Nico-Pyrotechnik Hanns-Jurgen Diederichs Gmbh & Co. Kg Smoke canister with capillary bores
WO1999015850A2 (en) * 1997-09-26 1999-04-01 Ralph Gordon Morgado Semiautomatic pocket gun and ammunition
WO1999015850A3 (en) * 1997-09-26 1999-07-29 Ralph Gordon Morgado Semiautomatic pocket gun and ammunition
US6234058B1 (en) 1997-09-26 2001-05-22 Ralph Gordon Morgado Semiautomatic pocket gun and ammunition
US7921780B2 (en) 2004-04-02 2011-04-12 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile
US20060230971A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2006-10-19 Harrison Leslie M Projectile
EP1735581A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2006-12-27 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd A projectile
US20110192309A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2011-08-11 Leslie Mervyn Harrison Projectile
US8474380B2 (en) * 2004-04-02 2013-07-02 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile
US20090178585A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2009-07-16 Leslie Mervyn Harrison Projectile
JP2011099670A (en) * 2004-04-02 2011-05-19 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile
EP1735581A4 (en) * 2004-04-02 2010-10-27 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd A projectile
US7448325B2 (en) * 2004-04-02 2008-11-11 Techventure Investments Pty. Ltd. Projectile
US20060138715A1 (en) * 2004-12-01 2006-06-29 Lim Leong C Doped ceramic materials and methods of forming the same
US20070144393A1 (en) * 2005-12-22 2007-06-28 Maximillian Kusz Caseless ammunition with internal propellant
JP2010522860A (en) * 2007-03-30 2010-07-08 テクベンチャー インベストメンツ プロプライエタリー リミテッドTechventure Investments Pty Ltd How to make ammunition
US20130233194A1 (en) * 2010-09-22 2013-09-12 Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepastnatuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek Tno Explosive cutting
US9163914B2 (en) * 2010-09-22 2015-10-20 Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepast-Natuurwetenschappeluk Onderzoek Tno Explosive cutting
WO2015013742A1 (en) * 2013-07-31 2015-02-05 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd A projectile body and corresponding ammunition round for small arms or a light firearm
US9429406B2 (en) 2013-07-31 2016-08-30 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile body and corresponding ammunition round for small arms or a light firearm
USRE47187E1 (en) 2013-07-31 2019-01-01 Techventure Investments Pty Ltd Projectile body and corresponding ammunition round for small arms or a light firearm
US20160327380A1 (en) * 2016-01-15 2016-11-10 Joshua M. Kunz Projectile with enhanced ballistic efficiency
US10222188B2 (en) * 2016-01-15 2019-03-05 Joshua M. Kunz Projectile with enhanced ballistic efficiency

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