US3022813A - Method of making bonded non-woven fabric from textile fibers - Google Patents

Method of making bonded non-woven fabric from textile fibers Download PDF

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US3022813A
US3022813A US75073058A US3022813A US 3022813 A US3022813 A US 3022813A US 75073058 A US75073058 A US 75073058A US 3022813 A US3022813 A US 3022813A
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layers
assembly
sliver
silver
web
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Glover Benjamin Marshall
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Glover Benjamin Marshall
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/42Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties characterised by the use of certain kinds of fibres insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece
    • D04H1/4266Natural fibres not provided for in group D04H1/425
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/42Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties characterised by the use of certain kinds of fibres insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece
    • D04H1/425Cellulose series
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/44Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling
    • D04H1/46Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibres
    • D04H1/48Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibres in combination with at least one other method of consolidation
    • D04H1/488Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibres in combination with at least one other method of consolidation in combination with bonding agents
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T156/00Adhesive bonding and miscellaneous chemical manufacture
    • Y10T156/10Methods of surface bonding and/or assembly therefor
    • Y10T156/1002Methods of surface bonding and/or assembly therefor with permanent bending or reshaping or surface deformation of self sustaining lamina
    • Y10T156/1007Running or continuous length work
    • Y10T156/1015Folding

Description

Feb. 27, 1962 B. M. GLOVER 3,022,813- METHOD MAKI NG BONDED NON-WOVEN FAB FROM TEXTILE FIBERS Filed. July 24, 1958 t 5 M I? i y 4 4x w'ehvar iajlumm ll 1J4 Glor 57 im/Jug A fl-owre United States Patent 3,022,813 METHOD OF MAKING BONDED NON=WOVEN FABRIC FROM TEXTILE FIBERS" Benjamin Marshall Glover, Ashgarth, Bruntcliife Road, Morley, near Leeds, England Filed July 24, 1953, Scr. No. 750,730 Claims priority, application Great Britain July 25, 1957 2 Claims. (Cl. 156-148) In the normal course of production of many types of textile materials made of wool, cotton or any kind of hair or fibrous material or of any combination of such materials, it is common practice topass such material at an early stage in its preparation through a scribbling machine or random webber from which the fibrous material finally emerges in the form of a very thin web of such material, in many cases little thicker than a spiders web, and extending to the full width of the machine.

This web or layer of loose hairs or fibers is continuous and can, if so desired, by the use of a folding device such as a Blamires Feed or similar means, be built up by laying one layer upon another to any desired thickness, and if, as in the case of the Blamires Feed, the platform upon which the build-up takes place is composed of an endless lattice which is caused to rotate slowly in a direction away from the machine the built-up layers or sliver, as it is by this time known, can be of any desired length.

One object of this invention is to produce a non-woven fabric in which a number of web-like layers of fibres are bonded together with their fibres well intermingled but wherein the nature of the resultant fabric can be varied in its physical characteristics by suitably controlling a number of factors involved in the process of production.

In particular it is an object of the invention to produce such a fabric by a process which enables the built-up layers of the sliver to be well bonded together by means of displaced fibers as well as by partial impregnation of the sliver with a bonding agent of the kind hereinafter referred to whilst excluding this agent from the top and bottom layers of the fabric, thus producing a strongly bonded fabric which can still retain its fibrous or hairy exterior.

In the process used according to the present invention, prior to or during the build-up, just the intermediate layers of loose hairs or fibres are sprayed with a plastic bonding agent and the assembly of built-up layers is faced on both sides with unbonded and unimpregnated outer layers and is passed through a fibre intermingling machine and then subjected to treatment for the purpose of setting, gelling or vulcanizing the bonding agent, according to the nature of the latter. It will therefore be seen that after the intermediate layers are built up by folding and are sprayed with aqueous bonding agent, unbonded and unimpregnated layers of slivers are provided on the opposite faces of the intermediate layers and the assembly is ready for the needling operation.

An aqueous solution of rubber latex would be a suitable bonding material but other thermo-plastic and synthetic materials may be used, for example, that known as Butadiene Acrylonitrile synthetic rubber, such material being well known for the purpose in view and requiring no further description.

As the partially impregnated sliver of built-up layers moves from the point where it is built up it immediately passes through the fibre intermingling machine, a machine which might be compared in action with a multiple needle sewing machine having a head and a foot, the latter compressing the sliver upon a recticulated base plate and both the head and foot being caused to move up and down at high speed, but unlike the sewing machine which makes use of needles, the head in this case holds one or more 3,022,813 Patented Feb. 27, 1962 sewing machine needles, the thickness varying according.

to the strength and density of the hairs or fibres which make up the sliver. They are smooth-sided and without the laterally projecting barbs usually associated with the needles of needle-punching machines, but at the lower extremity of each plunger instead of a single point there is a fork of inverted U, or like shape, each limb of which isbrought to a smooth point. Preferably up opposing sides of the plunger from the base of the inverted U run two longitudinal grooves the function of which is as follows: It will readily be seen that each time the head of the intermingling machine is caused to rise and fall and the plungers pass through the partially impregnated sliver, a number of the horizontally laid fibres contained in the sliver will be caught in the inverted U at the base of each plunger and carried in the grooves up the sides of each plunger through the sliver in a more or less perpendicular position.

In this manner substantially the whole of the hairs or fibres which comprise the different layers originally built up into the laminated sliver are intermingled one with another. Any possibility of delamination, which is not unknown in ordinary bonded fabrics, is completely eliminated and a considerable degree of strength is at the same time added, which in turn allows for a reduction in the quantity of bonding material required as compared to that used in the normal bonded fabrics, which usually relies for its entire strength upon the amount of bonding agent used.

Finally the material is passed through the driers and/ or around heated rollers in order to dry out the moisture in the bonding agent or agents and by doing so causes it to set or gel and thereby hold the intermingled fibres permanently in position. Should natural or synthetic rubber latex be the bonding agent used, a vulcanizing chamber would be brought into operation at this stage.

By the use of this process a very considerable range of fabrics can be produced, varying from thick board-like or thin paper-like fabrics, to soft handling fleecy, blanket type materials, such variations being brought about by the type of material used in the sliver, the thickness of the sliver, the amounts of bonding agent used, the speed of the intermingler and finally the pressure applied, in the first place by the foot of the intermingler and later during the final drying out of the moisture contents of the bonding agent.

In order that the invention may be more clearly understood and readily carried into effect the same will now be more fully described with reference to and by the aid of the accompanying drawings, which illustrate in a purely diagrammatic form the process according to the invention and a suitable means for carrying it into effect. In such drawings:

FIGURE 1 illustrates how the web of fibres can be layered by a folding device, sprayed with the bonding agent, passed through an intermingling machine, and then treated to dry and set the bonding agent.

FIGURES 2 and 3 are detail views of one of the plungers used in the intermingling machine. FIGURE 3 being a section taken on the line IIIIII in FIGURE 2;

FIGURE 4 is a detail in side elevation of the plungers, presser foot and base plate of the intermingling machine.

Referring to these drawings the web w of fibres coming from the scribbling or other web producing machine (not shown) is laid in layers to produce a sliver s by the lattices of a folding device indicated generally at f of substantially known kind, the lattice f reciprocating lengthwise of the web whilst the lattice f only travels at right angles thereto to carry the sliver of built-up layers to the feed means of the intermingling machineindicated generally at i. "A spray pipe p to whic h the bonding agent (an aqueous solution of rubber. latex) is sup-1 plied in any suitable manner is supported above the web being laid in lattice and is reciprocated with lattice i so as to spray each succeeding layer across the width of the sliver for covering with the unbonded layers of sliver on opposite sides of the sprayed layers. This spraying is thereby so arranged so that no bonding medium is deposited upon the top or bottom layers of the assembled layers.

The intermingling machine i includes a baseplate 1 over which the sliver of built-up and sprayed layers is led, a presser foot 2 spanning the sliver and arranged to be raised and lowered to compress the sliver against the base plate, and a head 3 carrying a series of plungers 4. These plungers are closely spaced and span the sliver, two rows being indicated with those in one row staggered relative to those in the other row to give efiective coverage of the whole width of the sliver. The presser foot and the base plate are both perforated with holes 2* and 1 respectively to allow the plungers to pass through.

One of the plungers or needles 4 is shown in FIG- URES 2 and 3 and consists of a thin rod with its lower end shaped to an inverted U and well rounded on all edges so as to be capable of engaging fibres and carrying portions of them down through lower layers of the sliver smoothly to produce the intermingling of the fibres. Longitudinal grooves 4 in the smooth sides of the plunger accommodate the fibres when being pushed down and so reduce the openings punched in the sliver to the size of the plungers, these openings closing as the plungers are withdrawn. As there are no barbs or other projections on the sides of the plungers their withdrawal does not disturb the already intermingled fibres.

Any suitable means may be used for supporting and operating the reciprocating head and presser foot but these two members will be actuated in timed relationship to one another so that the plungers pass down into the sliver before the foot compresses it and so that they withdraw from the sliver before the foot rises so that the foot prevents the sliver from being lifted and disturbed. The action of the plungers is so rapid (e.g. a thousand strokes a minute) that the sliver can move continuously through the intermingling machine.

The fabric is then dried by being passed around a series of heated cylinders indicated generally at d and is then passed through a vulcanizing apparatus indicated generally at v to complete the treatment. In some cases the drying stage may not be necessary where vulcanizing is carried out, and in others vulcanizing will not be necessary where the bonding agent is not rubber or its substitute.

I claim:

1. A method of manufacturing a bonded, non-woven assembly of layers of textile fibers to form a unitary, multiply non-woven fabric having a fibrous hairy exterior on both outer surfaces, comprising forming a continuous web of sliver from said textile fibers, folding said web on itself by alternating movement to build up a plurality of sliver layers, constituting the intermediate layers of said assembly, spraying the layers forming the intermediate layers during said folding step with a bonding agent, facing the opposite sides of said intermediate layers with a web formed of unbonded and unlmpregnated sliver, needling the assembly of outer unbonded facing layers and the intermediate bonded layers with a plurality of smooth sided, thin needles each formed with longitudinal grooves on opposite sides extending to the tip thereof and terminating in an inverted U at the end of the groove at the needle tip, the reciprocating movement of the needles intermingling the horizontally laid fibers in the sliver layers by catching the fibers in the inverted U and carrying them into adjacent layers, and thereafter drying the assembly to set the bonding agent.

2. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein said bonding agent is aqueous rubber latex.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,978,620 Brewster Oct. 30, 1934 2,142,566 Lehman Jan. 3, 1939 2,331,321 Heaton Oct. 12, 1943 2,339,431 Slayter Jan. 18, 1944 2,381,184 Ripley Aug. 7, 1945 2,429,486 Reinhardt Oct. 21, 1947 2,557,668 Lincoln June 19, 1951 2,616,482 Barnes Nov. 4, 1952 2,713,016 Weiss July 12, 1955 2,723,707 Erbe Nov. 15, 1955

Claims (1)

1. A METHOD OF MANUFACTURING A BONDED, NON-WOVEN ASSEMBLY OF LAYERS OF TEXTILE FIBERS TO FORM A UNITARY, MULTIPLY NON-WOVEN FABRIC HAVING A FIBROUS HAIRY EXTERIOR ON BOTH OUTER SURFACES, COMPRISING FORMING A CONTINUOUS WEB OF SILVER FROM SAID TEXTILE FIBERS, FOLDING SAID WEB ON ITSELF BY ALTERNATING MOVEMENT TO BUILD UP A PLURALITY OF SILVER LAYERS, CONSTITUTING THE INTERMEDIATE LAYERS OF SAID ASSEMBLY, SPRAYING THE LAYERS FORMING THE INTERMEDIATE LAYERS DURING SAID FOLDING STEP WITH A BONDING AGENT, FACING THE OPPOSITE SIDES OF SAID INTERMEDIATE LAYERS WITH A WEB FORMED OF UNBONDED AND UNIMPREGNATED SILVER, NEEDLING THE ASSEMBLY OF OUTER UNBONDED FACING LAYERS AND THE INTERMEDIATE BONDED LAYERS WITH A PLURALITY OF SMOOTH SIDED, THIN NEEDLES EACH FORMED WITH LONGITUDINAL GROOVES ON OPPOSITE SIDES EXTENDING TO THE TIP THEREOF AND TERMINATING IN AN INVERTED U AT THE END OF THE GROOVE AT THE NEEDLE TIP, THE RECIPROCATING MOVEMENT OF THE NEEDLES INTERMINGLING THE HORIZONTALLY LAID FIBERS IN THE SILVER LAYERS BY CATCHING THE FIBERS IN THE INVERTED U AND CARRYING THEM INTO ADJACENT LAYERS, AND THEREAFTER DRYING THE ASSEMBLY TO SET THE BONDING AGENT.
US3022813A 1957-07-25 1958-07-24 Method of making bonded non-woven fabric from textile fibers Expired - Lifetime US3022813A (en)

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GB2355157A GB856870A (en) 1960-09-07 1957-07-25 Improvements relating to the manufacture of bonded non-woven fabrics from textile fibres
DEG0030450 1960-09-07

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3201300A (en) * 1961-06-05 1965-08-17 Manfred T Hoffman Porous non-woven laminated fabrics
US3205342A (en) * 1961-09-22 1965-09-07 Fmc Corp Electrically heated fabric structure
US3298080A (en) * 1961-10-04 1967-01-17 Fiberwoven Corp Method of making needled fabric structure
US3312584A (en) * 1962-02-01 1967-04-04 West Point Pepperell Inc Nonwoven fabric and method of manufacturing the same
US3538564A (en) * 1968-04-12 1970-11-10 Union Carbide Corp Method of making a nonwoven fabric
US3579763A (en) * 1966-04-27 1971-05-25 Sommer Sa Method of nonwoven cloth manufacture
US3727276A (en) * 1971-04-06 1973-04-17 E Foster Felting needle
US3729785A (en) * 1967-04-04 1973-05-01 Sommer Sa Soc Textile, web needling device
US3792512A (en) * 1972-03-30 1974-02-19 Singer Co Fork needle
US4035881A (en) * 1974-03-12 1977-07-19 Josef Zocher Method and apparatus for producing non-woven textile product
US4110875A (en) * 1977-05-23 1978-09-05 Foster Needle Company Swaged needle
US4192086A (en) * 1978-09-29 1980-03-11 Scholl, Inc. Deodorizing insole
US4309800A (en) * 1979-08-02 1982-01-12 Foster Needle Co. Felting needle
US4379189A (en) * 1980-12-19 1983-04-05 Phillips Petroleum Company Nonwoven textile fabric with fused face and raised loop pile

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4425472C2 (en) * 1994-07-19 2000-07-13 Oesterr Heraklith Gmbh Insulating mat and method for producing a fiber-insulating web

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1978620A (en) * 1931-04-30 1934-10-30 Naugatuck Chem Co Sheet material and method of making the same
US2142566A (en) * 1937-08-13 1939-01-03 Harris Seybold Potter Co Slotter knife
US2331321A (en) * 1941-02-28 1943-10-12 Beckwith Mfg Co Process of making composite fabric
US2339431A (en) * 1942-08-22 1944-01-18 Owenscorning Fiberglas Corp Fibrous glass product
US2381184A (en) * 1943-11-23 1945-08-07 Troy Blanket Mills Reinforced textile fabric and process of making
US2429486A (en) * 1944-12-23 1947-10-21 Bigelow Sanford Carpet Co Inc Punched felt floor covering and process of making the same
US2557668A (en) * 1946-12-03 1951-06-19 Carl E Lincoln Apparatus for fastening materials together
US2616482A (en) * 1948-07-31 1952-11-04 James F Barnes Integration of multiply web pads
US2713016A (en) * 1953-05-05 1955-07-12 Alexander C Weiss Laminated article and method of making same
US2723707A (en) * 1953-06-08 1955-11-15 Textron American Inc Spray apparatus and method for forming impregnated fiber pads

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1978620A (en) * 1931-04-30 1934-10-30 Naugatuck Chem Co Sheet material and method of making the same
US2142566A (en) * 1937-08-13 1939-01-03 Harris Seybold Potter Co Slotter knife
US2331321A (en) * 1941-02-28 1943-10-12 Beckwith Mfg Co Process of making composite fabric
US2339431A (en) * 1942-08-22 1944-01-18 Owenscorning Fiberglas Corp Fibrous glass product
US2381184A (en) * 1943-11-23 1945-08-07 Troy Blanket Mills Reinforced textile fabric and process of making
US2429486A (en) * 1944-12-23 1947-10-21 Bigelow Sanford Carpet Co Inc Punched felt floor covering and process of making the same
US2557668A (en) * 1946-12-03 1951-06-19 Carl E Lincoln Apparatus for fastening materials together
US2616482A (en) * 1948-07-31 1952-11-04 James F Barnes Integration of multiply web pads
US2713016A (en) * 1953-05-05 1955-07-12 Alexander C Weiss Laminated article and method of making same
US2723707A (en) * 1953-06-08 1955-11-15 Textron American Inc Spray apparatus and method for forming impregnated fiber pads

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3201300A (en) * 1961-06-05 1965-08-17 Manfred T Hoffman Porous non-woven laminated fabrics
US3205342A (en) * 1961-09-22 1965-09-07 Fmc Corp Electrically heated fabric structure
US3298080A (en) * 1961-10-04 1967-01-17 Fiberwoven Corp Method of making needled fabric structure
US3312584A (en) * 1962-02-01 1967-04-04 West Point Pepperell Inc Nonwoven fabric and method of manufacturing the same
US3579763A (en) * 1966-04-27 1971-05-25 Sommer Sa Method of nonwoven cloth manufacture
US3729785A (en) * 1967-04-04 1973-05-01 Sommer Sa Soc Textile, web needling device
US3538564A (en) * 1968-04-12 1970-11-10 Union Carbide Corp Method of making a nonwoven fabric
US3727276A (en) * 1971-04-06 1973-04-17 E Foster Felting needle
US3792512A (en) * 1972-03-30 1974-02-19 Singer Co Fork needle
US4035881A (en) * 1974-03-12 1977-07-19 Josef Zocher Method and apparatus for producing non-woven textile product
US4110875A (en) * 1977-05-23 1978-09-05 Foster Needle Company Swaged needle
DE2820958A1 (en) * 1977-05-23 1978-12-07 Edson Perkins Foster Pressured fork needle
US4192086A (en) * 1978-09-29 1980-03-11 Scholl, Inc. Deodorizing insole
US4309800A (en) * 1979-08-02 1982-01-12 Foster Needle Co. Felting needle
US4379189A (en) * 1980-12-19 1983-04-05 Phillips Petroleum Company Nonwoven textile fabric with fused face and raised loop pile

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