US2930133A - Apparatus to aid in determining abnormal positions of spinal vertebrae - Google Patents

Apparatus to aid in determining abnormal positions of spinal vertebrae Download PDF

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US2930133A
US2930133A US670554A US67055457A US2930133A US 2930133 A US2930133 A US 2930133A US 670554 A US670554 A US 670554A US 67055457 A US67055457 A US 67055457A US 2930133 A US2930133 A US 2930133A
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plate
line
apparatus
angle
vertebra
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Thompson Joseph Clay
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Thompson Joseph Clay
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/103Detecting, measuring or recording devices for testing the shape, pattern, colour, size or movement of the body or parts thereof, for diagnostic purposes
    • A61B5/107Measuring physical dimensions, e.g. size of the entire body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/1071Measuring physical dimensions, e.g. size of the entire body or parts thereof measuring angles, e.g. using goniometers

Description

lwaltth 29, 1960 b, H M 2,930,133

I APPARATUS TO AID IN DETERMINING ABNORMAL POSITIONS 0F SPINAL VERTEBRAE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 8, 1957 March 29, 1960 J. c. THOMPSON 2,930,133

APPARATUS T0 AID m DETERMINING ABNORMAL POSITIONS OF SPINAL VERTEBRAE 2 Sheets-$heet 2 Filed July 8, 1957 FIG. 2

APPARATUS To. AID IN DETERMINING ABNOR- MAL PosirroNs oF SPINAL VERTEBRAE I Joseph Clay Thompson, Davenport, Iowa Application July 8,1957, Serial No. 670,554'

4 Claims. c1. 33-174 the direction, extent and nature of such subluxations and guiding the direction and extent of the force to be applied by the chiropractor to the spine in correctingthem, which will be of material aid to him in administering manual adjustments thereof;

To provide adjustable apparatus and a method by which an indicator rod may be positioned at a compound angle which will illustrate and exemplify both the lateral andlongitudinal and transverse angles at which the direction of the'articulations of a subluxated vertebra stand as compared to their normal healthy position;

To provide a pair of protractors. adjoining each other me right angle with means for measuring and indicating inclination or angularity in both lateral and longitudinal directions corresponding to those of an area of the spine with which they may be compared;

- To provide means and 'a method for indicating the extent of rotational displacement, if any; of a subluxated vertebra and the-inclination thereof away from its normal healthy position; v

.Toprovide apparatus which will be an aid to instructorsjin teaching the principles of chiropractic practice to students;

To provide such, an apparatus as" an article of manumounted upon a rod 8 and is rigidly secured to the plate 19 movable along the plate 5 and extends upwardly and has a line thereon adapted to mark its position along the scale 5a. It is arranged totravel along an arcuate slot 10 cut in the upper part of the plate 5 on a radial line from the pivot of 8 as a center.

A pin 9 is united to a bar member. 11 which is rigidly V mounted upon and secured to La plate 19. The plate 19 is mounted upon a rod 8 carried byand pivotally mounted in Crossbars 6 and 12..

The plate 19' extends to and is united to the-strip-7 at a right angle thereto. It has an arcuate slot 13; cut therein into which a pin 14 projects and is movable from one end. to the other end of the slot. Theslot 13 is .cut upon an arc with a radius centering at the pivot .pin 15.;-

The pivot pin 15 is secured in the plate '19 and-carries a vertical bar16 and also. carries a light indicator rod 17- adjustably mounted thereon with a set screw 14a andas the pin 14 moves. in onedirection, the rod. 17- swings with its pivot pin 15 thus moving its pointedlower end 18 in the opposite direction. Above the slot 13 a scale 19A is marked uponthe plate 19 to show the angle at which the rod 17 is turned laterally asindicatcd by a line carriedby the bar 16,

The arcuate slot 10 formed in the protractor p1ate5. is along an are on a line made. by a radius having its;

. center point near the lower end of the protractoriand: extending upwardly through :the central and'highest point of the arc.

Likewise the arcuate slot 13 in the protractor plate 19: is laid out on an are on a line drawn by a projected radius having its center point at the. 'center'ofthe pivot bar 15 and extending upwardly through the centralv and highest point of the arc.

The scales SAand HA shown upon the protractor plates 5 and 19, are parallelto. the arcuate slots-therein. and preferably have the zero mark located at the highest point of the scales as shown in Figurezl .and with marks. extending to the right and left of the zero point .to. indicate degrees as if part of a complete circle. The} scales preferably constitute approximately one-fourth of;

' a complete circle of 360 and short marks are used. to)

facture of convenient size for the use of chiropractic doctors in their ofiice'practice.

I accomplish these objects by the means shown in the accompanying drawings, in which,

Figure 1 shows a perspective of my assembled apparatus; a Figure 2is a top or plan view omitting the feet; Figure 3' is aside elevation but withthe post 1 broken away and showing the-protractors inclined on their axes when adjusted tocorrespond to the angles of a subluxated vertebra. I 'My' apparatus includes an adjustable post or column 11 which may be supported in vertical positoin by a plu rality of feet 2 or by a base plate of sufficient size tohold itsteady. f 3

Upon the post: 1 a crossbar 3 is adjustably mounted having spaced-apart'supportingrods4iadjustably mounted thereon with a set screw 3a to lock them in place.

Mounted upon the supporting rods 4 and spaced from the post, is a transparent protractor plate 5 of glass,

plastic or other suitable material, the lower end of which: is mounted upon a crossbar 6' carried by the supporting rods 4. and extending upwardly therefromas shown.

The plate Shas an arcuate scale 5a at the upper edge thereof. f 7 J I I A strip or bar 7 'mayh'ave its lower end pivotally indicate single degrees with longer marks to mark "each. .five degrees in succession.

Numerals are not required, but may be placed on the prt'JtractOrs for each of. the longer marks to indicate.

theirdistance from the zero point. a

In. preparing to operate my apparatus and. processg-al lateral spinograph or X-ray picture is first taken of the; involved section of the spinal column withthe patient in the desired position. Upon that picture a longitudinal line is drawn along. the central line of the spinal column; as it would be if in normal position.

in case the picture shows a lateralisubluxation of one or more of the vertebrae, a transverse line is drawn at a right angle to the center line of the spine, atw would be the middle of thevertebra if in normal p -'v tion. A second transverse line is then drawn through the middle of the subluxated vertebra. A protractor is then applied to the picture and the angle between that.- second line'andth'e first line determined.

A second spinographis. tlien'takeniwith thecamefa on a. line at a right angle to the camera line for they first picture. If that shows one .or more vertebrae subluxated forward or back, similar transverse lines are.v drawn along what would betlre: normal center of the dis-v placed vertebra if in normal position and along the center of the subluxjated vertebra and the angle of the second from the first transverse line is thencarefullymeasured .by a protractor applied to the spinograplisl. and the angles measured between each of' the two pairs of line drawn'the'reon are carefully determined.

- The bar 7 is then inclined to a point on its scale 51: corresponding to the angle between the first and second lines of the lateral spinograph thereby inclining the rod 17 laterally in a corresponding direction.

i The bar 16 is then inclined until it reaches the point on its scale 13 corresponding to the angle shown upon the second spinograph corresponding to the angle between the lines. My apparatus is then placed near one side of the patient as he lies on the chiropractic table with the rods 4-4 parallel to the spine of the patient.

Such inclination of the plates inclines the indicator rod into a position which corresponds to both the forward and back as well as to the right and left inclination of one or more vertebrae where the subluxation exists.

The direction of that inclination is the direction in which the chiropractor will ordinarily deliver his thrust upon a lateral articulation of the subluxated vertebra in most cases of anterior-posterior or lateral subluxations. The chiropractic doctor is to carefully observe that direction and place the pisiform bone of his nail hand over and as close as possible to a spinous or to a. lateral articulation of a vertebra and apply a swift thrust thereto parallel to the pointer rod.

A third line may be drawn at a right angle to the first line on each of the spinographs and passing through the lowermost end of a lateral process or articulation of the subluxated vertebra and a fourth line drawn with one end in contact with the corresponding end of the third line and with its opposite end passing through the opposite lateral process or articulation of the subluxated vertebra.

A similar third line may be drawn on the second spinograph taken on a posterior-anterior line passing through the rear spinous process of the vertebra as if in the normal position and at a right angle to the first line and a similar fourth linedrawn through the spinous process and middle of the subluxated vertebra. instead of through the lateral articulations thereof.

The third and fourth lines may thus disclose a. rotational slippage and displacement.

, Experience has shown that with proper speed and force as taught by chiropractic, the vertebra so adjusted can be moved forward or back, up or down, to right or left or partially rotated as needed to restore it to its normal healthyposition and thereby relieve any undue pressure upon the spinal cord or upon nerves in the foramina of the spinal column and allow normal free travel of the nerve impulses to and from the brain.

Incases Where a rotational displacement has occurred,

the chiropractor will vary the direction of his thrust as taught and considered advisable by chiropractors without losing the benefit derived by him from the pointer rod.

In the claims I use various terms to mean as follows:

(1) Chiropractor or Doctor of Chiropractic means a person licensed as a chiropractor. (Iowa Code, Sec. 151.1(5).)

(2) Chiropractic by state laws generally includes the practice of persons who treat human ailments by the adjustment by hand of the articulations of the spine or by other incidental adjustments. (Iowa Code, Sec. 151.1(2).) I

The laws of most states require a chiropractor to have a license to practice chiropractic and specify the requirements for obtaining such licenses.

(3) Subluxations as applied to the spine refer to partial displacement of one or more vertebrae from their normal healthy position in contact with adjoining vertebrae, but without complete dislocation. Such displacement may be either lateral as where a vertebra is moved sideways from its normal position or they may be posterior-anterior where the displacement is either forward or backward. They may be rotational where one or more vertebrae have been rotated from their normal position. Such subluxations may occ r a y of e '4 cervical, dorsal, lumbar, sacral or coccygeal sections of the spine.

(4) I use the term thrust" to refer to the sudden exertion of pressure by the hand of an operator upon either the spinous process at the rear of a vertebra or upon either of the lateral articulations of a vertebra.

(5) I use the term nail hand to refer to the hand of an operator a part of which is applied to the body of a patient at the nearest point to either a spinous process or a lateral articulation. In applying the hand it is common for the portion of the hand where the pisiform bone is located, to be applied to the patient.

(6) I use the term hammer hand to apply to the other hand of an operator which is usually placed upon the nail hand and the power of both arms utilized so far as necessary to exert the desired quick thrust in each particular case.

(7) I use the term spinograph to apply to the films made in X-ray photography which are negatives or to the positive prints made from such films.

In operation of my apparatus and process, after ascertaining 'by visual observation, palpation, use of the neurocalometer, neuromentocalotimpograph, neurocalograph or other instruments, the area of an apparent subluxation in the spinal column, the chiropractor takes or has taken a plurality of X-ray spinographs of that particular area. At least one of these spinographs is taken with the camera in an anterior or posterior position directly in line with the spine at the level of the subluxated area.

Another spinograph is taken with the camera in a lateral position or at a right angle to the first position.

These spinographs will disclose the existing variation, if any, of one or more vertebrae from the normal central longitudinal line of the spinal column in the region under examination.

Additional views may be taken from other directions, such as a base-posterior, which will disclose a rotational displacement of one or more vertebrae.

For convenience, the spinograph taken from an anterior or posterior position, will be referred to as spinograph No. 1 and the one taken from a. lateral position will be referred to as spinograph No. 2.

Upon spinograph No. 1 the chiropractor will draw a longitudinal line to mark the position of a central line of the spinal column as it was or would have been in normal healthy position. On the same spinograph, he also draws another line to mark the central longitudinal line in that part of the column which has been subluxated, in its subluxated position. Similar lines are drawn on spinograph No. 2, and transverse lines are then drawn thereon as heretofore described.

He then applies a protractor or other suitable instrument to measure the angle of variation between the transverse lines mentioned on both spinographs 1 and 2.

My apparatus as described is then set up with the parallel supporting bars extending either at a right angle to Or parallel with the spine of the patient in the desired position for operation and at a height corresponding to the height of the patients spine.

. The protractors and the pointer of the apparatus are then adjusted so the pointer will stand at an angle corresponding to transverse axial lines on both spinographs l and 2 projected either through the two lateral articulations of a displaced vertebra or on a line passing through the spinous process of a displaced vertebra and centrally through the body of such vertebra.

The chiropractor then carefully observes the angle indicated by said pointer and applies his nail hand to the patient in close relation either to the spinous process or to one of the lateral articulations of such vertebra, as the case may be, and with the aid of the hammer hand applies a quick thrust thereon in the direction indicated or with such modification as may be required by a rotational subluxatiou of said vertebra, if any exists.

The amount of force to be applied to such thrust will be determined by the chiropractor with relation to the age, size and strength of the patient, the extent and direction of the subluxation, and such other elements, if any, as require consideration in the established practice of chiropractic.

Various modifications may be made of the apparatus without departing from the spirit of my invention as expressed in the clams and I do not limit my apparatus claims to the precise forms shown in the drawings.

I claim:

1. As a manufacture, an apparatus to aid chiropractors in applying the proper angle of manual thrust in the adjustment of spinal subluxations, including a stable vertical post, a rigid crossbar adjustably mounted thereon, a pair of spaced parallel horizontal supporting rods adjustably mounted on said crossbar and extending at a right angle thereto, a fixed transverse base-bar mounted on said rods carrying a transparent vertical protractor plate rigidly mounted thereon, said plate having an arcuate slot near the top thereof, a longitudinal rod pivoted in the transverse base-bar and in an additional transverse bar spaced therefrom, carrying a tiltable longitudinal protractor plate mounted threon having one end adjacent the fixed plate and carrying a pin mounted thereon extending into said arcuate slot of the fixed plate and freely moveable therein, a gauge scale of angles marked on the plate above said slot whereby the angle of the movable plate from the vertical can be indicated on the scale.

2. A compound angle indicator to indicate-the inclination of a pointer in two separate directions at right angles to each other and from an assumed vertical line, including a stable support, a vertical stationary protractor plate carried thereby having an arcuate channel near the top thereof on an arc produced from an axis midway of the lower part of the protractor plate, a scale of angles marked adjacent the channel indicating the degrees successively reading both ways from a zero point at the uppermost point thereof, in combination with a movable protracto-r plate pivotally mounted at its lower. end upon said support and with one edge adjoining the stationary plate and extending outwardly at a right angle thereto with an arcuate channel in its upper part and having a scale marked thereon reading in opposite directions to indicate the degrees from a zero point at the top of the are, a bar mounted upon the movable plate having a pin projecting into the channel of the stationary plate and freely movable along the channel with the motion of the movable plate whereby the movable plate can be tilted laterally from the vertical for the length of the channel in the stationary plate, a light bar attached to the movable plate and having its lower end pivotally secured upon the movable plate and carrying a finger projecting into the channel of the movable plate and freely movable along said channel, an extension united to the pivot pin of said bar having an indicating pointer rod slidably mounted thereon parallel to the movable plate and parallel and in line with the bar whereby when the angle of the strip has been manually adjusted to carry said pin to any desired point of the scale, the indicating rod will stand at an angle to the vertical corresponding to the position of the pin on the scale of the movable plate, and the movable plate and said indicating pointer rod will also stand at the angle indicated by the pin along the arcuate channel of the stationary protraetor plate.

3. A compound angle indicator as described in claim 2, and means carried by the movable plate adjacent the scale on the fixed plate and additional means carried by the pivoted strip adjacent the scale on the movable plate whereby the extent ofinclination of the pointer rod in two directions will be readable on said scales.

4. A compound angle indicator to indicate the inclination of an indicator pointer in two separate directions taken at right angles to each other and from an assumed vertical line, including an adjustable support, a vertical stationary protractor plate carried thereby having an arcuate channel therein near its top, a scale of angles marked above the slot, a movable protractor plate pivotally, mounted at its lower end with one edge adjoining the stationary plate and extending outwardly at a right angle thereto and with an arcuate slot in its upper part, an arcuate scale of angles marked thereon, a pin united to the movable plate and projecting into the slot of the stationary plate and movable lengthwise therein whereby the movable plate can be tilted laterally from the vertical for the length of that slot in the stationary plate, a strip attached to the movable plate centrally thereof having its lower end pivotally mounted upon the movable plate and its upper part carrying a finger pin projecting into the slot of the movable plate and movable lengthwise therein, an extension united to the pivot of said strip having an indicating pointer rod adjustably mounted thereon parallel to the movable plate and parallel and in line with the strip whereby when the angle of the strip has been manually adjusted to carry said finger pin to any desired point of the scale, the indicating pointer rod will stand at an angle to the vertical corresponding to the position of the pin on the scale of the movable plate and the movable plate and said indicating pointer rod will also stand at the angle indicated by the pin along the arcuate -slot of the stationary protractor plate.

References Cited in'the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS ,Roberts Apr. 15, 1890

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Cited By (38)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3109243A (en) * 1961-01-25 1963-11-05 Gil Mac Machine Company Gauge for measuring diameters and pitches of holes in bowling balls
US4033329A (en) * 1976-05-03 1977-07-05 National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research Association, Inc. Machine for determining vertebrae locations in the human body
US4036213A (en) * 1976-05-03 1977-07-19 National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research Association, Inc. Process for determining vertebrae locations in humans
US4444204A (en) * 1981-05-08 1984-04-24 Queen's University At Kingston Scoliosis inclinometer
US4800897A (en) * 1985-06-24 1989-01-31 Se-Produkter Device for detection of relative movements and/or positions of a part of the body or the like
US5156162A (en) * 1991-08-29 1992-10-20 Gerhardt John J Scoliosis measurement instrument with midline leg member
US5168633A (en) * 1991-08-20 1992-12-08 Harrison Samuel W Pressure transducer elevation gauge
US20040006391A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-01-08 Archus Orthopedics Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040230304A1 (en) * 2003-05-14 2004-11-18 Archus Orthopedics Inc. Prostheses, tools and methods for replacement of natural facet joints with artifical facet joint surfaces
US20040230201A1 (en) * 2003-05-14 2004-11-18 Archus Orthopedics Inc. Prostheses, tools and methods for replacement of natural facet joints with artifical facet joint surfaces
US20050010291A1 (en) * 2003-07-08 2005-01-13 Archus Orthopedics Inc. Prostheses, tools and methods for replacement of natural facet joints with artificial facet joint surfaces
US20050043799A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2005-02-24 Archus Orthopedics Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20050119748A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2005-06-02 Reiley Mark A. Prostheses, systems and methods for replacement of natural facet joints with artificial facet joint surfaces
US20050131406A1 (en) * 2003-12-15 2005-06-16 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Polyaxial adjustment of facet joint prostheses
US20050143818A1 (en) * 2003-05-14 2005-06-30 Hansen Yuan Prostheses, tools and methods for replacement of natural facet joints with artifical facet joint surfaces
US20050240266A1 (en) * 2004-04-22 2005-10-27 Kuiper Mark K Crossbar spinal prosthesis having a modular design and related implantation methods
US20050235508A1 (en) * 2004-04-22 2005-10-27 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet joint prosthesis measurement and implant tools
US20050240265A1 (en) * 2004-04-22 2005-10-27 Kuiper Mark K Crossbar spinal prosthesis having a modular design and related implantation methods
US20050267579A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2005-12-01 Reiley Mark A Implantable device for facet joint replacement
US20060041311A1 (en) * 2004-08-18 2006-02-23 Mcleer Thomas J Devices and methods for treating facet joints
US20060052785A1 (en) * 2004-08-18 2006-03-09 Augostino Teena M Adjacent level facet arthroplasty devices, spine stabilization systems, and methods
US20060079895A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-04-13 Mcleer Thomas J Methods and devices for improved bonding of devices to bone
US20060085072A1 (en) * 2004-04-22 2006-04-20 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Implantable orthopedic device component selection instrument and methods
US20060085075A1 (en) * 2004-10-04 2006-04-20 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Polymeric joint complex and methods of use
US20070088358A1 (en) * 2005-03-22 2007-04-19 Hansen Yuan Minimally Invasive Spine Restoration Systems, Devices, Methods and Kits
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US20070173651A1 (en) * 2006-01-26 2007-07-26 Holladay Johnathan E Two-stage dehydration of sugars
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US20080082171A1 (en) * 2004-04-22 2008-04-03 Kuiper Mark K Crossbar spinal prosthesis having a modular design and systems for treating spinal pathologies
US20080103501A1 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-05-01 Ralph Christopher R Angled Washer Polyaxial Connection for Dynamic Spine Prosthesis
US20080177310A1 (en) * 2000-10-20 2008-07-24 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20080287959A1 (en) * 2005-09-26 2008-11-20 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Measurement and trialing system and methods for orthopedic device component selection
US8221461B2 (en) 2004-10-25 2012-07-17 Gmedelaware 2 Llc Crossbar spinal prosthesis having a modular design and systems for treating spinal pathologies
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US2095059A (en) * 1934-06-04 1937-10-05 Jr John Donnelly Apparatus for measuring and enlarging sculpture
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US780225A (en) * 1904-04-16 1905-01-17 V Le Comte Ourdan Measuring apparatus for spherical trigonometry.
US945684A (en) * 1909-01-20 1910-01-04 John Thomas Blair Square or gaging device.
US1134106A (en) * 1913-07-17 1915-04-06 Robert Henry Clarke Apparatus for gaging the position of and directing access to points within closed surfaces.
DE344256C (en) * 1920-05-08 1921-11-21 Max Wuehst spatial Messgeraet
US2095059A (en) * 1934-06-04 1937-10-05 Jr John Donnelly Apparatus for measuring and enlarging sculpture
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Cited By (116)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3109243A (en) * 1961-01-25 1963-11-05 Gil Mac Machine Company Gauge for measuring diameters and pitches of holes in bowling balls
US4033329A (en) * 1976-05-03 1977-07-05 National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research Association, Inc. Machine for determining vertebrae locations in the human body
US4036213A (en) * 1976-05-03 1977-07-19 National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research Association, Inc. Process for determining vertebrae locations in humans
US4444204A (en) * 1981-05-08 1984-04-24 Queen's University At Kingston Scoliosis inclinometer
US4800897A (en) * 1985-06-24 1989-01-31 Se-Produkter Device for detection of relative movements and/or positions of a part of the body or the like
US5168633A (en) * 1991-08-20 1992-12-08 Harrison Samuel W Pressure transducer elevation gauge
US5156162A (en) * 1991-08-29 1992-10-20 Gerhardt John J Scoliosis measurement instrument with midline leg member
US20070255411A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2007-11-01 Reiley Mark A Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049277A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049278A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049281A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049275A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049273A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet Arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040049274A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-03-11 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040006391A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-01-08 Archus Orthopedics Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20040111154A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2004-06-10 Archus Orthopedics, Inc. Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US20090018585A1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2009-01-15 Reiley Mark A Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
US8163017B2 (en) 1999-10-22 2012-04-24 Gmedelaware 2 Llc Facet arthroplasty devices and methods
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