US3100677A - Method of making refractory brick - Google Patents

Method of making refractory brick Download PDF

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US3100677A
US3100677A US829342A US82934259A US3100677A US 3100677 A US3100677 A US 3100677A US 829342 A US829342 A US 829342A US 82934259 A US82934259 A US 82934259A US 3100677 A US3100677 A US 3100677A
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Prior art keywords
brick
metal
refractory
shape
plates
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US829342A
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Joseph M Frank
Neil E Boyer
James A Crookston
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A P GREEN FIRE BRICK CO
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A P GREEN FIRE BRICK CO
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS, SLAG, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B23/00Arrangements specially adapted for the production of shaped articles with elements wholly or partly embedded in the moulding material; Production of reinforced objects
    • B28B23/0018Producing metal-clad stones, such as oven stones
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27DDETAILS OR ACCESSORIES OF FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS, IN SO FAR AS THEY ARE OF KINDS OCCURRING IN MORE THAN ONE KIND OF FURNACE
    • F27D1/00Casings; Linings; Walls; Roofs
    • F27D1/04Casings; Linings; Walls; Roofs characterised by the form, e.g. shape of the bricks or blocks used
    • F27D1/06Composite bricks or blocks, e.g. panels, modules
    • F27D1/08Bricks or blocks with internal reinforcement or metal backing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S425/00Plastic article or earthenware shaping or treating: apparatus
    • Y10S425/123Repress
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49826Assembling or joining
    • Y10T29/49879Spaced wall tube or receptacle

Description

1953 J. M. FRANK ETAL 3,100,677

METHOD OF MAKING REFRACTORY BRICK Filed July 24, 19 59 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 /2 27% K MW 1953 J. M. FlANK EI'AL 3,100,677

METHOD OF MAKING REFRACTORY BRICK Filed July 24, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG,I4

United States Patent 3,10%,677 METHOD 0F MAKING REFRACTORY BRICK Joseph M. Frank, Neil E. Boyer, and James A. Crookston,

Mexico, Mo., assiguors to A. P. Green Fire Brick Company, Mexico, Mo., a corporation of Missouri Filed July 24, 1959, Ser. No. 829,342 5 Claims. (Cl. 18-59) The present invention relates to a novel method for metal encasing refractory brick for use in the construction of various parts of furnaces, and to a novel metal cased refractory brick made by said method. The brick are widely used in metallurgical furnaces, and, in particular, in the basic open-hearth furnace used for making steel. ThQbIlCk usually is encased on four sides with the ends uncased, however, less than four sides may be cased and the ends also may be cased.

The purpose of the external plates on the brick is primarily to provide a bonding medium between adjoining brick, which tends to make the furnace structure more resistant to the effect of thermal shock and the attacks of slags and furnace fumes in service. The metal plates tend to oxidize and melt in service, fusing adjoining brick into a more or less monolithic structure on the surface facing the interior of the furnace. At the same time the metal plate further back into the furnace wall retains its integrity, thus providing support to the furnace wall during the life of the furnace structure. The brick without external plates are more subject to thermal shock and to sheeting due to changes in structure resulting from attack by slags and fumes than are brick with external plates.

There are numerous methods used to apply these casings to refractory brick. One method is to press the brick mix into a channel previously inserted into the press cavity, thus forming a metal case on three sides of the brick. The fourth side can then be left free of a metal casing, or a metal casing can be applied through pressure from the upper plunger of the press. In this latter case, the applied metal plate has projections which anchor it to the brick. Another method which is used, is to attach the metal plates toany or all sides of the brick by means of adhesives. Another method is to use a channel of the proper size and to force the channel apart, insert the previously formed brick into the channel, and then to allow the channel to assume its normal position so that it is held to the brick by its spring. This method may be used in conjunction with adhesives.

Another recent method of preparing cased brick is to form a refractory brick in a normal manner and then place two U-shaped channels over the brick from opposite faces in a manner that the legs of the channels overlap. The overlapping legs are then spot welded together to form a brick with a double thickness of metal on each side. 1

In addition to the external plates described above, it is also common practice toplace one or two plates inside the brick. The purpose of this is to provide the brick with even more resistance to the effects of thermal shock and breaking-off or sheeting of the brick in service due to attack by furnace fumes and slags. The internal plates are placed inside the brick in such manner that their long dimensions are perpendicular to the hot-face of the brick as it occurs in service. Thus, the internal plates effectively divide each brick into two or three smaller brick separated by metal plates. By means of these internal plates, the brick are made more resistant to the destructive processes which occur in service than brick having only external plates. p

The principal method used to place the internal plates in the brick is an adaptation of the method hereinbefore 3 ,l00-,677 Patented Aug. 13, 1963 described for forming the brick into a channel previously inserted into the press cavity. In this instance, a second channel of smaller cross-section but the same length and approximately the same height is placed inside the channel forming the outside casing for the brick. The brick is then pressed, simultaneously forming both the outside metal casing on three sides and the two internal plates. To form a single internal plate, a T-shaped metal form is used in place of the smaller channel. The fourth side can be externally plated as described. Another method which is used to provide the internal plates is to press smaller brick and combine two or three of them into a composite with separating plates to form a full-size brick with both internal and external plates. Another method is to saw a full-size brick into two or three smaller brick and combine these into a composite brick with separating plates to form a full-size brick with internal and external plates. Another recent method is to prefabricate a box of the same external dimensions as the brick which is to be formed. This box is made up of the two side members and the end members but with no top and bottom members. Inside the box one or two plates: of similar size to the side members are fastened so as to divide the width of the box into two or three equal parts. Theprefabricated metal box thus described is then placed into the press cavity with the open top and bottom placed so that the action of the press will cause the brick mix to be compacted into the box. Thus on pressing, a brick is formed having metal plates on the ends and sides and with one or two internal plates inside the brick. External plates may then be fastened to the remainingtwo free faces of the brick by means of adhesives or by welding to the other metal faces.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a novel method for forming a refractory brick having its four sides encased with an integral sheet of metal and with the ends uncased.

A further object is to provide a novel method of forming a metal cased refractory brick which includes the steps of inserting the refractory mix in a container and forming the container into a brick of the same perimeter :as the container but having less volume, thereby compressing the refractory mix. Another object is to provide a cased refractory brick having a continuous meta casing. 1

Still another object of the present inventionis to provide a method of forming a metal cased refractory brick, having internal plates. Another object is to provide a casedrefractory brick having internal plates and a continuous metal casing.

These and other objects and advantages will become apparent hereinafter.

The present invention comprises a process of making cased refractories including the steps of placing a refractory mix into a hollow geometrical shape and formingthat shape into the desired refractory brick. The invention further consists in the process hereinafter described and claimed and in the refractory brick made by said process.

H6. 1 is a perspective view of a sheet before it is formed into the casing for a fire brick,

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a hollow geometric shape formed in the brick making process, 3

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the shape shown in FIG. 2 filled with brick mix and diagrammatically showing a vibratory motion imparted to the filled shape,

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the shape shownin FIG. 3 with a diagrammatic representation of a brick forming press,

FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a finished brick,

. 3 7 FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a modification of the hollow geometric shape shown in FIG. 2,

FIG. 7 is an end view of a geometric shape containing a spacer,

FIG. 8 is an end view of the brick formed from the shape shown in FIG. 7,

FIG. 9 is an end view of a geometric shape having a p modified form of spacer contained therein,

.FIG. 10 is an end view of the brick formed from the shape shown in FIG. 9,

FIG. 11 is a perspective View of a brick made of a modified form of casing containing perforations in the outer walls, 1

FIG. 12 is a partially broken perspective view of a modified spacer plate having perforated flanges,

FIG. 13 is an end view of a geometric shape having another modified form of spacer contained therein,

FIG. 14 is an end view of the brick formed from the shape shown in FIG. 13, and

FIG. 15 is a perspective view of the brick shown in FIG. 14.

A flat sheet or metal plate 19 which preferably is carbon steel or a similar oxidizable metal and is of any predetermined length and width (FIG. 1) is conventionally rolled and the opposite edges joined into a hollow geometric shape 11 (FIG. 2) which has an infinite number of possible dimensions for length, width and height. The

hollow. geometric shape is formed into the predetermined cross-section of established-perimeter and shape by usual sheet-metal forming techniques and joined to form a continuous cross-section. The cross-section of the hollow shape is shown as circular in FIG. 2 and elliptical in FIG. 6 and can be any suitable cross-section having a perimeter substantially equal to the perimeter of the refractory'brick. 'The important consideration is that the perimeter of the cross-sectionof the shape be substan-v tially equal to the perimeter of the cross-section of the shape to which it will be transformed in the brick-forming operation. The metal case may stretch slightly in the brick-forming process if a sufiicient amount of refractory mix is placed in the geometrical shape before it is formed into a brick. However, the perimeter of the final brick is substantially the same as the perimeter of the hollow geometrical shape in all cases. In addition, it is an essential feature of the present invention that the area of the cross-section of the hollow geometric shape be greater than the area of the cross-section of the shape to which it will be transformed in the brick-forming operation. This allows rigid control over the density of the final brick. The end joint of the metal sheet 11) can be overlapped as shown in FIG. 2 to form a seam 11a, or it can be butt welded, if desired.

Following the fabrication of the hollow geometric shape 11 from the metal sheet 10 (FIG. 2), it is filled (FIG. 3) with 'a predetermined amount of a refractory brick mix 12. The refractory can be any known refractory, but is preferably a basic refractory. The amount of brick mix to be placed into the shape may be measured by weight or by volume with similar final results. [[n addition to'merely filling the shape with brick mix it is necessary to' compact it by means of vibration,

case 15 having sides 16 and free ends 17. The ends 17 can be left open or can have metal caps or plates attached thereto as by welding or gluing. Since the perimeter of the cross-section of the original geometric shape 11 is substantially equal to the perimeter of the cross-section of the final brick 14, and the area of the cross-section of the original geometric shape 11 is greater than the area of the cross-section of the final brick 14, a brick '14 is formed of the required volume and density with a continuous metal casing :15 on four sides 16. The refractory part 12 of the brick 14 has a greater density since the cross-sectional area and consequently the volume of the metal casing 15 is reduced in the brick-forming process. The metal case 15 retains the refractory portion 12 of the brick .14by the stresses set up in the brick-forming process, and cannot be removed without the destruction of the brick.

The process may be modified to allow the incorporation of internal steel plates 29' in the final brick'14 (FIGS. 710). The plates 20 are introduced into the hollow geometric shape '11 prior to filling it with brick mix 12. The shape of the internal plates 20 can vary, two possibilities being illustrated in FIG. 7 and FIG. 9. As can be seen, FIG. 7 shows the internal plates 2t? formed in the shape of a cross, while FIG. 9 illustrates the use of plates 24 in the-form of an X. Other possible designs include the use of a concentric circle in the original hollow geometric shape, which on final transformation in the pressing operation becomes a small rectangle within a larger rectangle. Another possibility is shown in FIGS. 1315 and comprises a corrugated or S shaped plate 30 positioned in the hollow geometric shape 31 so that the final brick forming pressure will act to reduce the distance between corrugations and increase the height of the corrugations. Any design may be used for the internal plates, so long as the plates when introduced into the hollow geometric shape are not longer or wider than the corresponding final brick dimensions. emples, it is apparent that many designs not specifically mentioned in this description could be used which would not, however, depart from the spirit and scope of this invention. V

A modification of this invention shown in FIG. 11 is to use steel plate which is perforated rather than solid to form the hollow geometric shapes. This produces a brick 14 including a refractory portion 12 (and la metal casing 15 having sides 16 with perforations 21 provided therein.

Expanded metal can also be used to form the outer metal casing for the brick, and the term perforated is intended to include such casing constructions.

FIG. 12 shows a modified spacer plate 25 provided with perforations 26 in the flange portions 27. This spacer plate also may be made from expanded metal. Either the solid or perforated form of the spacer can be used with all types of casings and refractory mixes.

By the use of perforated sheet steel or expanded metal as the casing and for the internal plates, a reduction in pressure, or' a combination of these two mechanisms.

' to allow the assembly to be handled with a minimum of loss of brick mix.

The hollow geometric shape v111 which has been filled and compacted with brick mix 12 is then introduced to a brick-forming press (diagrammatically indicated by the arrows 13 in FIG. 4), where the original geometric shape 11 is transformed into the'final brick form 14 (FIG. 5). The brick 114 includes a refractory portion 12 and a metal weight ofthe final brick is elfected while atthe same 5 time providing the same support to the furnace structure as is provided with non-perforated sheet steel. In addition, if the internal plates have perforations in them,

the density of the refractory mix will be more uniform,

since it can fiow through the openingsin the plates from one compartment to another. 7 The use of non-solid oasings and internal plates results in more brick units being available per ton of refractory than .if solid casingstand plates are used.

'Ilhusit is seen that the present invention provides a refractory brick and a method of preparing same which achieves all of the objects and advantages sought therefor. The present invention further provides a brick having an integral or continuous metal casing on four sides thereof, said casing being formed around the brick during the brick making process so that it becomes in effect an From these exintegral part with the brick, tightly adhering, and resisting any attempt at removal without destruction of the metal case.

By reducing the volume of a given geometric shape without substantially changing the perimeter of the crosssection from that of the original shape, it is possible to control the density of the final brick within close limits, and to achieve a very high density in the brick.

The design of the internal plates in the brick can be varied, and the internal plates also are an integral part of the brick.

As indicated, the metal casings and spacers are usually made of low carbon steel, although they can be any ordinary metal or alloy, preferably one which is oxidizable at the temperature encountered in the installation. Stainless steel can also be used.

The brick mix used is preferably a basic refractory type such as dead burned magnesite or chrome ore or mixtures of chrome ore and magnesia. Any suitable basic refractory mix may be used.

A binder should be utilized in the brick mix to enable the brick to hold together without kihi firing. Binders such as dextrin, gum ara'bic, sulphite pitch, magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride, sodium dichroma-te, sodium silicate, etc. are suitable in amounts up to about by weight of the brick A further variation of this invention is to use a hollow geometric shape, the perimeter of whose cross-section is only slightly smaller than the perimeter of the cross-section of the final brick form or shape. If a sufiicient amount of refractory mix is retained in the hollow geometric shape, the final brick-forming operation will act to stretch the met-a1 slightly, resulting in the placement of a residual tensile stress in the metal after the brick is formed, thus providing a more tightly adhering metal case. The perimeter of the final brick is still substantially the same as the perimeter of the hollow geometric shape. The cross-sectional area and the volume of the brick are still reduced from that of the original geometric shape.

This invention is intended to cover all changes and modifications of the examples of the invention herein chosen for purposes of the disclosure, which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. A method of making a metal cased refractory brick adapted to resist the destructive effects of heat consisting of the steps of forming a tubular geometrical shape having a single longitudinal seam, open ends, continuous sides and an established perimeter from a flat sheet of oxidizable metal, temporarily closing one end of the tubular shape to effectively prevent loss of refractory material during the subsequent filling operation, filling the tubular geometrical shape with a basic refractory mix through an open end thereof, vibrating said metal shape along its length to partially compact the refractory mix within the shape to a sufficient extent to cause it to be self-supporting therein, placing the filled tube into a mold housing side and end walls of the final desired form and in a single compression step applying pressure to the outer surface of said metal shape along its length in a direction perpendicular to the direction of vibration and forming the refractory filled geometrical shape into a metal cased refractory brick having only one fabrication scam in the casing and having uncased ends, said brick being of susbtantially the same perimeter as and of a smaller cross-sectional area and smaller volume than the original geometric shape, said refractory brick having uncased ends and a tightly packed body with a. smooth continuous metal casing integrally associated therewith.

2. A method of making a metal cased refractory brick adapted to resist the destructive effects of heat consisting of the steps of forming a tubular geometrical shape having a single longitudinal seam, open ends, continuous sides and an established perimeter from a flat sheet of oxidizable metal, placing a spacer plate within the tubular geometrical shape through an open end thereof, temporarily closing one end of the tubular shape to effectively prevent loss of refractory material during the subsequent filling operation, filling the tubular geometrical shape with a basic refractory mix through an open end thereof, vibrating said metal shape along its length to partially compact the refractory miX Within the shape to a sufficient extent to cause it to be self-supporting therein, placing the filled tube into a mold housing side and end walls of the final desired form and in a single compression step applying pressure to the outer surface of said metal shape along its length in a direction perpendicular to the direction of vibration and forming the refractory filled geometriacl shape into a metal cased refractory brick having only one fabrication scam in the casing and having uncased ends, said brick being of substantially the same perimeter as and of a smaller cross-sectional area and smaller volume than the original geometric shape, said refractory brick having uncased ends and a tightly packed body with a smooth continuous metal casing integrally associated therewith.

3. The method defined in claim 2 wherein said spacer has a shape.

4. The method defined in claim 2 wherein said spacer has an X shape.

5. The method defined in claim 2 wherein said spacer is corrugated and has an S shape.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,406,542 Crocker 'Feb. 14, 1922 1,571,087 Jackson Mar. 18, 1930 1,760,861 Parker May 27, 1930 1,846,290 Walter Feb. 23, 1932 2,216,813 Goldschmidt Oct. 8, 1940 2,247,376 Heuer July 1, 1941 2,622,314 Bergan Dec. 23, 1952 2,673,373 Heuer Mar. 30, 1954 2,747,231 Reinhardt May 29, 1956 2,759,256 Bergan Aug. 21, 1956 2,791,116 Heuer May 7, 1957

Claims (1)

1. A METHOD OF MAKING A METAL CASED REFRACTORY BRICK ADAPTED TO RESIST THE DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS OF HEAT CONSISTING OF THE STEPS OF FORMING A TUBULAR GEOMETRICAL SHAPE HAVING A SINGLE LONGITUDINAL SEAM, OPEN ENDS, CONTINUOUS SIDES AND AN ESTABLISHED PERMETER FROM A FLAT SHEET OF OXIDIZABLE METAL, TEMPORARILY CLOSING ONE END OF THE TUBULAR SSHAPE TO EFFECTIVELY PREVENT LOSS OF REFRACTORY MATERIAL DURING THE SUSEQUENT FILLING OPERATION, FILLING THE TUBULAR GEOMETRICAL SHAPE WITH A BASIC REFRACTORY MIX THROUGH AN OPEN END THEREOF, VIBRATION SAID METAL SHAPE ALONG ITS LENGTH TO PARTIALLY COMPACT THE REFRACTORY MIX WITHIN THE SHAPE TO A SUFFICIENT EXTENT TO CAUSE IT TO BE SELF-SUPPORTING THEREIN, PLACING THE FILLED DESIRED INTO A MOLD HOUSING SIDE AND END WALLS OF THE FINAL DESIRED FORM AND IN A SINGLE COMPRESSION STEP APPLYING PRESSURE TO THE OUTER SURFACE OF SAID METAL SHAPE ALONG ITS LENGTH IN A DIRECTION PERPENDICULAR TO THE DIRECTION OF VIBRATION AND FORMING THE FERACTORY FILLED GEOMETRICAL SHAPE INTO A METAL CASED REFRRACTORY BRICK HAVING ONLY ONE FABRICATION SEAM IN THE CASINGAS AND HAVING UNCEASED ENDS, SAID BRICK BEING OF SUBSTANTIALLY THE SSAME PERMETER AS END OF A SMALLER CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA AND SMALLER VOLUME THAN THE ORIGINAL ENDS AND A TIGHTLY PACKETS BODY WITH A SMOOTH CONCESED ENDS AND A TIGHTLY PACKETS BODY WITH A SMOOTH CONTINUOUS METAL CASING INTEGRALLY ASSOCIATED THEREWITH.
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DEA34316A DE1186389B (en) 1959-07-24 1960-03-25 of the same metal-coated refractory brick and methods for preparing
BE589305A BE589305A (en) 1959-07-24 1960-04-01 Improvements to firebrick.

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US3390505A (en) * 1966-11-28 1968-07-02 Corning Glass Works Refractory housing
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US3952402A (en) * 1971-02-02 1976-04-27 Mero Ag Composite structural panel and process of making
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US20100050552A1 (en) * 2007-04-02 2010-03-04 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Methods and apparatus for providing linings on concrete structures
US20100251657A1 (en) * 2007-11-09 2010-10-07 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. A Corporation Pivotally activated connector components for form-work systems and methods for use of same
US20100325984A1 (en) * 2008-01-21 2010-12-30 Richardson George David Stay-in-place form systems for form-work edges, windows and other building openings
US20110123801A1 (en) * 2009-11-24 2011-05-26 Valenciano Philip F Intumescent rod
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US20120175810A1 (en) * 2011-01-07 2012-07-12 Confluent Surgical, Inc. Drug Delivery Implants, Systems And Methods For Making
US8578672B2 (en) 2010-08-02 2013-11-12 Tremco Incorporated Intumescent backer rod
US8793953B2 (en) 2009-02-18 2014-08-05 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Clip-on connection system for stay-in-place form-work
US9206614B2 (en) 2011-11-24 2015-12-08 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Stay-in-place formwork with engaging and abutting connections
US9273479B2 (en) 2009-01-07 2016-03-01 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Methods and apparatus for restoring, repairing, reinforcing and/or protecting structures using concrete
US9315987B2 (en) 2012-01-05 2016-04-19 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Systems for restoring, repairing, reinforcing, protecting, insulating and/or cladding structures with locatable stand-off components
US9441365B2 (en) 2011-11-24 2016-09-13 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Stay-in-place formwork with anti-deformation panels
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US9783991B2 (en) 2013-12-06 2017-10-10 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Structure cladding trim components and methods for fabrication and use of same
US9982444B2 (en) 2014-04-04 2018-05-29 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Liquid and gas-impermeable connections for panels of stay-in-place form-work systems
US10022825B2 (en) 2010-07-06 2018-07-17 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Method for restoring, repairing, reinforcing, protecting, insulating and/or cladding a variety of structures
US10151119B2 (en) 2012-01-05 2018-12-11 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Tool for making panel-to-panel connections for stay-in-place liners used to repair structures and methods for using same
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US9315987B2 (en) 2012-01-05 2016-04-19 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Systems for restoring, repairing, reinforcing, protecting, insulating and/or cladding structures with locatable stand-off components
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US9783991B2 (en) 2013-12-06 2017-10-10 Cfs Concrete Forming Systems Inc. Structure cladding trim components and methods for fabrication and use of same
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BE589305A (en) 1960-10-03
DE1186389B (en) 1965-01-28

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