US3154141A - Roughened heat exchanger tube - Google Patents

Roughened heat exchanger tube Download PDF

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Publication number
US3154141A
US3154141A US2476060A US3154141A US 3154141 A US3154141 A US 3154141A US 2476060 A US2476060 A US 2476060A US 3154141 A US3154141 A US 3154141A
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Prior art keywords
tube
excrescences
surface
millimeter
axially
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Huet Andre
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Huet Andre
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F13/00Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing
    • F28F13/18Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing by applying coatings, e.g. radiation-absorbing, radiation-reflecting; by surface treatment, e.g. polishing
    • F28F13/185Heat-exchange surfaces provided with microstructures or with porous coatings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F1/00Tubular elements; Assemblies of tubular elements
    • F28F1/10Tubular elements and assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with projections, with recesses
    • F28F1/12Tubular elements and assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with projections, with recesses the means being only outside the tubular element
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F1/00Tubular elements; Assemblies of tubular elements
    • F28F1/10Tubular elements and assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with projections, with recesses
    • F28F1/12Tubular elements and assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with projections, with recesses the means being only outside the tubular element
    • F28F1/124Tubular elements and assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with projections, with recesses the means being only outside the tubular element and being formed of pins
    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21CNUCLEAR REACTORS
    • G21C3/00Reactor fuel elements and their assemblies; Selection of substances for use as reactor fuel elements
    • G21C3/02Fuel elements
    • G21C3/04Constructional details
    • G21C3/06Casings; Jackets
    • G21C3/08Casings; Jackets provided with external means to promote heat-transfer, e.g. fins, baffles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E30/00Energy generation of nuclear origin
    • Y02E30/30Nuclear fission reactors
    • Y02E30/40Other aspects relating to nuclear fission

Description

Oct. 27, 1964 A. HUET noucumusn HEAT mccmucm was Filed April 26. 1960 United States Patent 3,154,141 ROUGHENED HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE Andi- Huet, 43 Avenue du President Wilson, Paris, France Filed Apr. 26, 1960, Ser. No. 24,760 Claims priority, application France, Apr. 28, 1959, 793,350 3 Claims. (Cl. 165133) It has already been proposed to form grooves of small depth or striations in the surface of tubes intended for heat exchangers, thereby forming, in the said surface, hollows and raised portions of the order of one or a few millimeters, with a view to increasing the surface of the tube for the exchange of heat. These grooves can be formed either in the longitudinal direction parallel to the axis of the tube, or in the transverse direction, or in both directions at once so as to form a chequer-work pattern on the tube. The tube can be either of circular section or it can have diametral or tangential fins, or it can be of any desired section, for example, of double-convex section. Grooves of this type are always uniform (and produce regularly-disposed raised portions.

The present invention has for its object a tube intended for the exchange of heat, the surface of said tube having rough excrescences and indentations or depressions of various shapes and orientations, arranged irregularly and symmetrically or asymmetrically. These rough excres cences or depressions can in particular be given the shape of points, or more exactly small cone frustums, either raised or hollow, the dimensions of which can be of the order of a tenth of a millimeter or larger, and are selected as a function of the nature and the conditions of temperature and pressure of the fluids with which the tube is in contact, either externally or internally. These points can be combined with channels or grooves of all shapes and orientations, or raised portions of any shapes and orientations.

Instead of resulting from the formation of raised portions on a cylindrical surface, this rough surface of the tube can be obtained by depressions formed in the initially smooth surface of the tube. To this end, in the case of a metallic tube which has passed through rollers in the course of its manufacture, rough excrescences are formed on the said rollers so as to produce holes or grooves of any desired shape in the surface of the tube. If the tube has a deformed section, for example a doubleconvex section, obtained by passing a tube of circular section between a roller-train designed to deform the section, these latter rollers will in this case be provided with rough excrescences. Alternatively, sand is introduced between the surface of the tube and the smooth or roughened rollers between which the said tube passes, so as to obtain a rough surface having concave points or grooves having various shapes and arrangements. If the tube is manufactured by extrusion, for example in the case of a tube having diametral or tangential fins, or if the tube is produced by drawing, a die is employed which is provided with combs which oscillate or come into periodic contact with the surface of the extruded tube so as to obtain in the longitudinal direction depressions in the form of grooves formed in the surface of the tube. In order to obtain depressions transverse to the axis of the tube, the tube can be subjected to cold or hot die-forming or to hammering of its surface, preferably by means of pneumatic hammers striking punches in which raised points are formed.

Various forms of embodiment of the tubes which form the object of the present invention have been shown in 3,154,141 Patented Oct. 27, 1964 perspective in FIGS. 1 to 4 of the accompanying drawings.

In the form of embodiment of FIG. 1, points or small craters b have ben stamped asymmetrically so as to form hollows, and alternating with channels or grooves c. The depth of these channels is of the order of one millimeter to one tenth of a millimeter.

In FIG. 2, the tube a is only provided with channels or grooves c which are distributed, as can be seen in the drawing, in asymmetric and irregular manner over the surface of the tube.

In FIG. 3, there is in this case a tube d, having tangential fins e and the grooves f are distributed in an irregular manner, both over the surface of the tube proper and over the surfaces of the fins. It would also be possible to form points.

On the tube g of FIG. 4, the hollow points h have a density or depth which varies betwen one extremity of the tube and the other, the points it being, for example, of greater density at the entrance than at the outlet.

The tube can be mounted in heat exchangers of all types, with parallel flow or cross-flow. In particular, it is an advantage to employ them in combination with tubes so arranged that the passages formed between tubes in the exchanger for the circulation of the external fluid vary both in section and direction. For example, in an exchanger between two fluids circulating in cross-flow, tubes having double-convex sections with faces of unequal curvature, and in which hollowed and raised portions have been formed in accordance with the present invention, will be disposed quincuncially or in a staggered pattern, and the transverse passages thus formed between the tubes will be provided in known manner, with variations of section and of direction of the flow of the external fluid.

These tubes can also be employed in heat exchangers having deflecting undulated walls disposed between the rows of tubes so as to channel and modify the flow of the fluid outside the tubes. They can also be employed with sheath envelopes placed co-axially to the tubes and having a profile which is either symmetrically or asymmetrically corrugated, the period or pitch of the corrugations of the envelope being variable from one end to the other of the tube or along certain portions of the said tube, in combination or otherwise with a variation of the density or of the height of the depressions and raised portions formed in the surface of the tube itself.

The present invention does not necessarily apply to meballic tubes, but can also apply to tubes of any other nature, for example of ceramic material, in which the depressions or raised portions which are irregularly disposed, can be even more easily produced and applied especially to the surfaces of fuel elements of nuclear reactors, either to their sheathings or to the surface proper of the fuel cores when they are of ceramic material.

What I claim is:

l. A heat-exchanger tube defined by a tube wall having an outer surface provided with integral rough, discontinuous excrescences in relief disposed spaced from each other axially and circumferentially on said tube, said ex crescences being limited in axial and circumferential extent so that a plurality are accommodated circumferentially of said tube and axially of said tube, said excrescences each having a height of about of a millimeter to about one millimeter with respect to the surface of said tube, said excrescences varying in height over the length of said tube, and said excrescences being formed wholly from the material of said tube wall.

2. A heat-exchanger tube defined by a tube Wall having an outer surface provided with integral rough, discontinuous excrescences in relief disposed spaced from each other irregularly axially and circumferentially on said tube, said excrescences being limited in axial and citrcumferential extent so that a plurality are accommodated circumferentially of said tube and axially of said tube, said excrescences each having a height of about V of a millimeter to about one millimeter with respect to the surface of said tube, said excrescences varying in number and in height over the length of said tube, and said excrescences being formed wholly from the material of said tube wall.

3. A heat-exchanger tube defined by a tube wall having an outer surface provided with integral rough, discontinuous, excrescences in relief disposed spaced from each other axially and circumferentially on said tube, said excrescences being limited in axial and circumferential extent so that a plurality are accommodated circumferentially of said tube and axially of said tube, said excrescences each having a height of about A of a millimeter to about one millimeter with respect to the surface of said tube, said excrescences varying in number per unit length and in height over the length of said tube, said excrescences being formed Wholly from the material of said tube Wall, said tube outer surface comprising discontinuous, irregularly shaped indentations intermediate at least some of said excrescences and disposed spaced circumferenti ally and axially on said tube, and said indentations having a depth of about A of a millimeter to about one millimeter.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 11,409 Bristol Aug. 1, 1854 1,821,434 Hamilton Sept. 1, 1931 1,826,344 Dalgliesh Oct. 6, 1931 1,878,242 Kerr Sept. 20, 1932 1,992,297 Dewald Feb. 26, 1935 2,252,045 Spanner Aug. 12, 1941 2,316,273 Meyer et a1. Apr. 13, 1943 2,343,542 Faunce Mar. 7, 1944 2,519,820 Brugger Aug. 22, 1950 2,549,466 Hoheisel Apr. 17, 1951 2,578,136 Huet Dec. 11, 1951 2,804,286 Pinarelli Aug. 27, 1957 2,825,962 Brown et (a1. Mar. 11, 1958 2,902,422 Hutter Sept. 1, 1959 2,974,404 Humenik et a1 Mar. 14, 1961 3,007,237 Woodruff Nov. 7, 1961 FOREIGN PATENTS 656,616 Great Britain Aug. 29, 1951 684,602 Great Britain Dec. 24, 1952 2,343,542 Faunce Mar. 7, 1944

Claims (1)

1. A HEAT-EXCHANGER TUBE DEFINED BY A TUBE WALL HAVING AN OUTER SURFACE PROVIDED WITH INTEGRAL ROUGH, DISCONTINOUS EXCRESCENCES IN RELIEF DISPOSED SPACED FROM EACH OTHER AXIALLY AND CIRCUMFERENTIALLY ON SAID TUBE, SAID EXCRESCENCES BEING LIMITED IN AXIAL AND CIRCUMFERENTIAL EXTENT SO THAT A PLURALITY ARE ACCOMMODATED CIRCUMFERENTIALLY OF SAID TUBE AND AXIALLY OF SAID TUBE, SAID EXCRESCENCES EACH HAVING A HEIGHT OF ABOUT 1/10 OF A MILLIMETER TO ABOUT ONE MILLIMETER WITH RESPECT TO THE SURFACE OF SAID TUBE, SAID EXCRESCENCES VARYING IN HEIGHT OVER THE LENGTH OF SAID TUBE, AND SAID EXCRESCENCES BEING FORMED WHOLLY FROM THE MATERIAL OF SAID TUBE WALL.
US3154141A 1959-04-28 1960-04-26 Roughened heat exchanger tube Expired - Lifetime US3154141A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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FR793350A FR1252033A (en) 1959-04-28 1959-04-28 heat exchanger tube bundle rough surface

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Cited By (44)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3224944A (en) * 1964-05-05 1965-12-21 Richard F Turner Ceramic-matrix-type fuel element with graphite fabric affixed to exterior surface
US3261759A (en) * 1962-07-06 1966-07-19 Commissariat Energie Atomique Fuel element for nuclear reactor
US3501916A (en) * 1966-09-24 1970-03-24 Bolkow Gmbh Tubular components for forming a rocket engine combustion chamber
US3789915A (en) * 1971-04-23 1974-02-05 Olin Corp Process for improving heat transfer efficiency and improved heat transfer system
US3850227A (en) * 1971-04-23 1974-11-26 Olin Corp Process for improving heat transfer efficiency and improved heat transfer system
JPS49143247U (en) * 1973-04-09 1974-12-10
US3861462A (en) * 1971-12-30 1975-01-21 Olin Corp Heat exchange tube
US3885622A (en) * 1971-12-30 1975-05-27 Olin Corp Heat exchanger tube
US3902552A (en) * 1973-05-10 1975-09-02 Olin Corp Patterned tubing
US3906605A (en) * 1973-06-18 1975-09-23 Olin Corp Process for preparing heat exchanger tube
JPS52105359A (en) * 1976-03-01 1977-09-03 Hisaka Works Ltd Condenser
US4153039A (en) * 1977-01-07 1979-05-08 Carroll John H Focusing solar energy apparatus
US4205656A (en) * 1978-06-06 1980-06-03 Scarlata Robert W Thermal storage reservoirs
US4211276A (en) * 1977-06-29 1980-07-08 Hitachi, Ltd. Method of making fin elements for heat exchangers
US4253519A (en) * 1979-06-22 1981-03-03 Union Carbide Corporation Enhancement for film condensation apparatus
US4261336A (en) * 1979-06-25 1981-04-14 Alpha Solarco Inc. Solar energy receivers
US4355627A (en) * 1978-06-06 1982-10-26 Scarlata Robert W Thermal storage system
US4461159A (en) * 1983-03-30 1984-07-24 Great Lakes Carbon Corporation Apparatus for the stabilization of fibers
US4976460A (en) * 1987-07-03 1990-12-11 Armitage Shanks Ltd. Thermostatic valves
US4982784A (en) * 1988-09-30 1991-01-08 Ford Motor Company Composite heat exchanger tube
US4991407A (en) * 1988-10-14 1991-02-12 Mile High Equipment Company Auger type ice flaking machine with enhanced heat transfer capacity evaporator/freezing section
US5065817A (en) * 1988-10-14 1991-11-19 Mile High Equipment Company Auger type ice flaking machine with enhanced heat transfer capacity evaporator/freezing section
US5105540A (en) * 1988-09-30 1992-04-21 Ford Motor Company Tube method of making a composite heat exchanger tube
US5171540A (en) * 1991-02-25 1992-12-15 Phillips Petroleum Company Catalyst regeneration
US5349899A (en) * 1992-11-26 1994-09-27 Kanehiro Co., Ltd. Natural thawing pan
US5456006A (en) * 1994-09-02 1995-10-10 Ford Motor Company Method for making a heat exchanger tube
US5474717A (en) * 1992-08-28 1995-12-12 The Coca-Cola Company Apparatus including means for controlling the formation of an ice bank in a carbonator tank
DE19751405C2 (en) * 1996-11-15 2001-01-18 Martin Schade A device for heat exchange
US20030133858A1 (en) * 2002-01-12 2003-07-17 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation High heat transfer tubular reactor
US20070051505A1 (en) * 2005-09-07 2007-03-08 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Heat exchanger comprising a supercritical carbon-dioxide circuit
US20070119578A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2007-05-31 Yutaka Shibata Hot water supply heat exchanger
US20080146682A1 (en) * 2005-03-17 2008-06-19 Andre Peter Steynberg Production of Liquid and, Optionally, Gaseous Products from Gaseous Reactants
US20090183731A1 (en) * 2006-03-28 2009-07-23 Rahmi Oguz Capan Parabolic solar trough systems with rotary tracking means
US20100112201A1 (en) * 2008-11-04 2010-05-06 Mcguire Jr James E Method for Continuous Production of (Meth)acrylate Syrup and Adhesives Therefrom
US20100126699A1 (en) * 2008-11-26 2010-05-27 Elena Daniela Lavric Heat exchangers for microstructures
US7942137B2 (en) 2005-06-24 2011-05-17 Behr Gmbh & Co., Kg Heat exchanger
US20110222643A1 (en) * 2008-09-30 2011-09-15 Areva Np Cladding tube for nuclear fuel rod, method and apparatus for manufacturing a cladding tube
CN102788526A (en) * 2012-09-06 2012-11-21 四川惊雷压力容器制造有限责任公司 Three-dimensional thin electrolyte film condenser tube
US8329079B2 (en) 2009-04-20 2012-12-11 Entrochem, Inc. Method and apparatus for continuous production of partially polymerized compositions and polymers therefrom
US20130025834A1 (en) * 2011-07-26 2013-01-31 Choi Gun Shik Double tube type heat exchange pipe
US20140332188A1 (en) * 2013-05-09 2014-11-13 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Heat exchanger
US20150211805A1 (en) * 2014-01-29 2015-07-30 Kunshan Jue-Chung Electronics Co., Ltd. Thermostat module
USD799012S1 (en) * 2014-06-24 2017-10-03 Kobe Steel, Ltd. Heat exchanger tube
US10112224B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2018-10-30 Areva Np Cladding tube for nuclear fuel rod, method and apparatus for manufacturing a cladding

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JPS5040263B1 (en) * 1970-08-15 1975-12-23
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DE4406403C2 (en) * 1994-02-26 1999-07-29 Eberspaecher J Gmbh & Co Liquid fuel powered vehicle heater
DE102006035993A1 (en) * 2006-08-02 2008-02-07 Behr Gmbh & Co. Kg Heat exchanger e.g. heating unit, for air conditioning system of motor vehicle, has cooling medium cases flow connected by flat pipes, where pipes differ from each other according to pressure drop

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US1878242A (en) * 1928-11-10 1932-09-20 Babcock & Wilcox Co Tube
US1992297A (en) * 1933-03-06 1935-02-26 Reconstruction Finance Corp Method of making fin tubing
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US2316273A (en) * 1939-07-13 1943-04-13 Meyer Ludwig Heater
US2343542A (en) * 1944-03-07 Heat extractor
US2519820A (en) * 1946-01-07 1950-08-22 Griscom Russell Co Method of making condenser tubes
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US2578136A (en) * 1946-05-24 1951-12-11 Huet Andre Tangentially finned heat exchange tubes
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US2343542A (en) * 1944-03-07 Heat extractor
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US1821434A (en) * 1923-01-27 1931-09-01 Erwin H Hamilton Cooling fin for internal combustion engines
US1878242A (en) * 1928-11-10 1932-09-20 Babcock & Wilcox Co Tube
US1826344A (en) * 1930-09-23 1931-10-06 Res & Dev Corp Heat exchange element
US1992297A (en) * 1933-03-06 1935-02-26 Reconstruction Finance Corp Method of making fin tubing
US2252045A (en) * 1938-10-18 1941-08-12 Spanner Edward Frank Tubular heat exchange apparatus
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US2549466A (en) * 1947-04-23 1951-04-17 Johns Manville Method for making heat exchangers
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GB684602A (en) * 1948-08-04 1952-12-24 Giovanni Rossi Improvements in tubular heat exchanger elements, particularly for steam boilers
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Cited By (55)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3261759A (en) * 1962-07-06 1966-07-19 Commissariat Energie Atomique Fuel element for nuclear reactor
US3224944A (en) * 1964-05-05 1965-12-21 Richard F Turner Ceramic-matrix-type fuel element with graphite fabric affixed to exterior surface
US3501916A (en) * 1966-09-24 1970-03-24 Bolkow Gmbh Tubular components for forming a rocket engine combustion chamber
US3789915A (en) * 1971-04-23 1974-02-05 Olin Corp Process for improving heat transfer efficiency and improved heat transfer system
US3850227A (en) * 1971-04-23 1974-11-26 Olin Corp Process for improving heat transfer efficiency and improved heat transfer system
US3861462A (en) * 1971-12-30 1975-01-21 Olin Corp Heat exchange tube
US3885622A (en) * 1971-12-30 1975-05-27 Olin Corp Heat exchanger tube
JPS49143247U (en) * 1973-04-09 1974-12-10
US3902552A (en) * 1973-05-10 1975-09-02 Olin Corp Patterned tubing
US3906605A (en) * 1973-06-18 1975-09-23 Olin Corp Process for preparing heat exchanger tube
JPS52105359A (en) * 1976-03-01 1977-09-03 Hisaka Works Ltd Condenser
JPS564837B2 (en) * 1976-03-01 1981-02-02
US4153039A (en) * 1977-01-07 1979-05-08 Carroll John H Focusing solar energy apparatus
US4211276A (en) * 1977-06-29 1980-07-08 Hitachi, Ltd. Method of making fin elements for heat exchangers
US4205656A (en) * 1978-06-06 1980-06-03 Scarlata Robert W Thermal storage reservoirs
US4355627A (en) * 1978-06-06 1982-10-26 Scarlata Robert W Thermal storage system
US4253519A (en) * 1979-06-22 1981-03-03 Union Carbide Corporation Enhancement for film condensation apparatus
US4261336A (en) * 1979-06-25 1981-04-14 Alpha Solarco Inc. Solar energy receivers
US4461159A (en) * 1983-03-30 1984-07-24 Great Lakes Carbon Corporation Apparatus for the stabilization of fibers
WO1984003907A1 (en) * 1983-03-30 1984-10-11 Great Lakes Carbon Corp Method and apparatus for thermal oxidative stabilization of organic fibers
US4976460A (en) * 1987-07-03 1990-12-11 Armitage Shanks Ltd. Thermostatic valves
US4982784A (en) * 1988-09-30 1991-01-08 Ford Motor Company Composite heat exchanger tube
US5105540A (en) * 1988-09-30 1992-04-21 Ford Motor Company Tube method of making a composite heat exchanger tube
US4991407A (en) * 1988-10-14 1991-02-12 Mile High Equipment Company Auger type ice flaking machine with enhanced heat transfer capacity evaporator/freezing section
US5065817A (en) * 1988-10-14 1991-11-19 Mile High Equipment Company Auger type ice flaking machine with enhanced heat transfer capacity evaporator/freezing section
US5171540A (en) * 1991-02-25 1992-12-15 Phillips Petroleum Company Catalyst regeneration
US5474717A (en) * 1992-08-28 1995-12-12 The Coca-Cola Company Apparatus including means for controlling the formation of an ice bank in a carbonator tank
US5349899A (en) * 1992-11-26 1994-09-27 Kanehiro Co., Ltd. Natural thawing pan
US5456006A (en) * 1994-09-02 1995-10-10 Ford Motor Company Method for making a heat exchanger tube
DE19751405C2 (en) * 1996-11-15 2001-01-18 Martin Schade A device for heat exchange
US20030133858A1 (en) * 2002-01-12 2003-07-17 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation High heat transfer tubular reactor
US7018591B2 (en) 2002-01-12 2006-03-28 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation High heat transfer tubular reactor
US20070119578A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2007-05-31 Yutaka Shibata Hot water supply heat exchanger
US20080146682A1 (en) * 2005-03-17 2008-06-19 Andre Peter Steynberg Production of Liquid and, Optionally, Gaseous Products from Gaseous Reactants
US7942137B2 (en) 2005-06-24 2011-05-17 Behr Gmbh & Co., Kg Heat exchanger
US7267161B2 (en) * 2005-09-07 2007-09-11 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Heat exchanger comprising a supercritical carbon-dioxide circuit
US20070051505A1 (en) * 2005-09-07 2007-03-08 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Heat exchanger comprising a supercritical carbon-dioxide circuit
US20090183731A1 (en) * 2006-03-28 2009-07-23 Rahmi Oguz Capan Parabolic solar trough systems with rotary tracking means
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GB914140A (en) 1962-12-28 application
FR1252033A (en) 1961-01-27 grant

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