US3856602A - Method of producing non-woven textile fiber products having a relief-like structure - Google Patents

Method of producing non-woven textile fiber products having a relief-like structure Download PDF

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US3856602A
US3856602A US00217363A US21736372A US3856602A US 3856602 A US3856602 A US 3856602A US 00217363 A US00217363 A US 00217363A US 21736372 A US21736372 A US 21736372A US 3856602 A US3856602 A US 3856602A
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fibers
batt
retractable
pattern
retraction
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US00217363A
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J Colijn
G Tesch
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Breveteam SA
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Breveteam SA
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B27/00Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin
    • B32B27/12Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin next to a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/02Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by structural features of a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/22Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed
    • B32B5/24Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/245Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer another layer next to it being a foam layer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/22Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed
    • B32B5/24Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/26Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer another layer next to it also being fibrous or filamentary
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B7/00Layered products characterised by the relation between layers; Layered products characterised by the relative orientation of features between layers, or by the relative values of a measurable parameter between layers, i.e. products comprising layers having different physical, chemical or physicochemical properties; Layered products characterised by the interconnection of layers
    • B32B7/04Interconnection of layers
    • B32B7/08Interconnection of layers by mechanical means
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/42Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties characterised by the use of certain kinds of fibres insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece
    • D04H1/4282Addition polymers
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/42Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties characterised by the use of certain kinds of fibres insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece
    • D04H1/4282Addition polymers
    • D04H1/4291Olefin series
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/44Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling
    • D04H1/46Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibres
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/44Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling
    • D04H1/46Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibres
    • D04H1/498Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibres entanglement of layered webs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2305/00Condition, form or state of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2305/38Meshes, lattices or nets
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/70Other properties
    • B32B2307/732Dimensional properties
    • B32B2307/734Dimensional stability
    • B32B2307/736Shrinkable
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/23907Pile or nap type surface or component
    • Y10T428/2395Nap type surface

Abstract

A method of producing non-woven, composite fabrics where at least two distinct layers of fibers, one of highly retractable fibers and the other of non-retractable fibers, are superposed into a composite batt; the batt is pattern-needled from the side of the highly retractable fibers, thereby punching portions of these fibers through the other fiber layer so that they protrude as bristles or loops on the other side; whereupon the entire opposite surface of the batt is needled so that the protruding highly retractable fibers are needled back into the batt forming hooks around some of the non-retractable fibers in the line regions of pattern needling. When this felted batt is now heattreated to induce retraction, the hooks of retracting fibers in the pattern lines contract and close, while the non-retracting fibers in the pattern interstices are laterally compressed and partially raised as a result of the overall area shrinkage on the fabric, thereby creating a three-dimensional boucle-type surface.

Description

1451 Dec. 24, 1974 METHOD OF PRODUCING NON-WOVEN TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS HAVING A RELIEF-LIKE STRUCTURE [75] Inventors: Johannes Jakobus Vincent Colijn;

Gunter Horst Tesch, both of Fribourg, Switzerland [73] Assignee: Breveteam S.A., Fribourg,

Switzerland 22 Filed: Jan. 12, 1972 21 Appl. No.: 217,363

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data Jan. 12, 1971 Switzerland 390/71 [52] US. Cl. 156/148, 28/722 R, 156/62.4, 156/62.6, 156/62.8, 156/85, 161/64,

[51] Int. Cl B32b 3/00 [58] Field of Search 161/62-67, 161/113, 80, 81, 82, 154, 156, 161, 146,

st L 3,243,861 4/1966 Kumin et al. 28/722 R 3,476,636 11/1969 Crosby [61/154 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,131,026 10/1968 Great Britain 28/722 R Primary Examiner-George F. Lesmes Assistant Examiner.lames J. Bell Attorney, Agent, or FirmBac0n & Thomas [57] ABSTRACT A method of producing non-woven, composite fabrics where at least two distinct layers of fibers, one of highly retractable fibers and the other of nonretractable fibers, are superposed into a composite batt; the batt is pattern-needled from the side of the highly retractable fibers, thereby punching portions of these fibers through the other fiber layer so that they protrude as bristles or loops on the other side; whereupon the entire opposite surface of the batt is needled so that the protruding highly retractable fibers are needled back into the batt forming hooks around some of the non-retractable fibers in the line regions of pattern needling. When this felted batt is now heat' treated to induce retraction, the books of retracting fibers in the pattern lines contract and close, while the non-retracting fibers in the pattern interstices are laterally compressed and partially raised as a result of the overall area shrinkage on the fabric, thereby creating a three-dimensional boucle-type surface.

4 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures PATENTEB 3,856,602

SHEET t 0F 4 Fig. 7/

METHOD OF PRODUCING NON-WOVEN TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS HAVING A RELIEF-LIKE STRUCTURE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The invention relates to the production of textile fiber products having a relief-like structure. More particularly, it relates to methods of producing non-woven, composite fabrics or fiber fleeces with boucle-type knobs or ridges on their surface by combining several fiber layers in a batt in special needling and retracting operations.

2. Description of the Prior Art In the art of producing non-woven fabrics it is known to improve the coherence of fiber fleeces by subjecting a needle-punched batt of different fibers to a retracting operation, whereby the retractable fibers, through their shrinking and/or curling, create a mechanical interlock between the fibers. There are now commercially avail able a variety of retractable synthetic fibers which, at a certain temperature determined by their physical characteristics, undergo a longitudinal retraction of up to 50 percent. Other available fibers are composed of two individual filaments which have different longitudinal retraction ratios (so-called hetero-fibers) so that the retraction treatment results in a curling or crinkling of the fibers. Those retractable fibers are uniformly intermingled with other, non-retractable or less retractable fibers in a batt of fibers; or separate batts of different fibers are superposed on one another and passed through a needle loom, where the fibers of the two batts are comingled and interlaced.

Generally, this kind of fiber batt, when subjected to a retraction treatment, produces a felt-like fleece with a flat surface. It has not been possible in the past to obtain boucle-type knobs or ridges on the product surface with any of the known methods of producing nonwoven fabrics. On the other hand, it has already been suggested to produce non-woven fabrics in such a way that a fiber batt of little-retractable fibers is needled through another fiber batt of highly retractable material. The shortening of the highly retractable fibers causes the punched-through tufts of the other fibers to become clamped and retained between the retracted fibers, so that the protruding ends of the clamped tufts can then be transformed by known procedures (brushing, for example) into a fiber pile. It is not an object of the present invention to suggest a method for producing this kind of surface structure.

A different surface structure is obtained with another prior art method where a soft plastic backing is applied to a needled felt batt of retractable fibers. Retraction treatment of the needled felt causes the backing to wrinkle and to pucker. However, because of its closed plastic backing, the end product has unfavorably modified textile characteristics.

Further suggestions concern themselves with the combination of two fiber webs of unequal retraction ratios. using. for example. a highly retractable woven fabric and a fiber fleece of little-retractable fibers and bonding the two webs together. whereby the adhesive is applied selectively with a pattern drum so as to create a line pattern along which the webs are held together. When this laminate is subjected to the retracting treatment, the shrinkage of the retractable fabric causes the non-retracting fiber fleece to fold upwardly between the bond lines. The result are furls or ridge-like folds, depending on the bonding pattern. The surface structure obtained is of the cloque-type, but the end product is not a very durable one, because no bond exists between the upper and lower web layers in the areas between the bond lines. Furthermore, as it is unavoidable in this case that the line pattern of adhesive application becomes visible, the optical impression made by the product is not a very favorable one.

Still further prior art methods call for stitching opera tions to create particular surface structures and to interlock the layers of the fabric with endless yarns. Apart from a considerable increase in the cost of production, the products obtained by these methods have the disadvantage that any thread breakage during use causes their appearance and value to decline drastically.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention has as its. general objective a method of, producing non-woven textile fabrics with a structured, three-dimensional surface by using a suit able combination of needle-felting technology and fiber retraction technology in such a way that the various operations called for do not require either very expensive production equipment or method steps that would slow down the production rate. This problem can be solved by resorting to special needle-punching operations, whereby fibers with a high retraction ratio are interlocked with fibers with a low retraction ratio in such a manner and pattern that a subsequent retraction treatment creates a structured surface on the fab- The invention thus suggests a method of producing non-woven, textile fabrics of the fiber fleece type with boucle-type knobs or ridges on the fabric surface by needling together two fiber batts directly or in combination with a carrier web, whereby the fibers of one batt layer have a different retractability than the fibers of the other batt layer; the fibers being deposited in the composite batt in such a way that the fibers, dispersed over the entire surface of each batt layer extend at least in part in approximately the same direction; some of the fibers of the batt layer of highly retractable fibers being needle-punched through the other batt layer in a first needling operation using a special pattern of needles so that the punched-through fibers protrude in the form of loops or bristles from the side which faces away from the needles and that non-needled spaces of at least 3 millimeters width remain between the needled areas; the composite batt thus needled together being subjected to a second needle'punching operation on the entire batt surface from the side on which the fiber loops or bristles protrude so that the latter are bent over and pushed back into the batt in the manner of clinched staples; the composite, inter-locked batt being subjected to a retraction treatment which results in a shrinkage in web area on the one hand, and a shortening of the stapleshaped, highly retractable linking fibers along the pattern lines of the first needling operation, thereby compacting the fabric along these lines and forming boucle-type knobs or ridges in the non-needled spaces between the pattern lines.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Further special features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the description following below, when taken together with the accompanying drawings which illustrate, by way of examples. several variations of the method of the invention, represented in the various figures as follows:

FIG. I shows, in a schematic representation, a longitudinal, elevational cross-section of a first processing unit as part of a first installation capable of performing the method of the invention;

FIGS. 2 to 4 show, in a simplified layout. three different patterns for the arrangement of the needles in a needle loom;

FIGS. to 8 show, in somewhat simplified crosssections, the results of several of the method steps on a fiber batt during the performance of the method;

FIG. 9 shows, in a schematic representation, a longitudinal elevation of another processing unit which may be part of the first installation together with the processing unit of FIG. 1;

FIG. shows, in a schematic perspective representation, a first processing unit as part of a second installation capable of performing the method of the invention; and

FIG. 11 shows, in a similar schematic representation, a second processing unit following the processing unit of FIG. 10 in the second installation.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Embodiment No. l Processing Equipment In FIG. I is shown an endless movable mesh belt I which is a part of a conventional machine for producing random-oriented fiber batts. A fiber dispersing de vice 2 deposits highly retractable fibers 4 on the mesh belt I to form loose batt 3. The fiber dispensing device 2 operates in a known manner according to the turbulene dispersion where the fibes 4, after entering a whirling drum 5 through its top opening, are whirled around and intermingled while they leave the drum through a grate 6 above the mesh belt 1 against which they are drawn by suction from a suctin chamber 7 arranged underneath the mesh belt I. The fibers 4 thus deposited in the batt 3 are not oriented in any particular way, but form a random pattern.

A second fiber dispersing device 8 similar to device 2 and arranged behind the latter deposits onto the first batt 4 a second stratum of fibers 10 to form an upper batt layer 9. The fibers 10 of the upper batt layer, however, are of a material which is not. or only barely, retractable in the retracting operation which is to be part ofthe present invention. It should be noted that this retractability is relative with respect to the treatment of the fibers to which the highly retractable fibers of the first batt layer 3 are to be subjected in the subsequent retracting operation. Commercially available retractable fibers include, for example, fibers of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polypropylene (PP). whose longitudinal retraction is approximately 36 percent.

The loosely superposed two-layer batt 3, 9 is then advanced into a conventional needle loom l2 and subjected to a first needling operation. In this operation some of the fibers 4, i.e., fibers of the highly retractable batt layer 3, are punched from below through the upper batt layer 9. The needles 13 on the needle carrier plate 14 theretfore must extend from below against the twolayer batt 3, 9, and the matchingly perforated disc plate I5 is in this case positioned above the batt 3, 9.

In FIG. 2 is shown schematically an example ofa needle pattern suitable for the needling operation just described. Conventional barbed needles l3 are arranged on the needle plate 14 along the lines of a honeycomb pattern so as to create distinct needling Zones. The plate I4 carries enough needles so that each line of a unit of the honeycomb pattern is repeated at least once. The displacement pitch of the two-layer batt 3,9 past the needle plate 14 between needling strokes is so arranged that subsequent needle penetrations do not exactly match preceding ones but come to be near the latter. Assuming the longitudinal distance between repeating pattern units to be I (see FIG. 2), with I being equal to 12 mm, for example, a preferred width of the needle pattern in the direction of batt advance would be equal to 21, or 24 mm, with the batt 3, 9 advancing intermittently after each stroke of the needle loom by an amount somewhat less than I, for example by 10 The needled composite batt 3, 9 obtained after this first, patterned needling operation has areas of unneedled fibers between the needled Zones, and these unneedled areas are important for the later formation of the boucle-type texture on the fabric surface. Experiments have shown that these unneedled areas must have a certain minimal diameter, below which no three-dimensional surface structure is obtained. This minimum diameter is determined by the thickness of the fibers used and is around 3 mm for commonly used fiber materials. Obviously, the pattern in which the punching needles 13 are arranged in the needles plate 14 and the batt advance chosen will determine the character and appearance of the three-dimensional surface structure of the finished product. In FIG. 3 and FIG. 4 are shown two alternative possibilities of creating needle patterns on the needle loom I2. The pattern of FIG. 4 produces short, parallelly staggered ridges, while FIGS. 2 and 3 produce similar results in the form of roundish knobs. It should be understood, of course, that a great variety of different surface patterns can be obtained in this way.

FIG. 5 shows the results obtained by the first needling pass just described. The batt stratum 3 containing the fibers of high retractability forms the lower layer of the two-layer batt 3, 9. For illustration purposes only, the highly retractable fibers 4 are here represented by heavy lines and the non-retractable fibers 10 are shown as thin lines. The barbed needles of the needle loom have pulled several of the retractable fibers 4 through the upper batt stratum 9 so that they protrude from the upper side of the combined batt 17 in the form of either fiber loops 16 or fiber bristles 16. The latter are then flattened against the surface of the combined batt 17, as a result of the further travel of the batt through the installation (FIG. 6). The percentage of fibers of the batt layer 3 which have thus been needled through the upper layer is estimated at about 20 percent.

The pre-needled batt 17 leaving the first needle loom l2 advances to a second, conventional needle loom 18, where it is subjected to a second needling operation. The needle carrier plate 19 of this loom is arranged in the usual location, viz. above the batt 17, with the die plate 20 below it. The barbed needles 21 thus penetrate into the batt 17 from above, i.e., from the side from which the fiber bristles l6 protrude.

The arrangement pattern of the barbed needles 21 on the needle plate 19 is the usual random pattern by which a needling effect of even density is obtained. This second needling operation causes the previously flattened fiber bristles 16 to be pushed back into the batt 17 so that the fibers 4 which were needled upwardly through the batt in the earlier pattern-needling operation take now the form of crimped staples 32, each surrounding a bunch of the fibers of the batt layer 9.

The fiber configuration obtained after the second and final needling pass is shown schematically in FIG. 7 as a composite fleece 22. It can now be wound onto a loom 23 for storage.

If one desires to have both needle looms l2 and 18 in the same upright orientation, with the needles penetrating downwardly into the batt, it will be necessary to reverse the sequence of fiber deposition on the mesh belt I. In this case, the non-retractable fibers 10 are fed to the first fiber dispersing device 8. Between the two needle looms l2 and 18 it will now be necessary to in vert the once-needled two-layer batt 17, before the fiber bristles 16 can be needled back into the batt in the second needling operation.

In FIG. 9 is shown schematically a processing station 24 in which the retraction treatment takes place. The boom 23 with the needled fiber felt 22 is placed on one end of the retracting station 24. The latter includes such known equipment as a heat chamber 25, with support rollers 26 and a heat source 27 inside the chamber. The retraction station includes control means to deter mine the shrinkage in overall width of the fabric under the influence of the retraction temperature. Separate adjustment of the speeds of input and output at the input rollers 28 and at the output rollers 29 provides for a control of the longitudinal shrinkage of the fabric 22. The heat source may be provided in one of several different forms; FIG. 9 indicates schematically a bank of radiant heaters 27 as one possibility. A more even temperature distribution is obtained by using instead a re circulating heat carrier medium. such as hot air or hot water. for example. Steam heat is likewise suitable for this purpose.

The fully retracted finished product 30 is again wound onto a boom 31 for storage.

FIGS. 7 and 8 show in more detail how the retraction treatment affects the internal and external configuration ofthe needle fleece 22 as it becomes the end product 30. Both figures are drawn to about the same scale. The fibers 4 ofthe batt layer 3, when heat-treated, produce an area shrinkage of approximately 30 to 35 percent, which is indicated by a shortening of the initial distance s1 (FIG. 7) to 52 (FIG. 8) after retraction. The same retraction also causes the twice-needled, stapleshaped fibers 32 to shorten and to close at 34, thereby firmly tying the batt layer 9 to the layer 3 along the lines created by the pattern needling operation. The area shrinkage resulting from the retraction of the fibers 4 in the layer 3 also causes the non-retractable fibers 10 of the batt layer 9 to be laterally compressed so that they loop upwardly to form boucle-type knobs or ridges 33 on the upper side of the end product. The pinching effect caused by the tying fibers 34 along the pattern lines produces a very pronounced threedimensional surface structure. It therefore gives the fabric improved durability, because its knobs or ridges 33 are packed very closely. Under use. the surface structure remains intact for a long time, so that the longevity of this kind of fabric is considerably higher than that of similar, structured needle-felt products produced from the identical fiber materials by prior art methods. The densely packed fiber fabrics produced by the proposed new method have the additional advantage over prior art products that dust cannot penetrate as easily into the fabric.

In a minor modification of Embodiment No. I described above, the batt layer 9 containing the non retractable fibers 10 is deposited separately on a mesh belt and passed through a pre-needling operation in a needle loom similar to needle loom l8, whereupon it is deposited onto the batt layer 3 with the fiber bristles of the pre-needled batt layer 9 extending downwardly into layer 3. The remaining method steps are the same as those previously described.

As far as the formation of the earlier-mentioned surface knobs or ridges in the retraction operation is concerned, it was found that optimal results are obtained, when the fiber orientation in both. batt layers 3 and 9 is approximately the same. On the other hand, the desired effect is almost non-existant, when the fibers in each layer are deposited in parallel alignment. but the batt layers are superposed in such a way that the directions of fiber orientation in the two layers are perpendicular to one another. As a general rule, it can be said therefore, that fibers distributed over the entire area of each batt layer should at least in part extend in the same direction. This condition is always met if one of the two batt layers is deposited with a random orientation of the fibers. This assures that at any one point of the batt there will be fibers that have at least a portion of their length aligned in parallel with the fibers of the other batt layer.

Example No. l Materials The following combination of materials is suitable for an example of application of the method of Embodiment No. 1, described earlier. It concerns itselfwith the manufacture of a fabric which may be used as a cover fabric for upholstery and as a wall covering material.

Fiber material of high retractability: PVC fibers, 5.6 dtex, staple length 60 mm, longitudinal retraction at l lOl20C: approximately 36 percent (increase in cross section approximately 17 percent).

Fiber material of low retractability: PAC fibers (polyacrylonitrile), 8 den.. staple length 65 mm.

The non-retractable PAC-fibers were deposited in a random dispersion batt of I00 g/m unit area weight and prefelted in a needle loom with random needle pattern in 60 penetrations per cm with a penetration depth of 15 mm.

The retractable PVC fibers were deposited in a ran dom dispersion batt of 60 g/m as a first batt layer on the mesh belt 1. The pre-felted batt of PAC-fibers was then superposed onto the PVC fiber batt as a second layer.

The two-layer batt was then pattern-needled from below in the needle loom 12 (FIG. 1), the needle pattern being the honeycomb-type of FIG. 2; penetration depth 23 mm.

The final needling operation in the needle loom 18 was done from above with 50 penetrations per cm at a depth of 12 mm. The felted batt was finally put through a retracting treatment in a steam-heated retraction chamber, at a temperature of 1 l0-12()C, exposure time 10 minutes. The shrinkage measured on the end product was approximately 23 percent in the longitudinal and in the transverse directions.

Embodiment No. 2 Processing Equipment As is schematically illustrated in FIG. 10, a web of thermoplastic synthetic netting 41 is moved over a conveyor table 40, where a previously formed, carded fiber batt 43 of non-retractable fibers is deposited on the netting 411 by means of a transverse ply-laying device 42. The transverse plies are deposited as several layers having an angle of approximately 1 1 to the transverse axis of the batt.

The fiber batt 43 then moves through a needle loom 44 where it is needle-punched onto the netting web in a conventional way. The needle plate 45 of the loom 44 has the usual random needle pattern. The thusly prefelted batt 46, reinforced by the netting is wound onto a boom 47 for storage.

()n a second processing unit shown in FIG. 11 the full boom 47 feeds the pre-felted batt 46 to another conveyor table 48. The batt 46 is preferably so oriented that the bristles of the previous pre-felting operation are now on the upper side of the batt 46. Onto this batt is now deposited a second batt layer 49 using again a transverse ply-laying device 50in the manner described earlier. This upper batt layer 49 consists of highly retractable fibers. In a patterned needle-punching operation in the needle loom 51 the upper batt layer 49 is needled into the combined netting web and lower batt layer 46. The needle plate 52 of the loom 51 has again a needle pattern along distinct lines, such as the honeycomb pattern of FIG. 2. The resulting composite batt 55 is now advanced to another needle loom 53 which has a needle plate 54 with the usual random needle pattern.

In FIG. 11 the second needle loom 53 is shown immediately behind the first needle loom 51 to simplify their representation. Such an arrangement is possible, but it requires that the needle plate 54 of loom 53 is arranged underneath the batt and that the needles penetrate upwardly. However, it may be more desirable to use as the second needle loom a conventional. downwardpunching loom. In this case it will be necessary to space the two needle looms further apart and to invert the composite batt on the way from the loom 51 to the loom 53.

The fully felted composite fleece 55 is again wound onto a boom 56. It can now be subjected to the retraction treatment which was described earlier.

In order to produce heavier fabrics, one may add a dispersion adhesive to the lower side of the composite fleece 55, Le, to the side on which the highly retractable fiber layer has been added. The dispersion agent is later expelled in a first section of the heat chamber, while the fleece is heated to the retraction temperature in the remaining portion of the heat chamber. Longitudinal and transverse shrinkage are again controlled in the earlier-described manner.

The method of the invention can be extended by further processing the composite fleece 55 after the retraction treatment in the heat chamber, whereby the underside of the fabric is impregnated with a thermoplastic fiber bonding agent (hot melt adhesive) or whereby an additional layer of material is applied to the underside of the fabric. These additional layers are preferably cushioning layers of fleece, foam rubber, and the like.

Example No. 2 Materials In this example of applying Embodiment No. 2 of the invention, the end product is one that may be used as a floor covering material. The materials to be combined are as follows:

The fiber batt 43 is of non-retractable polyamide fibers, 20 den., staple length 100 mm, batt weight 600 g/m It is needled onto a netting web of polyethylene of 180 g/m', using needle penetrations per cm at a penetration depth of 17 mm.

The second fiber batt 49 is of retractable polypropylene fibers, longitudinal retraction approximately 32 percent at 145C i2C (data from supplier), l5 den, staple length mm. Batt 49 is pattern-needled onto the first batt 43 with a needle penetration of 29 mm. The composite fiber batt is subjected to a final random needling operation at 80 penetrations per cm with a penetration depth of 17 mm.

The fleece is treated for retraction in a heat chamber at ambient temperatures ranging from C to C, preferably at l45Ci2C, using a tentering frame. Longitudinal shrinkage of the fabric is prevented by pulling the fabric from the chamber at the same rate at which it is fed into the chamber. The transverse shrinkage obtained is 35 percent.

At the ambient treatment temperature of 135-150C the material of the thermoplastic synthetic netting 41 sandwiched between the batt layers becomes soft. The retraction of the fibers having caused a plastic deformation of the netting 41, the deformation thus becomes permanently set after re-hardening of the netting, giving the finished product an improved dimensional stability.

Other Embodiments and Examples of Material Combination In a modification of Embodiment No. l, a retractable layer of a woven fabric of retractable fibers or of stretched synthetic netting may be sandwiched between the two fiber layers 3 and 9, and the layers are then needled together. This woven fabric or synthetic netting also undergoes retraction during the retraction treatment. Thus, the netting can replace a portion of the expensive retractable fiber material.

In a minor modification of the Embodiment No. 2 the transverse ply-laying device 50 of FIG. 11 deposits a random fiber batt of nonretractable PAC-fibers directly onto the conveyor table 48. A second, similar ply-laying device behind device 50 deposits another batt layer of non-retractable fibers onto the first layer. This second layer will not be exposed at the upper side of the end product and its fibers can therefore be of a less expensive material. This two-layer batt is then covered by a carrier web of non-retractable material such as foam rubber or a netting web of thermoplastic material. The top layer is again a stratum of highly retractable PP-fibers.

The various needling operations are again performed in a single passage as illustrated in FIG. 11, the first needling operation in loom 51 with the patterned needle plate 52 and the second needling operation from below in loom 53 with a random needle plate 54.

The needled material is then further processed as de scribed under Example No. 2.

As a further alternative, it is possible to replace the batt layer of highly retractable fibers by several layers of superposed split webs. The latter are highly stretched, retractable webs of synthetic material which, when they are pierced by the needles of the needle loom break up into numerous fibrilles. These highly stretched fibrilles undergo considerable retraction during retraction treatment so that they serve the same purpose as the retractable fibers.

A still further possibility of a retractable batt layer consists in using similarly stretched synthetic netting webs. These webs can be needlepunched along pattern lines, by using a needle loom with a needle beam having a single row of needles, the normal barbed needles being replaced by spike needles, i.e., needles whose point is split in the shape of a Y.

What is claimed is:

1. A method of producing non-woven, textile fiber fabrics with boucle-type knobs or ridges on the fabric surface from at least two kinds of fibers of unequal retractability, comprising the steps of:

superposing in a multi-layer batt at least two distinct layers of fibers, the fibers of one outside layer exhibiting a considerably higher longitudinal retraction than the other fibers of the batt, when all are subjected to the same retraction-inducing treatment;

pattern-needling the multi-layer batt from the side of the highly retractable fiber layer with punching needles which are aligned to produce a repetitive line pattern so that, in the line-regions of needling, length portions of the fibers of the highly retractable fiber layer are punched transversely through the remainder of the batt and protrude from the other side thereof as bristles or loops;

folding the protruding bristles or loops against the batt side from which they protrude;

needling the entire surface of the batt from the side of the protruding fibers so as to needle-punch the protruding portions of the highly retractable fibers back into the composite batt to form hooks having a shape similar to clinched staples; and

subjecting the composite batt to a retraction treatment, whereby the longitudinal retraction of the retractable fibers not only causes the clinched, twice-needled, stapleshaped fibers to shorten and close upon themselves into tighter hooks, thereby compacting the less retractable fibers in the line re gions of pattern needling, but also causes an overall area shrinkage of the needled batt, resulting in a lateral compression and an elevation of the less re tractable fibers in the batt areas between the line regions of pattern needling so as to give the fabric the desired boucle-type, three-dimensional surface.

2. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein in the step of superposing distinct layers of fibers, the fibers of the several batt layers are so arranged that at any point of the batt width fibers of each layer extend at least in part in approximately the same direction.

3. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein in the pattern-needling step, the interstices between adjacent needled line regions are at least 3 mm in diameter.

4. A method as defined in claim 1, further comprising the steps of prior to subjecting the composite batt to a retraction treatment, impregnating the backside of the composite batt with a dispersed bonding agent; and wherein;

the step of subjecting the composite batt to a retraction treatment involves a heat treatment during which the dispersion medium of the bonding agent is expelled.

z e a a

Claims (4)

1. A method of producing non-woven, textile fiber fabrics with boucle-type knobs or ridges on the fabric surface from at least two kinds of fibers of unequal retractability, comprising the steps of: superposing in a multi-layer batt at least two distinct layers of fibers, the fibers of one outside layer exhibiting a considerably higher longitudinal retraction than the other fibers of the batt, when all are subjected to the same retraction-inducing treatment; pattern-needling the multi-layer batt from the side of the highly retractable fiber layer with punching needles which are aligned to produce a repetitive line pattern so that, in the line-regions of needling, length portions of the fibers of the highly retractable fiber layer are punched transversely through the remainder of the batt and protrude from the other side thereof as bristles or loops; folding the protruding bristles or loops against the batt side from which they protrude; needling the entire surface of the batt from the side of the protruding fibers so as to needle-punch the protruding portions of the highly retractable fibers back into the composite batt to form hooks having a shape similar to clinched staples; and subjecting the composite batt to a retraction treatment, whereby the longitudinal retraction of the retractable fibers not only causes the clinched, twice-needled, staple-shaped fibers to shorten and close upon themselves into tighter hooks, thereby compacting the less retractable fibers in the line regions of pattern needling, but also causes an overall area shrinkage of the needled batt, resulting in a lateral compression and an elevation of the less retractable fibers in the batt areas between the line regions of pattern needling so as to give the fabric the desired boucle-type, three-dimensional surface.
2. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein in the step of superposing distinct layers of fibers, tHe fibers of the several batt layers are so arranged that at any point of the batt width fibers of each layer extend at least in part in approximately the same direction.
3. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein in the pattern-needling step, the interstices between adjacent needled line regions are at least 3 mm in diameter.
4. A method as defined in claim 1, further comprising the steps of prior to subjecting the composite batt to a retraction treatment, impregnating the backside of the composite batt with a dispersed bonding agent; and wherein; the step of subjecting the composite batt to a retraction treatment involves a heat treatment during which the dispersion medium of the bonding agent is expelled.
US00217363A 1971-01-12 1972-01-12 Method of producing non-woven textile fiber products having a relief-like structure Expired - Lifetime US3856602A (en)

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US4047269A (en) * 1973-04-07 1977-09-13 Cikalon-Vliesstoff-Werke Gmbh Method and apparatus for producing ornamentally patterned, needled, nonwoven pile fabrics
US4151023A (en) * 1975-09-05 1979-04-24 Phillips Petroleum Company Method for the production of a nonwoven fabric
US4284680A (en) * 1979-01-30 1981-08-18 Ichikawa Woolen Textile Co., Ltd. Multi-layered, needle punched, felt-like cushioning material and production method thereof
US4393634A (en) * 1980-06-30 1983-07-19 Clark-Cutler-Mcdermott Company Roofing system and needle punched impregnated synthetic fiber fabric
US4508772A (en) * 1983-11-01 1985-04-02 Macmillan Bloedel Limited Pressed composite assembly and method
US4554715A (en) * 1984-02-24 1985-11-26 Veb Forster Tuchfabriken Method for the finishing of textile sheets
US4563237A (en) * 1983-11-01 1986-01-07 Macmillan Bloedel Limited Oriented strand lay-up
US4631789A (en) * 1982-11-23 1986-12-30 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Kg Apparatus for the production of needled, shaped fibrous bodies
US4706799A (en) * 1983-11-01 1987-11-17 Macmillan Bloedel Limited Oriented strand lay-up
US4872544A (en) * 1983-11-01 1989-10-10 Macmillan Bloedel Limited Apparatus for oriented strand lay-up
US5054603A (en) * 1983-11-01 1991-10-08 Macmillan Bloedel, Limited Apparatus for laying elongate members
GB2278371A (en) * 1993-05-26 1994-11-30 Peaudouce Composite nonwoven material for an absorbent article of hygiene
EP1046742A1 (en) * 1999-04-23 2000-10-25 Wattex Carrier for bituminous lengths
US20030019089A1 (en) * 2001-07-03 2003-01-30 Filzfabrik Fulda Gmbh & Co. Method for the production of a patterned textile surface
US6564437B2 (en) * 1998-10-30 2003-05-20 Ppg Industries Ohio, Inc. Double sided needled fiber glass mat for high flow thermoplastic composite
US20050042378A1 (en) * 1997-01-10 2005-02-24 Falke Garne Kg Process for producing a floor covering
US20060182971A1 (en) * 2005-02-16 2006-08-17 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. Tabbed ceramic article for improved interlaminar strength
US20080313873A1 (en) * 2006-12-12 2008-12-25 Freudenberg Nonwovens, L.P. Highloft needlepunched nonwovens
US20100015384A1 (en) * 2008-07-15 2010-01-21 Daishin Industries Co., Ltd. Vehicle mounting carpet and producing method thereof
WO2011065851A1 (en) * 2009-11-27 2011-06-03 Universidade Do Minho Three-dimensional shaped nonwoven structures for acoustic insulation and production method thereof
US20120263928A1 (en) * 2011-04-06 2012-10-18 Groz-Beckert Kg Three-Dimensional Shaped Textile Element and Method for the Manufacture of Said Element
WO2018093881A1 (en) * 2016-11-15 2018-05-24 Shaw Industries Group, Inc. Layered composite articles and methods of making same

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US2958113A (en) * 1955-02-21 1960-11-01 Du Pont Needled batt
US2910763A (en) * 1955-08-17 1959-11-03 Du Pont Felt-like products
US2908064A (en) * 1956-10-31 1959-10-13 Du Pont Non-woven filamentary products and process
US3243861A (en) * 1963-02-13 1966-04-05 Kendall & Co Method of making a textured nonwoven fabric
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Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4047269A (en) * 1973-04-07 1977-09-13 Cikalon-Vliesstoff-Werke Gmbh Method and apparatus for producing ornamentally patterned, needled, nonwoven pile fabrics
US4151023A (en) * 1975-09-05 1979-04-24 Phillips Petroleum Company Method for the production of a nonwoven fabric
US4284680A (en) * 1979-01-30 1981-08-18 Ichikawa Woolen Textile Co., Ltd. Multi-layered, needle punched, felt-like cushioning material and production method thereof
US4393634A (en) * 1980-06-30 1983-07-19 Clark-Cutler-Mcdermott Company Roofing system and needle punched impregnated synthetic fiber fabric
US4631789A (en) * 1982-11-23 1986-12-30 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Kg Apparatus for the production of needled, shaped fibrous bodies
US4508772A (en) * 1983-11-01 1985-04-02 Macmillan Bloedel Limited Pressed composite assembly and method
US4563237A (en) * 1983-11-01 1986-01-07 Macmillan Bloedel Limited Oriented strand lay-up
US4706799A (en) * 1983-11-01 1987-11-17 Macmillan Bloedel Limited Oriented strand lay-up
US4872544A (en) * 1983-11-01 1989-10-10 Macmillan Bloedel Limited Apparatus for oriented strand lay-up
US5054603A (en) * 1983-11-01 1991-10-08 Macmillan Bloedel, Limited Apparatus for laying elongate members
US4554715A (en) * 1984-02-24 1985-11-26 Veb Forster Tuchfabriken Method for the finishing of textile sheets
GB2278371A (en) * 1993-05-26 1994-11-30 Peaudouce Composite nonwoven material for an absorbent article of hygiene
GB2278371B (en) * 1993-05-26 1997-03-12 Peaudouce Composite nonwoven material,process of manufacture and its application to any absorbent article of hygiene
US20050042378A1 (en) * 1997-01-10 2005-02-24 Falke Garne Kg Process for producing a floor covering
US7346967B2 (en) * 1997-01-10 2008-03-25 Horustec Gmbh Process for producing a floor covering
US6564437B2 (en) * 1998-10-30 2003-05-20 Ppg Industries Ohio, Inc. Double sided needled fiber glass mat for high flow thermoplastic composite
EP1046742A1 (en) * 1999-04-23 2000-10-25 Wattex Carrier for bituminous lengths
US20030019089A1 (en) * 2001-07-03 2003-01-30 Filzfabrik Fulda Gmbh & Co. Method for the production of a patterned textile surface
US20060182971A1 (en) * 2005-02-16 2006-08-17 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. Tabbed ceramic article for improved interlaminar strength
US7387758B2 (en) * 2005-02-16 2008-06-17 Siemens Power Generation, Inc. Tabbed ceramic article for improved interlaminar strength
US20080313873A1 (en) * 2006-12-12 2008-12-25 Freudenberg Nonwovens, L.P. Highloft needlepunched nonwovens
US20100015384A1 (en) * 2008-07-15 2010-01-21 Daishin Industries Co., Ltd. Vehicle mounting carpet and producing method thereof
WO2011065851A1 (en) * 2009-11-27 2011-06-03 Universidade Do Minho Three-dimensional shaped nonwoven structures for acoustic insulation and production method thereof
US20120263928A1 (en) * 2011-04-06 2012-10-18 Groz-Beckert Kg Three-Dimensional Shaped Textile Element and Method for the Manufacture of Said Element
WO2018093881A1 (en) * 2016-11-15 2018-05-24 Shaw Industries Group, Inc. Layered composite articles and methods of making same

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Publication number Publication date
NL7200305A (en) 1972-07-14
IT944553B (en) 1973-04-20
AT347391B (en) 1978-12-27
AU3769872A (en) 1973-07-12
GB1349711A (en) 1974-04-10
AU458984B2 (en) 1975-03-13
FR2121768A1 (en) 1972-08-25
DE2201105B2 (en) 1975-01-16
ATA1098971A (en) 1978-05-15
CH39071A4 (en) 1972-06-15
DE2201105A1 (en) 1972-07-27
NL159151B (en) 1979-01-15
ES398699A1 (en) 1974-07-16
CH529247A (en) 1972-06-15
FR2121768B1 (en) 1974-08-30
BE777902A (en) 1972-05-02
DE2201105C3 (en) 1975-08-28
BE777902A1 (en)

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