US2986002A - Leaky-type exhaust nozzle for jet propulsion devices - Google Patents

Leaky-type exhaust nozzle for jet propulsion devices Download PDF

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US2986002A
US2986002A US663672A US66367257A US2986002A US 2986002 A US2986002 A US 2986002A US 663672 A US663672 A US 663672A US 66367257 A US66367257 A US 66367257A US 2986002 A US2986002 A US 2986002A
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nozzle
shroud
segments
jet
construction
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US663672A
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Ferri Antonio
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Curtiss Wright Corp
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Curtiss Wright Corp
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K1/00Plants characterised by the form or arrangement of the jet pipe or nozzle; Jet pipes or nozzles peculiar thereto
    • F02K1/38Introducing air inside the jet
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K1/00Plants characterised by the form or arrangement of the jet pipe or nozzle; Jet pipes or nozzles peculiar thereto
    • F02K1/06Varying effective area of jet pipe or nozzle
    • F02K1/12Varying effective area of jet pipe or nozzle by means of pivoted flaps
    • F02K1/1207Varying effective area of jet pipe or nozzle by means of pivoted flaps of one series of flaps hinged at their upstream ends on a fixed structure
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T50/00Aeronautics or air transport
    • Y02T50/60Efficient propulsion technologies, e.g. for aircraft

Description

May 30, 1961 A. FERR'I 2,986,002

LEAKY-TYPE EXHAUST NOZZLE FOR JET PROPULSION DEVICES Filed June 5, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR ANTUNID FERRI E4 m&k

AEENT May 30, 1961 FERR| 2,986,002

LEAKY-TYPEZ EXHAUST NOZZLE FOR JET PROPULSION DEVICES" Filed June 5, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR ANTIJNID FERRI nited States Patent LEAKY-TYPE EXHAUST NOZZLE FOR JET PROPULSION DEVICES Antonio Fen-i, Rockville Centre, N .Y., assignor to Curtiss- Wright Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Filed June 5, 1957, Ser. No. 663,672

4 Claims. (Cl. 60-356) My invention relates to an exhaust nozzle for jet propulsion devices. More particularly, the invention is directed to a leaky-type nozzle having particular application to aircraft jet engines.

Variable geometry exhaust nozzles for jet engines are well known. The construction of a convergent nozzle may be such as to provide for variations in the exit area of the nozzle, and a convergent-divergent nozzle may be constructed so that both its throat and exit areas may be varied. The type of structure provided for this purpose is generally complex and in a convergent-divergent nozzle the complexity and weight of the structure may be intolerable. A practical convergent-divergent type of nozzle construction for a jet engine consists of a convergent nozzle disposed within an engine casing, which extends for some distance beyond the end of the nozzle. The converging walls of the nozzle are movable so that the throat area may be varied, and expansion of gases beyond the nozzle throat is controlled by a secondary jet flowing over the nozzle thereby eliminating the necessity of providing an adjustable divergent section. This nozzle construction does have some disadvantages, however, in that a very long shroud is required for properly controlling expansion with the secondary jet. In addition, the performance of this type of nozzle construction is not en; tirely satisfactory since losses resulting with such a construction are quite large. Furthermore, the converging wall of the nozzle is generally formed of overlapping sections so that the sections may be moved relative to one another to vary the throat. It is very diflicult to cool such overlapping portions and any leakage of hot air between the sections may damage the nozzle.

It is an object of the invention to provide a nozzle construction of the described type having features resulting in a decrease in the length of the shroud required to obtain a given expansion of nozzle exhaust gases.

It is another object of the invention to provide such a nozzle construction by means of which the angularity of flow at the exit of the converging nozzle may be reduced to result in improved nozzle performance.

It is still another object of the invention to provide such a nozzle construction which may be assembled from a small number of parts and which is light in weight.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent during a reading of the specification.

To obtain the objects and advantages of the invention, I provide a converging nozzle within a jet engine casing extending some distance beyond the exhaust end of the nozzle. In accordance with the invention, such nozzle is comprised of a number of segments which converge to the nozzle throat, and each such segment is separated by a gap through which gases in the nozzle may escape. Gases expand beyond the throat of the nozzle and the expansion of these gases along with gases escaping through the gaps between the segments are controlled by a secondary jet flowing over the segments. By permitting a portion of the gases flowing in the nozzle to escape through the gaps, it is possible to decrease the angularity of flow of the exhaust gases at the throat of the nozzle,

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and to decrease the length of the shroud required for obtaining a given expansion. Preferably, the segments of the nozzle are movable radially for controlling the size of the throat and areas of the gaps between the segments.

Referring to the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view showing the nozzle construction of the invention.

Fig. 2 is an end view of the showing in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the nozzle clearly showing the nozzle segments.

Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the nozzle construction showing apparatus for controlling the position of nozzle segments.

As shown in the drawings, the nozzle construction includes a converging nozzle 1 for receiving the exhaust gases of a jet engine, and a shroud 2 which encases the nozzle 1 and extends some distance beyond the exit end 3 of the nozzle. The shroud 2 is a continuation of a wall 4 which may be part of the engine housing and which forms a passage 5 with a cylindrical section 6 connecting with the nozzle 1.

The nozzle 1 consists of a plurality of segments 7 which converge to define a throat 8 at the exhaust end of the nozzle. Such segments are separated one from the other by gaps 9. These gaps preferably extend throughout the converging length of the nozzle and gradually taper from the nozzle end 3 where they are of maximum width to the cylindrical section 6 where the gaps close. As shown, the gaps extend between adjacent longitudinal edge portions 8a and 8b of the segments which edge portions extend outwardly with respect to the nozzle axis and bend away from each other.

In the operation of the nozzle, engine exhaust gases expand in the nozzle 1. A portion of such gases escape through the gaps 9 and the remainder of the gases flow out of the exit end 3 of the nozzle. The gases escaping through the gaps 9 and flowing out of the exit end 3 of the nozzle further expand in a region encased by the shroud 2. The expansion of such gases is controlled by a secondary jet 10 flowing through the passage 5 and between the nozzle 1 and shroud 2 which jet may (for example) be drawn through openings 11 in the engine casing controlled by flaps 11' disposed circumferentially about said casing. By suitably controlling the flaps 11' through linkages 12 and 13, and other suitable actuating mechanism, the jet 10 may be controlled to regulate the expansion of exhaust gases from the nozzle 1 so as to pro vide a jet of exhaust gases at the end 14 of the shroud 2 having a velocity everywhere in the direction of the thrust axis, and a static pressure at 14 equal to atmospheric pressure, such regulation providing for a maximum thrust. Instead of drawing air from the atmosphere to provide the jet 10, combustion gases may be used for the purpose of providing such a jet. In a gas turbine engine compressed air from the compressor may be used for this purpose.

With the conventional type of nozzle construction of the type described wherein the converging nozzle has a continuous wall, expansion within the nozzle and beyond the exit end of the nozzle is of the axially symmetric type. All expansion waves are produced in a plan and reflected at the axis. As a consequence, it is necessary with this type of construction to provide a rather long shroud to obtain maximum thrust. As has been indicated hereinbefore, in the nozzle construction of the invention a portion of the exhaust gases escape through gaps in the converging nozzle to expand in the region within the shroud 2. Jets of gas escaping through the various gaps interfere with the jet stream 10 which tends to cause the escaping gas streams to become parallel. The expansion of the gas flowing out of the gaps 9 is more nearly of the two-dimensional type than of the axially-symmetric type and is more rapid than axially-symmetric expansion. Accordingly, with the nozzle construction of the invention, a given expansion may be obtained in a shorter length than with the aforesaid conventional construction, and the required length of the shroud for maximum effectiveness may be considerably reduced. Even with a shroud of reduced length, the nozzle construction of the invention will provide a jet at the exit end of the shroud which flows more nearly parallel to the axis ofthe nozzle than the jet obtained with the convention type nozzle, and losses are reduced as a result.

lnthe nozzle construction of the invention, the throat 8 may be readily varied in size by providing suitable apparatus for moving the nozzle segments 7 radially, inwardly and outwardly. Such apparatus as may be used for moving the segments '7 in a radial direction is shown in Fig. 4 wherein reference character denotes a hydraulically operated piston movable in a cylinder 16 in response to control signals from a remote location. Each of the segments 7 connects with the shroud 2 by linkages 17 and 18, connects with a ring 19 through the said linkages and rod 20 such that when the piston 16 moves in one direction or the other the segments 7 will be moved radially, inwardly or outwardly.

if desired, the segments 7 may be connected to cylindrical section 6 by hinges to facilitate their radial movement; however, such movement may be accomplished without such provision being made since by reason of the described construction of the converging nozzle the segments will nevertheless move substantially about the end of the cylindrical section.

In efiect, the combination of the converging portion of the nozzle with the rearwardly extending portion of the shroud forms a convergent-divergent nozzle, but with the divergence taking place in the shroud, without such a defining diverging wall as would be found in the prior art. As is well known, some portions of a fluid escaping under pressure from a simple convergent nozzle may have components of motion in a backward direction; a familiar illustration of this is the fact that it is possible to get wet by spray from an ordinary hose nozzle, while standing behind the nozzle. At the very least, with the conventional converging nozzle there will be turbulence of the fiuid immediately adjacent the nozzle, rather than smooth expansion, and expansion waves produced in a plane and reflected at the axis.

As a consequence, use in the prior art of a converging nozzle having a continuous wall, Within a shroud, requires a very long shroud for the flow to smooth out and reach a static pressure equal to atmospheric pressure with a velocity everywhere in the direction of the thrust axis. If a converging-diverging nozzle with'continuous walls is used, it is necessary to provide adjustment of the divergent portion consonant with variability in the throat, in order to have an efficientnozzle.

The present invention, on the other hand, obviates the necessity for either a long shroud or an adjustable divergent section. This is achieved by allowing gas expansion from a convergent nozzle within a short shroud and suppressing turbulence and damping expansion waves by controlling the expansion by the two means cited, namely, leakage of exhaust gas in an axial direction through apertures in the convergent nozzle upstream from the throat, and by shaping the expanding flow with a secondary, generally annular jet.

It will now be clear that I have provide a nozzle construction having obvious advantages over prior art construction, including the advantages of reducing the length of the shroud required for a nozzle construction of the described type and improving the performance of such nozzle construction by reducing the losses therein. Also, the weight of the nozzle construction is reduced by reason of the shortening of the shroud, and 'complexity in the structure is avoided. With the gap structure ofthe invention, there are no overlapping segments which are difiicult to keep cool and no complex system of linkages is required for varying the throat and exit areas.

While I have described my invention in detail, it will be appreciated that various changes and modifications may be made therein within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.

I claim as my invention:

1. A supersonic nozzle construction for the exhaust gases of a jet. propulsion device, comprising in combination, a generally cylindrical shroud member having an orifice, a nozzle member disposed within said shroud and substantially coaxial therewith and defining therewith an annular space, said nozzle comprising a generally cylindrical upstream portion and a' downstream converging portion, said converging portion comprising a plurality of tapering segments with their smaller ends disposed downstream and defining a nozzle'throat positioned upstream from said orifice, said segments being separated by substantially triangular gaps" having their maximum width at the throat end of said nozzle and through which a portion of said exhaust gases may escape with the remainder being expelled from said throat, and means providing a jet stream in said annular space and generally coaxial. with said shroud.

2. The combination as defined in claim 1 with the addition of linkage means connected to each of said segments and actuating means operatively connected with said linkage means, said linkage means and actuating means being adapted to move the smaller ends of said segments radially to vary the size of said throat.

3. The "combination as defined in claim 2 wherein said segments are provided with stiffening means consisting of outwardly recurvcd longitudinal edges on each of said segments.

4. A supersonic nozzle construction for the exhaust gases of a jet propulsion device, comprising in combination a generally cylindrical shroud member having an orifice, a nozzle member disposed within said shroud member substantially coaxial therewith and defining therewith an annular space, said nozzle'comprisinfg a generally cylindrical upstream portion and a downstream converging portion, said converging portion comprising a plurality of tapering segments with their smaller ends disposed downstream and defining a nozzle throat positioned upstream from said orifice, an expansion chamberdefined by said shroud and extending between said throat and said orifice, said segments having their longitudinal edges outwardly recurved and being separated by substantially triangular gaps having their maximum width at the throat end of said nozzle and through which a portion of said exhaust gases may escape with the remainder being expelled from said throat, linkage means connected to each of said segments and actuating means operatively connected with said linkage means, said linkage means and'actuating means being adapted to move the smaller ends of said segments radially to vary the size of said throat, and adjustable air intake means disposed in said shroud upstream of said converging portion and adapted to provide an air jet within said annular space and generally coaxial with said shroud to diminish radial expansion of said exhaust gases within said expansion chamber.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,703,959 Wetherbee Mar. 15, 1955 2,846,844 ORourke Aug. 12, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 998,358 France Sept. 19, 1951 1,032,108 France Mar. 25, 195.3 1,086,315 France Aug. 11, 1954 654,344 Great Britain June 13, 1951 704,669 Great Britain Feb. 24, 1954 975 Great Britain Sept. 10,1914

US663672A 1957-06-05 1957-06-05 Leaky-type exhaust nozzle for jet propulsion devices Expired - Lifetime US2986002A (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3062003A (en) * 1959-04-06 1962-11-06 United Aircraft Corp Variable area exhaust nozzle
US3143293A (en) * 1961-04-13 1964-08-04 Universal Oil Prod Co Variable-area nozzle
US3215172A (en) * 1962-12-24 1965-11-02 Nilsson Robbins & Anderson Jet engine noise suppressor with shroud for aspiration of air into exhaust stream
US3524588A (en) * 1967-10-19 1970-08-18 Snecma Silencer for aircraft jet engines
US6318706B1 (en) * 1997-06-02 2001-11-20 Edmond Montaz Device for compressing a compressible fluid
US6354538B1 (en) * 1999-10-25 2002-03-12 Rohr, Inc. Passive control of hot air injection for swirling rotational type anti-icing system
US20040031258A1 (en) * 2002-03-20 2004-02-19 Dimitri Papamoschou Jet engine noise suppressor
WO2009007430A1 (en) * 2007-07-10 2009-01-15 Edmond Montaz Device for controlling the flow rate of a high-speed gaseous fluid
US20110143294A1 (en) * 2009-12-14 2011-06-16 David Deng Dual fuel heating source with nozzle
US20180022466A1 (en) * 2016-07-19 2018-01-25 United Technologies Corporation Method and Apparatus for Variable Supplemental Airflow to Cool Aircraft Components
US10066838B2 (en) 2006-05-30 2018-09-04 David Deng Dual fuel heating system

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB191400975A (en) * 1914-01-13 1914-09-10 James Robertson Porter Improvements in Aeronautical Machines.
GB654344A (en) * 1954-11-25 1951-06-13 Cie Electro Mecanique 12 Method of regulating gas turbine jet-propulsion plants, and means therefor
FR998358A (en) * 1949-10-31 1952-01-17 Cem Comp Electro Mec exhaust nozzles for turbo-reactors
FR1032108A (en) * 1951-02-06 1953-06-30 Cem Comp Electro Mec Method and post-combustion control device for turbo-reactor
GB704669A (en) * 1949-07-22 1954-02-24 Rateau Soc Improvements in jet propulsion engines
FR1086315A (en) * 1953-07-06 1955-02-11 Improvements to the combined reactors
US2703959A (en) * 1951-07-19 1955-03-15 United Aircraft Corp Variable flow nozzle
US2846844A (en) * 1956-01-24 1958-08-12 Ryan Aeronautical Co Variable area thrust deflectoraugmenter for jet engines

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB191400975A (en) * 1914-01-13 1914-09-10 James Robertson Porter Improvements in Aeronautical Machines.
GB704669A (en) * 1949-07-22 1954-02-24 Rateau Soc Improvements in jet propulsion engines
FR998358A (en) * 1949-10-31 1952-01-17 Cem Comp Electro Mec exhaust nozzles for turbo-reactors
FR1032108A (en) * 1951-02-06 1953-06-30 Cem Comp Electro Mec Method and post-combustion control device for turbo-reactor
US2703959A (en) * 1951-07-19 1955-03-15 United Aircraft Corp Variable flow nozzle
FR1086315A (en) * 1953-07-06 1955-02-11 Improvements to the combined reactors
GB654344A (en) * 1954-11-25 1951-06-13 Cie Electro Mecanique 12 Method of regulating gas turbine jet-propulsion plants, and means therefor
US2846844A (en) * 1956-01-24 1958-08-12 Ryan Aeronautical Co Variable area thrust deflectoraugmenter for jet engines

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3062003A (en) * 1959-04-06 1962-11-06 United Aircraft Corp Variable area exhaust nozzle
US3143293A (en) * 1961-04-13 1964-08-04 Universal Oil Prod Co Variable-area nozzle
US3215172A (en) * 1962-12-24 1965-11-02 Nilsson Robbins & Anderson Jet engine noise suppressor with shroud for aspiration of air into exhaust stream
US3524588A (en) * 1967-10-19 1970-08-18 Snecma Silencer for aircraft jet engines
US6318706B1 (en) * 1997-06-02 2001-11-20 Edmond Montaz Device for compressing a compressible fluid
US6354538B1 (en) * 1999-10-25 2002-03-12 Rohr, Inc. Passive control of hot air injection for swirling rotational type anti-icing system
US20040031258A1 (en) * 2002-03-20 2004-02-19 Dimitri Papamoschou Jet engine noise suppressor
US7293401B2 (en) * 2002-03-20 2007-11-13 The Regents Of The University Of California Jet engine noise suppressor
US10066838B2 (en) 2006-05-30 2018-09-04 David Deng Dual fuel heating system
WO2009007430A1 (en) * 2007-07-10 2009-01-15 Edmond Montaz Device for controlling the flow rate of a high-speed gaseous fluid
FR2918721A1 (en) * 2007-07-10 2009-01-16 Edmond Montaz Apparatus for controlling flow rate of gaseous fluid.
US20110143294A1 (en) * 2009-12-14 2011-06-16 David Deng Dual fuel heating source with nozzle
US9829195B2 (en) * 2009-12-14 2017-11-28 David Deng Dual fuel heating source with nozzle
US20180022466A1 (en) * 2016-07-19 2018-01-25 United Technologies Corporation Method and Apparatus for Variable Supplemental Airflow to Cool Aircraft Components

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