US3157353A - Calculating machines - Google Patents

Calculating machines Download PDF

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US3157353A
US3157353A US26297563A US3157353A US 3157353 A US3157353 A US 3157353A US 26297563 A US26297563 A US 26297563A US 3157353 A US3157353 A US 3157353A
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starting
coupling
drive
lever
levers
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Toorell Sture Efraim
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ATVIDABERG FACIT AB
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ATVIDABERG FACIT AB
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C23/00Driving mechanisms for functional elements
    • G06C23/02Driving mechanisms for functional elements of main shaft

Description

Nov. 17, 1964 s. E. TOORELL 3,157,353
CALCULATING MACHINES Filed March 5, 1963 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 in Q INVENTOR STURE EFRAIM TOORELL BY :x a g o a 1%;
ATTORNEYS Nov. 17, 1964 s. E. TOORELL 3,157,353
CALCULATING MACHINES Filed March 5, 1963 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 EM/mp INVENTOR STURE EFRAIM TOORELL Nov. 17, 1964 s. E. TOORELL 3,157,353
CALCULATING MACHINES Filed March 5, 1963 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. STURE EFRAIM TOORELL ATTORNEYS Nov. 17, 1964 s. E. TOORELL 3,157,353
CALCULATING MACHINES Filed March 5, 1963 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. STURE EFRAIM TOORELL BY aw% @a% ATTORNEYS United States Patent ()fiice 3,157,353 Patented Nov. 17, 1964 3,157,353 @ALCULATENG l /iAJHiNESi Stare El i-aim To sell, Atvidaherg, Sweden, assignor to Airtiebolaget Atvidaberg l' aeit, Atvidaloerg, Sweden, 21 joint stocli company of Sweden Filed Mar. 5, 19%, Ser. No. 262,975 Qlaims priority, application Sweden, Mar. 5, 1962, ates/s2 l (Qt. 235-62) The present invention relates to rotary machines, particularly calculating machines with a reversible rotor assembly, and has for its object the provision of a coupling mechanism by which the sense of rotation of the rotor assembly may be reversed in a simple and rapid manner with a minimum of energy.
Calculating machines of this lcind are, as a rule, equipped for automatic division, and the tens transfers during division will be performed at a rather late stage of the operation revolution. Consequently, it has been difficult to obtain a sufficient time margin, when the conventional coupling mechanisms, todiseneage the rotor assembly from the drive mechanism during the last operation revolution, solely, so an additional revolution has been necessary for this disengagement. The working speed of the machine has been reduced accordingly.
According to the present invention, however, mechanism is provided whereby the momentum of the rotor assembly is used for the purpose of disengaging it from the drive mechanism, and consequently the disengaging members shaped, as light catches, only need be moved into an active position. This provides for a much swifter disengagement than for known mechanisms, and one which may readily be effected at the end of an operative revolution. In known mechanisms, such a disengagement extends over 20 to 25 of a revolution, but in the mechanism according to this invention, the disengagement operation has been reduced to extend over but 4 of a revolution.
With these objects in view, the invention provides a coupling mechanism for calculating machines for engaging and driving a rotary assembly, such as a calculating rotor, in either direction, comprising a coupling member between two drive gears rotating in opposite senses, the coupling member being adapted to engage either of the drive gears by means of two ccacting drive elements which are supported on the coupling member and moved in a plane normal to the rotational axis to engage either of two drive lugs on the drive gears.
An embodiment of the invention which is incorporated in a drive motor assembly attached to the right hand side of the machine will now be more specifically described.
In the drawings:
FIGS. 1 is a View of the starting and disconnection mechanism of the assembly, and the elements coacting therewith,
FIG. 2 is an exploded view of the starting cam assembly and the coupling mechanism, and illustrates the mannor of operation,
FIG. 2a shows the starting cam assembly in perspective view,
FIGS. 3 and 4 are views showing how the coupling members act upon the coupling mechanism,
FIG. 5 illustrates the same mechanism together with Y other'means acting upon the same,
FIG. 6 is a view of a startin wheel of the coupling mechanism on a larger scale, and
FIG. 7 is a view of the latch mechanism of the calculating rotor.
Int-he illustrated embodiment the calculating function of the machine is actuated through depression of an operation key 1 to 4, FIG. 1 the respective key levers 5 to 8 performing then a counterclockwise movement about a pivot 9, fixed in the machine frame. During the first portion of this movement, the keys are locked in a mannot known per se to prevent the simultaneous depression of several keys, whereas the bottom portions 5a to 811 of the key levers during the latter portion of the move ments act directly or indirectly upon lever members 10 to 13.
The bottom portions 5a to 8a of the key levers might act, for the purpose of the invention, directly on an addition lever 12 and a subtraction lever 13, both pivoted on a pivot 14 fast in the machine frame, but to suit other machine functions the key levers 5 to S are arranged to actuate for certain operations the addition lever 12 and subtraction lever 13, respectively, indirectly over two drive levers lb, ll which are both pivoted on a stud member 15 fixed in the machine frame.
The coupling mechanism according to the invention for reversing the rotational sense of ther otor assembly may be used for different kinds of calculating machines. The following specification will be restricted to describe the functioning for repeated addition and repeated subtraction.
Depending upon whether the operation is to be a calculation in the positive or in the negative sense, the addition lever 12 or subtraction lever 13 receives a clockwise movement on the pivot 14 by the respective key lever 5, 6 (FIG. 1). Said levers l2, l3 impart, by their edge portions 12:: or i351, respectively, a lateral tilting motion about its pivot to a pulling hook 16 (FIGS. 1 and 2). The hook 315 is formed with a trapezeshaped slot by which it is movably supported by a pulling lever 17, and the pulling hook 16 is guided at the top and bottom by grooves in a bracket 15 (FIG. 2).
To prevent interference with a selected operation after the depression of an operation key, the addition lever 12 and subtraction lever 13 are surrounded by a start locking member 19 (FIG. 1) which is pivoted on a shaft 20 fast in the mechanism frame, and which coacts with the starting and disconnection mechanism of the assembly.
The starting mechanism comprises a catch 23 (FIGS. 1 and 2) having a hub 24 rigidly secured to an arm 25. This assembly is movably journalled on a shaft 22 fast in the mechanism frame, and in its downward portion the arm 25 (FIG. 1) is formed with an open slit by which it rides over a stud member 1% secured to the start looking member 19 for receiving starting impulses. Upon such an impulse, either the addition lever 12 or the subtraction lever 13 is rocked about the pivot 14, and the actuated lever will immediately impart to the member 19 a clockwise rotation about the shaft 20, whereby the member 19 will prevent any rocking of the other lever, will actuate the catch 23 to look a starting cam assembly 25 (see FIG. 2a), to be described later, and bring along a link member 27 (FIG. 1) provided to the right at the outer side of the assembly. The start looking member 19 is rigidly secured to an arm 19c by a hub member 19b, and the arm 1% carries a stud 1% extending through a slit in the right hand end plate (not illustrated) of the mechanism, and engaging a slot formed in the link 27. This link 27 which belongs to the disconnecting mechanism will receive a counterclockwise rocking motion about a stud 84 fast in the mechanism frame, on which the link is pivotally as well as slidabl supported.
The returning of the starting mechanism to its initial position and to abutment of the latch 23 against the starting cam assembly 26 is effected by a tension spring 23 which is suspended between a stud member (not illustrated) provided in the mechanism frame and the arm 25, whereas the addition lever 12 and subtraction lever 13 are returned by two tension springs 29, 30 which are secured to the machine frame, and by which also areas the actuated key lever 5, 6 is returned to initial position.
The starting cam assembly 26 is movably supported by a shaft 31 (FIGS. 1 and 2) secured in the machine frame. This assembly 26 comprises a piurality of cams some of which actuate the coupling mechanism indirectly. The latch 23 coacts with a starting cam 32 (FIGS. 2 and 2a) while the pulling lever 17 is engaged a cam 5t) forming part of starting cam assembly 26.
The pulling lever 17 is movably supported on a shaft 51 (FIG. 2) secured in the mechanism end plates (not illustrated) and has its forward end 17a shaped to give a catch 33 its coupling movement to abutment against the starting cam 32. To ensure engagement between the pulling lever 17 and the cam 5t), a tension spring 97 is connected to the front lever portion 17a, and the other end of said spring is connected to the bracket 18.
The catch 33 (FIG. 2) is movably supported on a shaft 34 which is journalled between the mechanism end plates, and it is at one end provided with a lug 33a against which the starting cam 32 abuts before the actual calculating operation is effected. This stop position is provided about half a revolution after the starting position. At the other end of the catch 33 a stud 33b is provided which, uponthe engagement of the catch to the stop or calculating position, disengages two other catches 35, 36 (FIG. 5) from an operative position relative to the coupling mechanism. The catch 36 is movably supported on shaft 34 (FIGS. 2 and 5), and the catch 35 is movably supported on a shaft 37 secured between the mechanism end plates. Between said catches is connected a tension spring 38 (FIGS. 2 and 5) which urges the catches towards operative position and to disengage the stopping action of the catch 33.
This catch 33 further coacts with a rocker 39 (FIGS. 2 and 5) a lug 3% on which engages an open slot formed in the catch 33. The rocker 33 is pivoted on a stud at) of the machine frame, and is adapted to be engaged by a cam 41 (FIG. 2) in the starting cam assembly 26, as well. A link member 42 is hingedly secured to the rocker 39, and this link member 42 is provided with a slot which slidably engages a stud member 43 secured to the machine frame. A hole at upper end of the link member is adapted to engage by a stud member 44b (see FIG. 1) secured to the latter lifting member The lifting member 44 (FIG. 1) is movably supported by a stud member 45 secured to the machine frame, and a lug 44a engages a slot 47a (see FIG. 7) in a disconnecting link 47 which is formed with elongated holes and.
by the latter slidably supported on two studs 48, d9, secured to the machine frame. 7
A stud 4412 on the liftin member 44 is surrounded by two latch members 72, 73 (FIG. 7) which are movably supported on a shaft 21 secured to the machine frame. By means of a spring 56 connecting them, the latches '72, 73 will be operated by the position of the lifting member 44. The latches 72, 73, in their turn, control the engagement and disengagement of the calculating rotor by engaging a stop disk carried by the rotor shaft. This stop disk comprises two diskportions 9-4, (FIGS. 1 and 7) which are movably disposed on the rotor shaft, and a compresion springoz is mounted between the disk portions 94, 95 to make the latter engage from each side a stud member 96 secured to the gear tit) (FIG. 7). in that way, a stop disk assembly is'provided the stop positions of which are fully determined relative to the cal culating rotor. 7
When the catch 33 is moved into stop position the rocker 39 is tilted clockwise, and the link 42 (FIG. 2) imparts a counterclockwise motion to lifting member 44 to release the latter from its engagement with the slot 47a in the link 47 (FIG. 7), wherethrough the latter is pulled. by a tension spring (not illustrated) forwards (for addition and subtraction), so that lifting member will engage the link 47 at the side of slot 47a, and therethrough o k the ca ch 33 n its stop position. At the lever 17 by either the addition lever 12 or the subtraction lever 13 (FIG. 1'). Upon movement of pulling lever 37 the pulling hook lid will impart a downward movement under the action of cam St to either one or the other the coupling levers 52, 53 (FIG. 3) to rock the lever in question about its pivot. Levers 52 and 53 are movably supported on shaft 51 and provided with stud members 53a (FIGS. 3 and 4), respectively, at the front end, by which studs they will engage two starting levers 5d, 55 by elongated slots in the latter. The starting levers 54, 55 are movably carried by shafts 34 (FIG. 4) and 37 (FIG. 3), respectively. Both levers 54, 55 actuate the coupling mechanism by pulling down either coupling ever 52, 55. The return of the coupling levers 52, 53 and starting levers 5d, 55, respectively, to initial position is effected by two tension springs 86, 87 which are connected to a stud member (not illustrated) in the mechanism frame.
The coupling mechanism which forms an assembly and is movably supported on a shaft 5'7 secured to the mechanism frame, comprises a starting wheel 58 (FIGS. 3 and 4), on which two starting pawls 59, db, one at each side, are movably carried by a common grooved shaft er. The pawls 59, till, which are identically shaped, are provided with a stud 5%, sea, respectively, which penetrate through clearance holes in the starting wheel 58, and by which the pawls coact with each other. The pawls thus will assume the inner, active position alternatlvely, whereas the outer free position may be assumed by both pawls simultaneously.
To retain each pawl in the intended position, the former are adapted to .coact with two latches as, 64 (FlGS. 3 and 4) which are pivotally carried by two grooved pivots 65, 66 secured to the starting wheel 59, and loaded by two torsion springs 67, 68 which are both supported by a stud 69 secured to starting wheel 53. The coupling assembly is disposed between two guide disks 7t), 71 which are secured with bayonet mounts to the pivots d5, 66. The studs 5%, Ma will coact with the starting levers 5d, 55 and extend through elongated slots in the guide disks 7%, 71 for engagement or disengagement of the respective starting pawl with the drive mechanism of the assembly.
This drive mechanism comprises a plurality of gears which are driven continuously by the drive motor of the machine. The last step in the power transmission to the drive mechanism of the assembly comprises a comparatively thick ear 74 (FIG. 2 journalled for rotation on a shaft 93 fast in the assembly frame and meshing with a gear 75 journalled for rotation on a shaft 57 adjacent to the inner end plate, and with an intermediate gear 76 disposed in another axial plane than gear 75. The gear '76 is rigidly connected to another gear 77, and this assembly is journalled for rotation on a shaft 78 carried betweenthe end plates. The intermediate gear 77 further meshes with a gear 79 which, like gear 75, is journalled for rotation on shaftv 57, but is disposed adjacent to the outer end'plate. 'The coupling mechanism consequently is disposed between two gears 75, 79 rotating in opposite directions. a e
Both gears 75, 79 have their hubs formed with drive lugs 75a, 79a which will impart a rotation to starting wheel 58 upon actuation of. either starting pawl 59, 64), in the positive sense through gear 79, or in the negative sense through gear 75.
the sense of rotation and operational sequence of the calculating rotor depends directly on which starting pawl 59, 60 is moved into engagement with either gear 75, 79 of the drive mechanism.
Gear 79 further meshes with a gear 81 which transmits the rotation to starting cam assembly 26 upon starting and disconnection of the calculating operations. Gear 81 is identically like gear 79', and is journalled for rotation on shaft 31. The drive lug 81a will drive the starting cam assembly 26 by a starting pawl 82 (FIG. 2) movably carried on the starting cam 32. The starting pawl 82 is formed with an abutment at its free end for engagement with the respective catch 23, 33, and is adapted to be moved into engagement with the drive lug 81a by a tension spring 83, the other end of which is connected to a stud 85 (FIG. 2) at the starting cam 32, when the catches 23, 33 are moved aside by the action of the starting or disconnection mechanism.
As the gear 81 in the most unfavourable position must rotate a revolution after the starting impulse to bring along the starting cam assembly 26, the starting pawl 82 is formed with a back portion which afI'ords a smooth continuation of the circumference on the greatest radius of the starting cam 32, comprising about half a revolution, wherethrough neither the catch 23, and consequently neither of the members coacting therewith may be returned to initial position until the starting cam assembly 26 has rotated through half a revolution which corresponds to its calculating position. With such a device, the machine operations become independent of the actuation time of the operator, and, moreover, the calculations become reliable.
When one or the other of the catches 23, 33 is engaged in its respective stop position, it first pushes the starting pawl 82 out of engagement with the drive lug 81a, Whereafter they stop the starting cam assembly 26 against the abutment on the starting pawl 82 which is suppored by the stud 83 upon its pushing back.
In repeated addition and subtraction, the number of terms fed into the machine depends directly upon the time the respective operation key 1, 2 is depressed. When such a key is released, the starting mechanism and the elements coacting therewith are returned to initial position during the later part of the actual operation revolution, and an abutment lug on link 27 (FIG. 1) then will be disposed in the path of a reciprocating roller arm 46. The latter is movably supported by shaft 22, and will engage by a rotatable roller 92 an eccentric cam 88 secured to the rotor shaft, urged by the force of a tension spring 89, connected to its lower, bent-out portion and to stud member 84 (FIG. 1).
When the arm 46 moves along the link 27 by the rotation of cam 88, the link 27 imparts to a lever 90 a tilting movement around a stud member 91, secured to the mechanism frame. The other end of the lever 90 actuates an abutment on link 47, and urges the latter back to initial position, wherethrough the lifting member 44 may fall into the slot 47a once more (FIG. 7). When the lifting member 44 is returned to initial position, both latch members 72, 73 are released, so that they are urged by tension spring 56 against the stop disk on the calculating rotor, and finally stop the rotating assembly in its initial position.
Simultaneously with the operation described above, the lifting member 44 disengages on its return to initial position the catch 33 from its stop position in calculating position, so that the starting cam assembly 26 is once more moved along in the rotation of the drive mechanism, as the starting pawl 82 engages with the drive lug 81a, and the catch 23 subsequently stops the starting cam assembly 26 in its initial position (FIG. 1).
Upon the disengagement of the catch 33, the catches 35, 36 are moved into active position, and disengage thereby automatically the respective starting pawl 5), 60 on the starting wheel 58 from the respective drive lug a, 79a, when the coupling assembly passes by, whereby the coupling is rendered inactive.
It will be appreciated that the different elements of the invention may vary substantially, depending on the type of machine used, within the scope of the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. In a calculating machine of the type having a rotary actuator operable in one direction to perform addition and in the opposite direction to perform subtraction, and operation keys for determining the sense of rotation of the rotary actuator; drive means for the actuator, and means for coupling said drive means to the actuator for drive thereof in a selected direction comprising, in combination, a pair of axially aligned drive gears adapted to rotate in opposite senses, a coupling member disposed between said drive gears, a pair of starting pawls pivotally mounted on said coupling member for movement in planes transverse to the gear axis, each said pawl being adapted to engage a corresponding one of said drive gears, a starting cam assembly comprising a plurality of cams, a pulling lever pivotally mounted adjacent one of said starting cams for actuation thereby, a pulling hook mounted for reciprocatory movement and for actuation by said pulling lever, said hook having a T-shaped head and being adapted to be tipped in either direction transversely of its line of movement, means for tipping said lever in a particular direction upon actuation of a corresponding operation controlling key, a pair of pivotally mounted coupling levers arranged for selective actuation by said pulling hook in accordance with the tipping movement imparted thereto and a pair of starting levers each operated by the corre sponding coupling lever, said starting levers cooperating with said starting pawls to engage said coupling member with that one of said drive gears operating in the proper sense to perform the operation selected by an operation controlling key.
2. A calculating machine drive and coupling mechanism as claimed in claim 1, wherein a catch member is pivotally mounted to cooperate with said starting cam assembly, and means is provided operable upon movement of said pulling hook to move said catch member into a position to stop said cam assembly and wherein two additional catch members cooperate with said starting pawls and means are provided operated by said first catch member for operating said further catch members to disengage an engaged one of said starting pawls.
3. A calculating machine drive and coupling mechanism as claimed in claim 2 wherein a lifting member is provided, said lifting member being actuated by said starting cam assembly and by said disconnecting mechanism, said lifting member cooperating with said first catch member to retain said catch member in stopping position during the performance of a calculating operation proper.
4. A calculating machine drive and coupling mechanism as claimed in claim 3, wherein said further catch members are urged by a common spring member into position to disengage said starting pawls during the last 4 of an operational revolution.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,822,031 Hoifmeister Sept. 8, 1931 2,400,244 Mathi May 14, 1946 2,773,647 Webb Dec. 11, 1956 2,902,124 Capellaro Sept. 1, 1959 3,042,300 Anderson July 3, 1962

Claims (1)

1. IN A CALCULATING MACHINE OF THE TYPE HAVING A ROTARY ACTUATOR OPERABLE IN ONE DIRECTION TO PERFORM ADDITION AND IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION TO PERFORM SUBTRACTION, AND OPERATION KEYS FOR DETERMINING THE SENSE OF ROTATION OF THE ROTARY ACTUATOR; DRIVE MEANS FOR THE ACTUATOR, AND MEANS FOR COUPLING SAID DRIVE MEANS TO THE ACTUATOR FOR DRIVE THEREOF IN A SELECTED DIRECTION COMPRISING, IN COMBINATION, A PAIR OF AXIALLY ALIGNED DRIVE GEARS ADAPTED TO ROTATE IN OPPOSITE SENSES, A COUPLING MEMBER DISPOSED BETWEEN SAID DRIVE GEARS, A PAIR OF STARTING PAWLS PIVOTALLY MOUNTED ON SAID COUPLING MEMBER FOR MOVEMENT IN PLANES TRANSVERSE TO THE GEAR AXIS, EACH SAID PAWL BEING ADAPTED TO ENGAGE A CORRESPONDING ONE OF SAID DRIVE GEARS, A STARTING CAM ASSEMBLY COMPRISING A PLURALITY OF CAMS, A PULLING LEVER PIVOTALLY MOUNTED ADJACENT ONE OF SAID STARTING CAMS FOR ACTUATION THEREBY, A PULLING HOOK MOUNTED FOR RECIPROCATORY MOVEMENT AND FOR ACTUATION BY SAID PULLING LEVER, SAID HOOK HAVING A T-SHAPED HEAD AND BEING ADAPTED TO BE TIPPED IN EITHER DIRECTION TRANSVERSELY OF ITS LINE OF MOVEMENT, MEANS FOR TIPPING SAID LEVER IN A PARTICULAR DIRECTION UPON ACTUATION OF A CORRESPONDING OPERATION CONTROLLING KEY, A PAIR OF PIVOTALLY MOUNTED COUPLING LEVERS ARRANGED FOR SELECTIVE ACTUATION BY SAID PULLING HOOK IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TIPPING MOVEMENT IMPARTED THERETO AND A PAIR OF STARTING LEVERS EACH OPERATED BY THE CORRESPONDING COUPLING LEVER, SAID STARTING LEVERS COOPERATING WITH SAID STARTING PAWLS TO ENGAGE SAID COUPLING MEMBER WITH THAT ONE OF SAID DRIVE GEARS OPERATING IN THE PROPER SENSE TO PERFORM THE OPERATION SELECTED BY AN OPERATION CONTROLLING KEY.
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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1822031A (en) * 1931-09-08 Hebmann hoffmeister
US2400244A (en) * 1946-05-14 Calculating machine
US2773647A (en) * 1956-12-11 Grand total accumulating mechanism
US2902124A (en) * 1953-03-10 1959-09-01 Olivetti & Co Spa Operating mechanism for power driven business machines
US3042300A (en) * 1955-12-29 1962-07-03 Underwood Corp Control mechanism for an adding machine

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1822031A (en) * 1931-09-08 Hebmann hoffmeister
US2400244A (en) * 1946-05-14 Calculating machine
US2773647A (en) * 1956-12-11 Grand total accumulating mechanism
US2902124A (en) * 1953-03-10 1959-09-01 Olivetti & Co Spa Operating mechanism for power driven business machines
US3042300A (en) * 1955-12-29 1962-07-03 Underwood Corp Control mechanism for an adding machine

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