US2960195A - Wall facing - Google Patents

Wall facing Download PDF

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US2960195A
US2960195A US47444254A US2960195A US 2960195 A US2960195 A US 2960195A US 47444254 A US47444254 A US 47444254A US 2960195 A US2960195 A US 2960195A
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mullion
members
parts
construction
building
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Toth Louis
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Toth Louis
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/88Curtain walls
    • E04B2/96Curtain walls comprising panels attached to the structure through mullions or transoms
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B7/00Special arrangements or measures in connection with doors or windows
    • E06B7/14Measures for draining-off condensed water or water leaking-in frame members for draining off condensation water, throats at the bottom of a sash

Description

Nov. 15, 1960 Filed Dec. 10, 1954 L. TOTH WALL FACING Lag .5 7 07 5 ATTORN EYS Nov. 15, 1960 o H 2,960,195

WALL FACING Filed Dec. 10, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 20 r- 32 jay WALL FACING Louis Toth, Easton, Conn. (1095 South Ave., Bridgeport, Conn.)

Filed Dec. 10, 1954, Ser. No. 474,442

11 Claims. (Cl. 189-34) This invention relates to Wall construction for buildings and particularly to building wall facings made of metal and glass, or of metal, glass and spandrels or panels.

In the building of wall facings of the character described in which the main supporting members are metal, difiiculties are experienced because of the relatively high coeflicient of expansion of the metal, for example aluminum, as compared with other elements of the building. Owing to this expansion and contraction, it is diflicult to permanently seal the various building elements in such a way as to prevent leakage. In accordance with the present invention a construction is provided in which this difiiculty is overcome and expansion and contraction are provided for in both vertical and horizontal directions without permitting leakage to take place.

Wall facings constructed according to the principle herein disclosed may be assembled at the factory in units as large as can be conveniently shipped to the place where the building is to be located. These units include mullion sections, horizontal members, spandrels and windows, all joined together at the factory, the mullions and horizontal members being of such construction that when the units are assembled they are joined together in such a way that while vertical and horizontal expansion is permitted there is no leakage between the joined units.

One object of the present invention is to provide construction of the vertical members or mullions of the building facing, which are so made as to firmly hold the window frame and spandrel members, but to permit expansion and contraction without permitting leakage.

Another object of the invention is to provide a construction of the horizontal members permitting expansion in a vertical direction to take place. Expansion joints may be provided at every floor level or at spaced floor levels, such as at every other floor level depending upon the size of the unit built at the factory which can be shipped to the building location.

Another object of the invention consists in constructing the horizontal expansion joints in such manner that any water leakage, if it occurs, or condensation will be trapped by means of flashing attached to the floors or floor beams, which will lead such leakage or condensation to the horizontal members of the facing which are constructed to collect such water and permit it to pass to the outside of the building walls, as by means of weep holes. A construction is also preferably provided to pre vent water from being blown up through the weep holes and being forced above the flashing joints.

Among the other objects of the invention are to provide sealing means which may easily be introduced between mullion sections at the time of their erection so as to prevent leakage; to provide covering means for the mullions by which the desired architectural appearance may be secured while at the same time further protection against leakage and additional strength is provided; to provide a construction in which joints around window frame and spandrel elements may be packed or repacked from the inside of the structure; and to provide improved spandrel or panel constructions which are light, strong and effective insulators against heat losses.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear in the course of the following description of certain preferred embodiments of the invention chosen to illustrate the principles thereof.

In the accompanying drawings:

Figure 1 is a front elevation of the facade of a building, such as a store or oflice building;

Figure 2 is a vertical section on line 2-2 of Fig. 1 parts being broken away;

Figure 3 is a perspective view of a plastic frame for an insulated panel or spandrel;

Figure 4 is a horizontal section on line 4-4 of Fig. 1, parts being broken away;

Figure 5 is a fragmentary horizontal section on an enlarged scale of one of the mullions, showing the same in expanded condition;

Figure 6 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view of a modified form of mullion;

Figure 7 is a vertical sectional view of a modified form of spandrel panel; and

Figure 8 is a similar view of another modified form of panel.

Referring to the drawings in detail, the invention is shown for purposes of illustration in a building facade comprising windows 10, spandrels l2, mullions 14 and horizontal members 15 and 16 joined to the mullion between the windows and spandrels.

Referring particularly to Figs. 4 and 5, the mullions are preferably formed of two members, a left hand shape 18 and a right hand shape 19, each comprising webs 20, right angle flanges 22, and at the outer edges outwardly turned flanges 24. The mullion members are also preferably provided with Z-shaped guide flanges 25 on the right angle flanges 22. The mullion members also have channel formations 26 midway of the web portions 2%? which provides channels 28 for the reception of a sealing or packing member 30 to be described. The inner parts of the web 20 are firmly clamped together in the finished construction in any suitable manner as by bolts 32. The mullion members may be made by any suitable process, for example by rolling, but in the construction shown are extruded sections usually of aluminum.

The structure is preferably assembled in units at the factory, each unit comprising a right and left half-mullion of suitable length, for example of sufiicient length to receive a pair of windows and spandrel sections, and these mullion parts are welded or otherwise tightly connected to the ends of the transverse members 15 and 16, window frames 34 and spandrels 12 being mounted in position at the same time. The size of the unit which is assembled at the factory depends upon the size of the individual windows and the conditions under which the unit can be shipped to the job. It is desirable to make the units as large as possible, and each unit may include a central mullion or mullions in addition to the outer mullion parts, together with the windows, spandrels and transverse members mounted therebetween. In vertical height the unit may correspond with the distance between floors, or it may be high enough to extend over a plurality of floor levels, the height of two floor levels being a usual practice. In Fig. l a single wall facing unit is indicated at A comprising the two vertical rows of windows and spandrels at the right hand side of the figure with the mullion parts and horizontal members forming the framework enclosingthe same.

Upon erection of adjacent units the packing 30 is inserted between adjacent mullion members which are then bolted tightly together by bolts 32. Owing to the expan- Patented Nov. 15, i960 sion and contraction of the metal mullions, window frames and spandrels some relative movement of the parts necessarily takes place and this is provided for primarily by the two part mullion construction, the outer parts of the mullions beingcapableof spreading apart as clearlysibility of such leakage, the flexible packing 30 fittingin the channels 28 is -provided; The packing 30, as shown particularly in Fig. 5, preferably takes-the form of a flattened tube of permanently flexible plastic such as a vinyl plastic which is provided with a plurality of inclined tongues or ribs 36 directed towards the adjacent faces of the mullionmembers and fitting in saw-toothed shaped grooves 38 formed in the walls of the channels 28. In an extruded section the formation of these grooves is very simple. It will be seen-that the plastic ribs fitting in the grooves will yield upon separation ofthe mullion webs, while still fitting tightly in their grooves, and that upon expansion bringing the webs closer together, they will not become loose so that an eifective seal against leakage is provided under all conditions, and for an in definite length of time. The several ribs and grooves also provide a labyrinthine path forming an effective obstruction against leakage.

A slightly modified form of packing is shown in Fig. 6 in which a flattened tube 40 isused which is not provided with ribs fitting in grooves. This will be especially suitable in connection with 2. rolled section where the formation of the grooves 38 would present some diinculty. If desired a packing 42 of mastic or the like may be inserted in the space outside of packing tube 40 in grooves 44 in the webs of the mullion members.

The transverse bars 15 are shown in the example illustrated as extrudedaluminum sections having top walls 46 and bottom walls 48 connected by a connecting web 50. This construction provides alimited amount of flexibility taking care of some of the vertical expansion. The main cross members 16, particularly thoseloca-ted at the top and bottom of the factory built units, are preferably made in two telescopic-parts, the upper partbeing designated 52 and being provided with an outer flange 54, an

inner flange 56 and a hook shaped deflector or baflleflange 58. The lower part 60 of the member 16 is provided with a downwardly turned flange 62, a horizontal flange portion 64 and an outer flange 66, the latter sliding between the flanges 54and 56 of the upper member 52 so as to provide an expansion joint. The flange portion 64 is preferably. providedwith one or more weep holes 68. At the inner side of the member 60 is an upwardly turned flange 70, and a flashing member 72 is preferably extended from the floor slab 74 down in front of the flange 70 over the horizontal part of the member 60 and terminates in a flange 76 extending into the trough or gutter formed between the members 62, 64-and 66. Thus any leakage or. condensation passes down over the flashing and out of the weep hole 68. The deflector or baflie flange 58 retards the blowing of water back into the joint by high Winds.

The windows may be of any desired type either fixed, pivoted or sliding, and need not be described in detail.

The spandrel panels may be of any suitable construction, either metal or otherwise, and may, if-desired, be of glass. A preferred panel construction, however, is formed of spaced aluminum plates, mounted in a plastic frame, a suitably insulated filling being provided between the plates if desired. In the construction shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4, the panel comprises a plastic frame having a flange 82. Mounted at theback of the plastic frame is an aluminum plate 84, and'at the front of the frame is mounted an aluminum plate 86. The plastic frame and the aluminum plates thus enclose a dead air space. As an additional insulating means, one or more plastic frames 88 may be mounted in the frame 80 and these may carry sheets of aluminum foil or plastic 90 having reflecting surfaces. As shown the foil sheets 90 are held in grooves 5 2 in the frames 88 by tubes or rods 94, snapped into placein the grooves. A weep hole is preferably provided at the bottom of the framebetween the front plate and the insulation to permit condensation to drain outside.

In Fig. 7 a modified construction of panel is shown in which the inside member of the panel comprises a flanged aluminum shell 1% over which fits an outer flanged shell 102, there being insulation 101 between the flanges. Rods 104 are mounted at th'e top andbottom of-the-shells'and' a strip of bright aluminum foil or plastic 106 is wound back and forth over the rods.

Fig. 8 shows another modified form of panel in which there is an inner shell 1%,aan outer shell 110 and an. intermediate plastic shell 112 which fits into the inner shell and encloses aninsulating filling 114 of glass fiber, mineral wool or the like. This is preferably covered-"in front by a sheet 116 of brightaluminum foil or plastic; The inner and outer shells are preferably separated bya layer of insulationllS.

The small Z-shaped flanges-25'on the mullion members serve as guide or spacing flanges to properly positionthewindow. frame or panel members mounted between the: mullion members. Theyalso serve to help retain packing. 120which may be insertedeither at the factory or after the erection of the unitsinthe wall-facing; The spaces for the packingare accessible from the insideof: the building before the inner trim (not shown) is placed,

and this packing may be tightened or replaced whenever" necessary upon removal of the inner trim.

The outer facm of the mullions may be finished'to provide visible exterior surfaces, but they are preferably enclosed by mullion coverslfifi which are shown in the form of deep channels of sheet aluminum or the likewalls. To take care of the vertical expansion, thecovers' are preferably divided into sections connected by expansion joints located opposite to the expansion joints inthe transverse members 16. As shown in Fig. 2, a sleeve or channel section is welded into the upper end'of the lower section of the cover and the. seams caulked so as to'prevent leakage. The upper part of the sleeve 140 extends up inside of the lower part of the upper. section of the cover so that a leak prooftelescopic joint is provided between the two sections. of. the mullion cover. trance of rainor moisture between the, mullion parts. They also add a certain amount of physical support to the mullion structure and they may be so shaped-as to;

provide the desired architectural effect in the finished, building facade.

While cert-ainpreferred embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described'in detail, it is to be, understood that changes may be madetherein and the: It is not, there.

The mullioncovers assist in preventing the en? I claim:

1. A wall facing including at least one pair of mullion parts, each having a web transverse to the plane of the wall facing, said webs being clamped together near their edges towards the inside of the building and capable of spreading and contraction towards the outside of the building on change of temperature, each of said webs having a laterally turned flange at its edge towards the outside of the building, the flanges on a pair of connected mullion part webs turning away from each other, the web of each mullion part having a channel formed therein mating with the channel in the web of the adjacent mullion part, an elastic coherent plastic packing mounted in said channels and extending longitudinally of the mullion parts and into the channels for a distance greater than the possible separation of the mullion parts due to changes in temperature, transverse structural members secured to the mullion parts at intervals, and Window and spandrel members mounted in the spaces bounded by mullion parts and transverse structural members.

2. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the laterally turned flanges of said mullion parts carry inwardly directed flanges engaging the window or spandrel members.

3. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the packing is a hollow tube provided with inclined ribs, the walls of the channels in the mullion parts being grooved and receiving such ribs.

4. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the pair of mullion parts are provided with a deep channeled mullion cover sufliciently flexible to allow for the spreading of the outer portions of the mullion parts.

5. A construction as claimed in claim 4 in which the laterally turned flanges of the mullion parts terminate in outwardly turned flanges, the mullion cover and said outwardly turned flanges having interlocking grooves and ribs, said outwardly turned flanges of said mullion parts also having longitudinal packing grooves therein, and resilient plastic packing strips mounted in said packing grooves for sealing the joint between said outwardly turned flanges and said mullion cover.

6. A Wall facing comprising vertical side members and at least one mullion constructed of two parts clamped together at their edges toward the inside of the building, and capable of spreading and contraction toward the outside of the building upon change of temperature, the facing surfaces of said mullion parts having matching vertical channels therein, an elastic plastic flexible sealing strip fitting in said channels, and extending thereinto for a distance greater than the possible separation of the mullion members due to changes in temperature, thereby bridging the gap between the mullion parts so as to exclude leakage between the mullion parts at all temperatures, transverse structural members secured to the vertical side members and mullion parts at intervals, a plurality of wall forming elements including glazed window frames and spandrel members, mounted one above the other between the mullion and side members, and horizontal expansion joints between certain of said transverse structural members providing for vertical expansion and contraction upon change of temperature.

7. A construction as claimed in claim 6 in which the sealing member comprises a flattened tube of elastic plastic material.

8. A construction as claimed in claim 6 in which the side walls of the channels of the mullion parts and the sealing strip portions fitting therein are formed with longitudinally extending complementary grooves and ribs.

9. A building construction unit capable of being built at a factory and incorporated into a building construction as a unit in a wall facing, said unit having vertical side members, and at least one mullion intermediate said side members, said mullion being constructed of two metal bars clamped together at their edges toward the inside of the building and capable of spreading and contraction toward the outside of the building upon change of temperature, the facing surfaces of said mullion parts having matching vertical channels therein, a Vertical elastic plastic sealing strip fitting tightly in said channels and extending thereinto for a distance greater than the possible separation of the mullion members due to changes in temperature, thereby bridging the gap between the mullion parts so as to exclude leakage between the mullion parts at all temperatures, transverse metal structural members including top and bottom members each extending between a side member and a mullion part and firmly secured thereto, and a plurality of Wall forming elements including glazed window frames and spandrel members mounted between the mullion parts and side members, at least one of the transverse structural members at the top and bottom of said unit having projecting spaced flanges adapted to cooperate with a mating flange construction on an adjacent unit to form an expansion joint therewith.

10.. A curtain wall comprising a plurality of wall facing sections each embodying two metal side members joined by metal cross members of lengths to extend between the side members and firmly fixed at their ends to the respective side members, the adjacent side membersof contiguous wall sections consisting of metal angle bars having wide webs transverse to the plane of the wall and lateral flanges at the outer edges of said webs, the flanges of adjacent webs of contiguous wall sections facing away from each other, the transverse webs of said angle bars being formed midway of their widths with return bend formations providing facing deep channels in the adjacent webs, said webs being firmly clamped together near their inner edges only so that their outer portions may separate more or less depending on conditions of stress to which they are subjected, and flexible elastic sealing strips of coherent material fitting in said channels and extending thereinto for a distance greater than the possible separation of the adjacent webs due to changes in temperature, and wall forming elements mounted between the metal side and cross members of each section.

11. A curtain wall comprising a plurality of courses of joined Wall facing sections as defined in claim 10 located one above the other and joined by weathersealing horizontal expansion joints providing for vertical expansion and contraction.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 947,656 Trefler Jan. 25, 1910 1,178,491 Clasen Apr. 11, 1916 1,723,306 Sipe Aug. 6, 1929 1,931,750 Blaski Oct. 24, 1933 2,175,271 Lethly Oct. 10, 1939 2,175,653 Williams Oct. 10, 1939 2,231,216 Nystrom Feb. 11, 1941 2,447,272 Parkes Aug. 17, 1948 2,565,747 Van Fleet Aug. 28, 1951 2,570,336 Fouts Oct. 9, 1951 2,604,195 Peremi et a1. July 22, 1952 2,663,917 Peterson Dec. 29, 1953 2,667,951 Gall Feb. 2, 1954 2,800,983 Toney July 30, 1957 OTHER REFERENCES Sweets Catalog, 1952, 17a/AD, page 11.

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3150748A (en) * 1960-09-16 1964-09-29 Liskey Aluminum Elevated sectional floor
US3319388A (en) * 1964-05-13 1967-05-16 Olsen Torgny Kjelstrup Wall constructions
US3438167A (en) * 1967-03-09 1969-04-15 Airotec Inc Solar shade apparatus with splicing means
US4557088A (en) * 1983-04-26 1985-12-10 Yoshida Kogyo K. K. Parapet portion of curtain wall
US4644717A (en) * 1985-03-08 1987-02-24 Butler Manufacturing Co. Curtain wall valve system
US4685263A (en) * 1986-05-23 1987-08-11 Ting Raymond M L Aluminum plate curtain wall structure
WO1992020536A1 (en) * 1991-05-20 1992-11-26 Big Unlimited Method and apparatus for creating design insulated glass
EP2735689A3 (en) * 2012-11-21 2014-09-03 Alcoa Aluminium Deutschland, Inc. Drainage device for the joint area of a profile and a post profile and post-cross member profile arrangement with a water drainage device
US20140331579A1 (en) * 2013-05-07 2014-11-13 Elston Window & Wall, Llc Systems and methods for providing a window wall with flush slab edge covers
US9752319B1 (en) 2016-03-03 2017-09-05 Kurtis E. LeVan Building facade system

Citations (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US947656A (en) * 1909-05-07 1910-01-25 Henry Harry Treffer Show-window gutter and flashing.
US1178491A (en) * 1914-02-18 1916-04-11 Bettendorf Co Railway-car construction.
US1723306A (en) * 1927-08-02 1929-08-06 Harry E Sipe Resilient attaching strip
US1931750A (en) * 1931-02-13 1933-10-24 Frank Hussey Skylight construction
US2175653A (en) * 1937-08-11 1939-10-10 Williams Jack Glass-supporting metallic frame
US2175271A (en) * 1937-08-26 1939-10-10 Marlay W Lethly Metallic building
US2231216A (en) * 1938-12-31 1941-02-11 Standard Railway Equipment Mfg Insulated panel
US2447272A (en) * 1945-08-09 1948-08-17 Ralph C Parkes Insulated panel
US2565747A (en) * 1948-07-02 1951-08-28 Vincent Van Fleet Window frame assembly
US2570336A (en) * 1950-01-20 1951-10-09 William C Fouts Window sill and ledge structure
US2604195A (en) * 1946-02-14 1952-07-22 Gen Bronze Corp Mullion construction
US2663917A (en) * 1948-01-28 1953-12-29 Peterson Dev Corp Window structure
US2667951A (en) * 1950-06-10 1954-02-02 George R Gall Pane retainer
US2800983A (en) * 1954-03-29 1957-07-30 Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co Division bar

Patent Citations (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US947656A (en) * 1909-05-07 1910-01-25 Henry Harry Treffer Show-window gutter and flashing.
US1178491A (en) * 1914-02-18 1916-04-11 Bettendorf Co Railway-car construction.
US1723306A (en) * 1927-08-02 1929-08-06 Harry E Sipe Resilient attaching strip
US1931750A (en) * 1931-02-13 1933-10-24 Frank Hussey Skylight construction
US2175653A (en) * 1937-08-11 1939-10-10 Williams Jack Glass-supporting metallic frame
US2175271A (en) * 1937-08-26 1939-10-10 Marlay W Lethly Metallic building
US2231216A (en) * 1938-12-31 1941-02-11 Standard Railway Equipment Mfg Insulated panel
US2447272A (en) * 1945-08-09 1948-08-17 Ralph C Parkes Insulated panel
US2604195A (en) * 1946-02-14 1952-07-22 Gen Bronze Corp Mullion construction
US2663917A (en) * 1948-01-28 1953-12-29 Peterson Dev Corp Window structure
US2565747A (en) * 1948-07-02 1951-08-28 Vincent Van Fleet Window frame assembly
US2570336A (en) * 1950-01-20 1951-10-09 William C Fouts Window sill and ledge structure
US2667951A (en) * 1950-06-10 1954-02-02 George R Gall Pane retainer
US2800983A (en) * 1954-03-29 1957-07-30 Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co Division bar

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3150748A (en) * 1960-09-16 1964-09-29 Liskey Aluminum Elevated sectional floor
US3319388A (en) * 1964-05-13 1967-05-16 Olsen Torgny Kjelstrup Wall constructions
US3438167A (en) * 1967-03-09 1969-04-15 Airotec Inc Solar shade apparatus with splicing means
US4557088A (en) * 1983-04-26 1985-12-10 Yoshida Kogyo K. K. Parapet portion of curtain wall
US4644717A (en) * 1985-03-08 1987-02-24 Butler Manufacturing Co. Curtain wall valve system
US4685263A (en) * 1986-05-23 1987-08-11 Ting Raymond M L Aluminum plate curtain wall structure
WO1992020536A1 (en) * 1991-05-20 1992-11-26 Big Unlimited Method and apparatus for creating design insulated glass
EP2735689A3 (en) * 2012-11-21 2014-09-03 Alcoa Aluminium Deutschland, Inc. Drainage device for the joint area of a profile and a post profile and post-cross member profile arrangement with a water drainage device
US20140331579A1 (en) * 2013-05-07 2014-11-13 Elston Window & Wall, Llc Systems and methods for providing a window wall with flush slab edge covers
US8959855B2 (en) * 2013-05-07 2015-02-24 Elston Window & Wall, Llc Systems and methods for providing a window wall with flush slab edge covers
US20150113891A1 (en) * 2013-05-07 2015-04-30 Elston Window & Wall, Llc Systems and methods for providing a window wall with flush slab edge covers
US20150240488A1 (en) * 2013-05-07 2015-08-27 Elston Window & Wall, Llc Systems and methods for providing a window wall with flush slab edge covers
US9611643B2 (en) * 2013-05-07 2017-04-04 Reflection Window Company, Llc Systems and methods for providing a window wall with flush slab edge covers
US9663945B2 (en) * 2013-05-07 2017-05-30 Reflection Window Company, Llc Systems and methods for providing a window wall with flush slab edge covers
US10053859B2 (en) 2013-05-07 2018-08-21 Reflection Window Company, Llc Systems and methods for providing a window wall with flush slab edge covers
US9752319B1 (en) 2016-03-03 2017-09-05 Kurtis E. LeVan Building facade system
US10094111B2 (en) 2016-03-03 2018-10-09 Kurtis E. LeVan Building facade system

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