US3034628A - Pneumatic keyboard - Google Patents

Pneumatic keyboard Download PDF

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Publication number
US3034628A
US3034628A US66062A US6606260A US3034628A US 3034628 A US3034628 A US 3034628A US 66062 A US66062 A US 66062A US 6606260 A US6606260 A US 6606260A US 3034628 A US3034628 A US 3034628A
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United States
Prior art keywords
fluid
keyboard
key
amplifier
means
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Expired - Lifetime
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US66062A
Inventor
Walter G Wadey
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Sperry Corp
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Sperry Corp
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Publication date
Application filed by Sperry Corp filed Critical Sperry Corp
Priority to US66062A priority Critical patent/US3034628A/en
Priority claimed from FR877398A external-priority patent/FR1304650A/en
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Publication of US3034628A publication Critical patent/US3034628A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15CFLUID-CIRCUIT ELEMENTS PREDOMINANTLY USED FOR COMPUTING OR CONTROL PURPOSES
    • F15C1/00Circuit elements having no moving parts
    • F15C1/02Details, e.g. special constructional devices for circuits with fluid elements, such as resistances, capacitive circuit elements; devices preventing reaction coupling in composite elements ; Switch boards; Programme devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J23/00Power drives for actions or mechanisms
    • B41J23/20Fluid-pressure power drives
    • B41J23/22Fluid-pressure power drives for key or like type selection
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J5/00Devices or arrangements for controlling character selection
    • B41J5/08Character or syllable selected by means of keys or keyboards of the typewriter type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B13/00Details of servomotor systems ; Valves for servomotor systems
    • F15B13/02Fluid distribution or supply devices characterised by their adaptation to the control of servomotors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15CFLUID-CIRCUIT ELEMENTS PREDOMINANTLY USED FOR COMPUTING OR CONTROL PURPOSES
    • F15C1/00Circuit elements having no moving parts
    • F15C1/001Circuit elements having no moving parts for punched-card machines ; for typewriters ; for keyboards; for conveying cards or tape; for conveying through tubes ; for computers ; for dc-ac transducers for information processing ; for signal transmission
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15CFLUID-CIRCUIT ELEMENTS PREDOMINANTLY USED FOR COMPUTING OR CONTROL PURPOSES
    • F15C1/00Circuit elements having no moving parts
    • F15C1/02Details, e.g. special constructional devices for circuits with fluid elements, such as resistances, capacitive circuit elements; devices preventing reaction coupling in composite elements ; Switch boards; Programme devices
    • F15C1/04Means for controlling fluid streams to fluid devices, e.g. by electric signals or other signals, no mixing taking place between the signal and the flow to be controlled
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/206Flow affected by fluid contact, energy field or coanda effect [e.g., pure fluid device or system]
    • Y10T137/218Means to regulate or vary operation of device
    • Y10T137/2202By movable element
    • Y10T137/2218Means [e.g., valve] in control input

Description

May 15, 1962 w. G. WADEY PNEUMATIC KEYBOARD Filed Oct. 51, 1960 REGULATOR COMPRESSOR REGULATOR INVENTOR WALTER G. WADEY ATTORNEY Unite grates Filed Oct. 31, 1960, Ser. No. 66,062 10 Claims. (Cl. 197-15) The present invention relates to manual input devices for data processing systems. More particularly, the present invention relates to pneumatically operated keyboard devices for manually inserting data into fluid operated data processing systems. The invention provides a keyboard input device which requires no intermediate transducer for converting the mechanical energy of the human operator into fluid signals suitable for use in the data processing system.

The advent of the fluid amplifier has led to the development of data processing and control systems wherein the processing and control functions are carried out by elements which operate entirely on fluid principles. That is, these systems contain no moving parts other than the working fluid which flows through the system. These systems are defined as pure fluid systems to distinguish them from fluid-actuated systems wherein the Working fluid operates moving or mechanical parts.

Keyboard input devices of the prior art have been of the fluid-actuated type. In these devices, the fluid signals received from a keyboard actuate pistons or other mechanical elements, to perform the Work functions. Because of the mass of mechanical elements, these devices are limited in their speed of operation. Also, because of the mechanical elements, these devices are subject to wear thus decreasing reliability and increasing maintenance costs.

Therefore, an object of the present invention is to provide a pure fluid system for inserting information into a fluid data processing device.

Alternatively, an object of the present invention is to provide a keyboard device for inserting data signals into a fluid data processing device, said keyboard having no moving parts.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a pneumatic keyboard input device for a fluid system, said keyboard input device producing, without the aid of an intermediate transducer, signals of the type used in said fluid system.

Further objects of the present invention and its mode of operation will become apparent upon consideration of the following description and drawings in which:

FIGURE 1 is a view, partly in section, of a keyboard according to the present invention;

FIGURE 2 is a modification of FIGURE 1 wherein the keys are depressable; and,

FIGURE 3 illustrates one manner in which foreign particles may be prevented from entering the fluid system.

FIGURE 1 is a sectional view showing a single key of the type normally found on typewriter, keypunch and adding machine keyboards. For the sake of clarity, a single key and its associated mechanism are shown, but it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that a plurality of key mechanisms may be provided on a single keyboard, the number of keys and their arrangement being determined by style and design considerations.

In a prefrered embodiment, the keyboard '1 contains a fluid chamber 3 and a fluid amplifier 5 for each of the keys 7. A tube or fluid passageway 9 extends through the keyboard and keystem and terminates at one end as an opening in the chamber 3. The other end of passageway 9 terminates at an orifice 11 in the surface of the key. A second passageway 13 connects with the chamber 3 and 3,034,628 Patented May 15, 1962 ice is connected to serve as the control signal input for the fluid amplifier.

A fluid source such as compressor .15 supplies fluid to the chamber 3 through passageway 17, and supplies fluid to the power stream input of the fluid amplifier 5 through passageway 19. The fluid pressure in passageways 17 and '19 is suitably regulated by pressure regulators 21 and 23 respectively.

The pneumatic keyboard of FIGURE 1 operates as follows. The working fluid, preferably air, is constantly applied through passageway 17 to chamber 3. The fluid is applied at a substantially constant pressure under the control of pressure regulator 21. When no keying is taking place, the fluid in the chamber flows through passageway 9 and passes out of the system into the surrounding atmosphere through orifice 11 in the key.

When the operator presses a finger against the key, orifice 11 is blocked. This, of course, blocks or materially reduces fluid flow through passageway 9 and causes an increase in the fluid pressure within the passageway. The increase in fluid pressure is reflected back through the chamber and is applied to the fluid amplifier over control signal input passageway 13.

Fluid amplifier 5 is a bistable device which may operate on the boundary layer principle as described in the June, 1960 issue of Science and Mechanics. In the normal state, the jet stream issuing from tube 1& is locked against the left wall of the amplifier chamber and flows out the left conduit 25. The conduit 25 may be returned to the low pressure side of the fluid system or, if desired, the conduit 25 may be connected to the control system to give a positive signal indication that the key has not been operated.

An increase in pressure in the control signal input tube 13, resulting from the orifice 11 being closed, causes dissipation of the low pressure region and boundary layer along the left wall of the amplifier. As a result, the jet stream issuing from tube 19 switches to the right output conduit 27 and locks on to the right wall of the amplifier. The signal issuing from conduit 27 may be used to perform some work function such as entering into a storage register a data character corresponding to the actuated key. Alternatively, the signal on conduit 27 may control the printing or punching of a record medium with a symbol corresponding to the actuated key.

The amplifier is provided with a second control signal input 29 for resetting the amplifier to its normal state after the work function has been performed. It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that if a plurality of keys and amplifiers are provided, the reset signal may be applied (by mechanism not shown) to reset all amplifiers simultaneously. Thus, the present keyboard mechanism is admirably suited for parallel entry of information into a storage register. Also the keyboard mechanism itself has the capacity to store information signals, these signals being stored from the time a key is depressed until the reset signal is applied to the amplifier.

In FIGURE 1, the key 7 may be stationary and formed as an integral part of the keyboard.

FIGURE 2 shows an arrangement whereby the key 7 may be depressed in order to give the operator the familiar feel of a mechanical keyboard. The keyboard frame is provided with a plurality of holes, each hole being large enough for the keystem 8 to slide freely without wobbling. The keystem slides up and down within the frame of the keyboard. A compression spring 31 normally holds the key in the upward position. When the operator places a finger on the key, the force exerted on the key depresses the spring. Upon removal of the finger, the spring returns the key to its normal position.

A fluid passageway extends through the key and terminates at orifice 11 in the upper surface of the key. The bottom of the keystem is formed with a pipe-like projection 33 surrounding the lower portion of the passageway. A flexible hollow tube 9' is aflixed to the projection, the other end of the flexible tube being connected to a chamber 3. In the arrangement of FIGURE 2, the chamber 3 and fluid amplifier 5 comprise separate bodies and are not formed within the body of the keyboard as in the embodiment of FIGURE 1.

The orifices 11 may tend to become clogged with foreign matter if not protected. As shown in FIGURE 3, foreign matter may be prevented from entering the orifices by providing each key with a cover or flap 35 connected to the key by means of a hinge 37. A compression spring 39 is attached at its lower end to the bottom of a hole 411 bored in the upper surface of the key. In its normal position, the flap rests against the compression spring thus leaving an opening between the flap and the face of the key through which the fluid may pass.

When the operator applies pressure to the flap, the spring is compressed into the hole $1. This permits the flap to lie flat against the face of the key thus sealing the orifice 1 1 and producing a back-pressure in the manner described above.

As discussed in the aforementioned publication, fluid amplifiers may comprise grooves or channels stamped or formed in a flat plate of plastic, metal or other material. The stamped plate is then placed between solid plates to form a laminated structure having channels therein. This method of construction is admirably suited for fabrication of a keyboard as shown in FIGURE '1 wherein the fluid amplifier 5, chamber 3 and the tubes-9, 17 and 13 comprise fluid channels and chambers Within a substantially solid keyboard 1.

Variations in the form and detail of the devices illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invent-ion.

For example, the bistable fluid amplifier 5 may be replaced with a push-pull fluid amplifier of the type described in the aforementioned publication. In this case, the signal applied to control signal input 29 will be a continuous signal which balances the signal on control signal input 13 when the orifice '11 is open. With this arrangement, no reset signal is required and the amplifier has no storage or memory ability.

It is intended therefore to be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

l. A keyboard mechanism comprising: a fluid amplifier having a control signal input; a fluid chamber connected to said control signal input; a key having an opening in the face thereof; fluid conducting means connected to said fluid chamber and terminating at the opening in said key; and means for applying fluid under pressure to said fluid chamber.

2. A keyboard mechanism as claimed in claim 1 wherein said fluid conducting means comprises a passageway extending through said key and a flexible hollow tube connected to said passageway and said chamber.

3. A keyboard mechanism as claimed in claim 1 wherein said fluid amplifier is a bistable fluid amplifier having a further control signal input to which reset signals may be applied.

4. A keyboard mechanism comprising: key means having exhaust means therein; a pressure regulated source of fluid; fluid amplifier means; and means connected to said source of fluid for exhausting fluid through said exhaust means when said exhaust means is open, and for applying fluid signals to said amplifier means when said exhaust means is blocked.

5. In a keyboard of the type wherein each key has a port for exhausting fluid, the improvement comprising-2 a fluid amplifier; a source of fluid; and means for conveying said fluid to said port, said means applying fluid signals to said amplifier When said port is blocked.

6. The device as claimed in claim 5, and further comprising a protective flap for blocking said port.

7. In combination: a keyboard having a plurality of ports in the surface thereof; a plurality of fluid amplifiers;

a source of fluid; means for exhausting said fluid through said ports; and means connected to said amplifiers and said ports for applying fluid pressure signals to said amplifiers when said ports are blocked.

8. A keyboard device comprising a unitary body having a plurality of chambers, fluid passageways and fluid amplifiers therein, each of said passageways terminating at one end at a port in the surface of said body and terminating at the other end at a port in one of said chambers, said chambers being connected to said fluid amplifiers to apply control signals thereto; and a second plurality of fluid passageways for applying fluid to said chambers.

9. In a pneumatic keyboard of the type wherein each key has a port in the surface thereof, the improvement comprising a protective device for preventing foreign matter from entering said port, said protective device comprising a flap disposed adjacent the surface containing said port, and hingemeans attached to said flap and said key, the surface of said flap adjacent to said port beingcontoured to close said port when said flap is depressed.

10. A mechanism comprising: exhaust means, fluid amplifier means; a source of fluid; and fluid conducting means connecting said source of fluid to said exhaust means and said amplifier means.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 659,703 Soblik Oct. 16, 1900 Notice of Adverse Decision in Interference In Interference No. 93,471 involvin PNEUMATIC KEYBOARD, fi

nal judgment adverse to the patentee was rendered Nov. 29, 1965, as to clanns 1, 4 5, 7 and 10.

[Oficial Gazette Ju/ne 28, 1966i g Patent No. 3,034,628, W. G. Wadey,

US66062A 1960-10-31 1960-10-31 Pneumatic keyboard Expired - Lifetime US3034628A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US66062A US3034628A (en) 1960-10-31 1960-10-31 Pneumatic keyboard

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
NL270860D NL270860A (en) 1960-10-31
US66062A US3034628A (en) 1960-10-31 1960-10-31 Pneumatic keyboard
GB3651961A GB950343A (en) 1960-10-31 1961-10-11 Pneumatic keyboard
DE1961S0076322 DE1220644C2 (en) 1960-10-31 1961-10-19
CH1254461A CH396474A (en) 1960-10-31 1961-10-27 Apparatus entry keyboard with working fluid for machines for the processing of data
FR877398A FR1304650A (en) 1960-10-31 1961-10-30 pneumatic keyboard

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US3034628A true US3034628A (en) 1962-05-15

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US66062A Expired - Lifetime US3034628A (en) 1960-10-31 1960-10-31 Pneumatic keyboard

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CH (1) CH396474A (en)
DE (1) DE1220644C2 (en)
GB (1) GB950343A (en)
NL (1) NL270860A (en)

Cited By (56)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3220428A (en) * 1963-01-09 1965-11-30 Gen Electric Fluid control devices
US3226530A (en) * 1962-06-05 1965-12-28 Ibm Fluid controlled device
US3239150A (en) * 1961-11-29 1966-03-08 Continental Aviat & Eng Corp Thrust vector control
US3249302A (en) * 1963-01-21 1966-05-03 Romald E Bowles Visual readout device
US3266513A (en) * 1964-03-02 1966-08-16 Ibm Switching arrangements for fluid amplifiers
US3307675A (en) * 1964-04-21 1967-03-07 Siemens Ag Fluid operated apparatus for printing binary-coded information
US3315775A (en) * 1965-08-27 1967-04-25 Sperry Rand Corp Fluid actuated typewriter
US3350008A (en) * 1966-03-28 1967-10-31 Gen Electric Fluid amplifier shift register circuit
US3380827A (en) * 1962-08-24 1968-04-30 Bowles Eng Corp Optical maching process
US3472225A (en) * 1963-11-18 1969-10-14 Cavitron Corp Fluid inverter
US3495609A (en) * 1967-07-03 1970-02-17 Us Army Fluid induction amplifier
US3603983A (en) * 1969-07-23 1971-09-07 Northern Electric Co Mechanical-electrical code generating device employing fluid switching
US3633619A (en) * 1969-04-01 1972-01-11 Corning Glass Works Bernoulli effect fluid pressure convertor, switch, amplifier and the like
US3784153A (en) * 1971-04-15 1974-01-08 Loewy Robertson Eng Co Ltd Rolling mill roll coolant control
US4128345A (en) * 1975-03-28 1978-12-05 Universal Technology, Inc. Fluid impulse matrix printer
US4713896A (en) * 1981-04-10 1987-12-22 Jennens Eric G Inshore submersible amphibious machines
WO2006000749A1 (en) * 2004-06-28 2006-01-05 Sensitivity Limited Actuation apparatus
US20090174673A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2009-07-09 Ciesla Craig M System and methods for raised touch screens
US20090174687A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2009-07-09 Craig Michael Ciesla User Interface System
CN100517183C (en) 2004-06-28 2009-07-22 J.P.霍兰德 Actuation apparatus
US20100103137A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2010-04-29 Craig Michael Ciesla User interface system and method
US20100171720A1 (en) * 2009-01-05 2010-07-08 Ciesla Michael Craig User interface system
WO2010078597A1 (en) * 2009-01-05 2010-07-08 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US20110012851A1 (en) * 2009-07-03 2011-01-20 Craig Michael Ciesla User Interface Enhancement System
US20110148793A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2011-06-23 Craig Michael Ciesla User Interface System
US20110157080A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2011-06-30 Craig Michael Ciesla User Interface System
US8456438B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2013-06-04 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US8553005B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2013-10-08 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US8570295B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2013-10-29 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US8587541B2 (en) 2010-04-19 2013-11-19 Tactus Technology, Inc. Method for actuating a tactile interface layer
US8587548B2 (en) 2009-07-03 2013-11-19 Tactus Technology, Inc. Method for adjusting the user interface of a device
US8619035B2 (en) 2010-02-10 2013-12-31 Tactus Technology, Inc. Method for assisting user input to a device
US8922510B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2014-12-30 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US8947383B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2015-02-03 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system and method
US9013417B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2015-04-21 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
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US9052790B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2015-06-09 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface and methods
US9063627B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2015-06-23 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface and methods
US9128525B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2015-09-08 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
US9239623B2 (en) 2010-01-05 2016-01-19 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
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US9280224B2 (en) 2012-09-24 2016-03-08 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface and methods
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US9367132B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2016-06-14 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US9372565B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2016-06-21 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
US9405417B2 (en) 2012-09-24 2016-08-02 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface and methods
US9423875B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2016-08-23 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface with exhibiting optical dispersion characteristics
US9552065B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-01-24 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
US9557915B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-01-31 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
US9557813B2 (en) 2013-06-28 2017-01-31 Tactus Technology, Inc. Method for reducing perceived optical distortion
US9588684B2 (en) 2009-01-05 2017-03-07 Tactus Technology, Inc. Tactile interface for a computing device
US9588683B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-03-07 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
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US9619030B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-04-11 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system and method
US9720501B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-08-01 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
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Cited By (83)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3239150A (en) * 1961-11-29 1966-03-08 Continental Aviat & Eng Corp Thrust vector control
US3226530A (en) * 1962-06-05 1965-12-28 Ibm Fluid controlled device
US3380827A (en) * 1962-08-24 1968-04-30 Bowles Eng Corp Optical maching process
US3220428A (en) * 1963-01-09 1965-11-30 Gen Electric Fluid control devices
US3249302A (en) * 1963-01-21 1966-05-03 Romald E Bowles Visual readout device
US3472225A (en) * 1963-11-18 1969-10-14 Cavitron Corp Fluid inverter
US3266513A (en) * 1964-03-02 1966-08-16 Ibm Switching arrangements for fluid amplifiers
US3307675A (en) * 1964-04-21 1967-03-07 Siemens Ag Fluid operated apparatus for printing binary-coded information
US3315775A (en) * 1965-08-27 1967-04-25 Sperry Rand Corp Fluid actuated typewriter
US3350008A (en) * 1966-03-28 1967-10-31 Gen Electric Fluid amplifier shift register circuit
US3495609A (en) * 1967-07-03 1970-02-17 Us Army Fluid induction amplifier
US3633619A (en) * 1969-04-01 1972-01-11 Corning Glass Works Bernoulli effect fluid pressure convertor, switch, amplifier and the like
US3603983A (en) * 1969-07-23 1971-09-07 Northern Electric Co Mechanical-electrical code generating device employing fluid switching
US3784153A (en) * 1971-04-15 1974-01-08 Loewy Robertson Eng Co Ltd Rolling mill roll coolant control
US4128345A (en) * 1975-03-28 1978-12-05 Universal Technology, Inc. Fluid impulse matrix printer
US4713896A (en) * 1981-04-10 1987-12-22 Jennens Eric G Inshore submersible amphibious machines
WO2006000749A1 (en) * 2004-06-28 2006-01-05 Sensitivity Limited Actuation apparatus
US20080068224A1 (en) * 2004-06-28 2008-03-20 Sensitivity Limited Actuation Apparatus
CN100517183C (en) 2004-06-28 2009-07-22 J.P.霍兰德 Actuation apparatus
US9063627B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2015-06-23 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface and methods
US20090174687A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2009-07-09 Craig Michael Ciesla User Interface System
US20100103137A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2010-04-29 Craig Michael Ciesla User interface system and method
US9720501B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-08-01 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
US9626059B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-04-18 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US9619030B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-04-11 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system and method
US9612659B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-04-04 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US20110148793A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2011-06-23 Craig Michael Ciesla User Interface System
US20110157080A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2011-06-30 Craig Michael Ciesla User Interface System
US8154527B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2012-04-10 Tactus Technology User interface system
US8179375B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2012-05-15 Tactus Technology User interface system and method
US9588683B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-03-07 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
US20090174673A1 (en) * 2008-01-04 2009-07-09 Ciesla Craig M System and methods for raised touch screens
US9557915B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-01-31 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
US8456438B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2013-06-04 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US8547339B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2013-10-01 Tactus Technology, Inc. System and methods for raised touch screens
US8553005B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2013-10-08 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US8570295B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2013-10-29 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system
US9552065B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2017-01-24 Tactus Technology, Inc. Dynamic tactile interface
US9524025B2 (en) 2008-01-04 2016-12-20 Tactus Technology, Inc. User interface system and method
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DE1220644C2 (en) 1976-06-24
CH396474A (en) 1965-07-31
DE1220644B (en) 1966-07-07
GB950343A (en) 1964-02-26
NL270860A (en) 1900-01-01

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