US2921539A - Articulated railway car - Google Patents

Articulated railway car Download PDF

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US2921539A
US2921539A US362625A US36262553A US2921539A US 2921539 A US2921539 A US 2921539A US 362625 A US362625 A US 362625A US 36262553 A US36262553 A US 36262553A US 2921539 A US2921539 A US 2921539A
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end
unit
adjacent
wheeled
axle
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John R Furrer
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ACF Industries Inc
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American Car and Foundry Co
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61DBODY DETAILS OR KINDS OF RAILWAY VEHICLES
    • B61D3/00Wagons or vans
    • B61D3/10Articulated vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61FRAIL VEHICLE SUSPENSIONS, e.g. UNDERFRAMES, BOGIES OR ARRANGEMENTS OF WHEEL AXLES; RAIL VEHICLES FOR USE ON TRACKS OF DIFFERENT WIDTH; PREVENTING DERAILING OF RAIL VEHICLES; WHEEL GUARDS, OBSTRUCTION REMOVERS OR THE LIKE FOR RAIL VEHICLES
    • B61F5/00Constructional details of bogies; Connections between bogies and vehicle underframes; Arrangements or devices for adjusting or allowing self-adjustment of wheel axles or bogies when rounding curves
    • B61F5/38Arrangements or devices for adjusting or allowing self- adjustment of wheel axles or bogies when rounding curves, e.g. sliding axles, swinging axles
    • B61F5/44Adjustment controlled by movements of vehicle body
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61GCOUPLINGS; DRAUGHT AND BUFFING APPLIANCES
    • B61G5/00Couplings for special purposes not otherwise provided for
    • B61G5/02Couplings for special purposes not otherwise provided for for coupling articulated trains, locomotives and tenders or the bogies of a vehicle; Coupling by means of a single coupling bar; Couplings preventing or limiting relative lateral movement of vehicles

Description

J. R. FURRER ARTICULATED RAILWAY CAR Jan. 19, 1960 s sheets-sheet 1f INVENTOR Jam/R FUR/esl? w.

'rf'roRN m? SN? Filed June 1$, 1953 m "L l M wm wm mi my 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Jan. 19, 1960 J. R. FURRER ARTICULATED RAILWAY CAR Filed June 18, 1953 Jan. 19, 1960 J. R. FURRER ARTICULATED RAILWAY cAR Filed June 18 1953 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 /l R/Ql Jan, 19, 1960 J. Rv. FURRER 2,921,539 y f ARTICULATED RAILWAY nCAR Filed June 18. 1953 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 JOHN A2 FUPPER f y yAfr'caNE? Jan. 19, 1960 .1. R. FURRER 2,921,539

ARTICULATED RAILWAY ACAR l Filecl` June 18, 1953 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 United States Patent Oiice 2,921,539 Patented Jan. 19, 1960 2,921,539 ARTICULATED RAILWAY CAR John R. Furrer, Southport, Conn., assignor to American Car n nd Foundry Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey Application June 18, 1952i, Serial No. 362,625 12 Claims. (Cl. 10S-4) This invention relates to railway cars and consists particularly in the provision of an articulated car consisting of a plurality of relatively short lightweight units.

Conventional railway passenger cars are generally between 80 and 85 feet in length, and consequently, in order to operate on curved trackage, are pivotally mounted near each end on a four or six Wheel truck. Cars of this type are generally independent, self-sufficient units, frequently containing their own power generating, air conditioning, and sanitary facilities. They are dependent upon external means only for traction, braking, and heating, and are equipped with automatic couplers and other connections which enable them to be easily connected to any other standard railway car. These characteristics make possible highly liexible train arrangements, both as to the number of cars in a train and as to the types of cars composing a train. They also facilitate the addition to or removal of cars'from trains. Such cars have three principal disadvantages:

First, their great length and weight necessitates very strong and consequently very heavy underframing.

Second, the use of pivoted trucks necessitates a floor level higher than the truck bolster to permit swivelling of the trucks, with consequent elevation of the center of gravity.

Third, when cars of this type enter a curve, the trucks are guided by the engagement of the inner edge of the outer rail head and the flanges of the outer wheels, so that the outer front Wheel flange of each truck digs into and attempts to climb over the rail; this factor causes excessive wear on both rail and wheels and frequently results in derailment at excessive speeds.

This tendency towards derailment, which is the most serious disadvantage, perhaps, of conventional cars, can be corrected by providing means for guiding all axles on the car so that the vertical planes of the wheels are either tangential to the vertical edges of the rails, or so that the wheel are always directed slightly inwardly on curves.

To overcome the `disadvantages enumerated above, articulated trains, consisting of a plurality of relatively short two-wheel trailers provided with fixed transverse axles at their rear ends, have been built. Because of their short length, such trailers can be built with much lighter framing than conventional cars, thus eliminating the excessive weight inherent in conventional car construction. The use of a single fixed axle permits substantial lowering of the car floor level, with consequent lowering of the center of gravity and reduction in the tendency of a car to over turn. The provision of the single axle at the rear end of the trailer, with the front end pivoted on the rear of the preceding trailer automatically guides the axles of each trailer so that the wheels are directed slightly inwardly when the train is rounding a curve. The chief disadvantage of such trains is their lack of flexibility in makeup and the difliculty of adding or removing cars. This diilculty is due to the fact that each of the trailer units, having wheels at only one end, is dependent on the wheeled end of the adjacent unit for supporting it at its unwheeled end. Although the unwheeled end of each of the units is provided with a dolly which may be manually lowered when it is necessary to separate a unit from a train, the separation and removal of a unit is nonetheless, a time consuming and dicult operation which discourages any attempt at flexibility in such train arrangements. A further disadvantage of this type of two-wheel unit articulated train is the fact that it can be operated in only one direction, operation in the opposite direction resulting in the wheels being guided outwardly on curves,'with the consequent tendency to derail.

Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide an articulated railway car including a plurality of twowheeled units having the numerous advantages of the conventional double-truck car, as set forth above, combined with the lightweight, low center of gravity, and antiderailment safety features of the articulated trains mentioned above.

A further object of this invention is to provide a rail- Way car consisting of a plurality of lightweight low floor articulated units.

A still further object is to provide a car of this type on which both extreme ends are provided with wheels thereby permitting independent car movements.

An additional object is to provide means for constantly maintaining the vertical plane of the wheels of a multiple unit articulated car tangential with the vertical edges of the rails at all times.

A still further object -is to provide an articulated car of the type described which will be operable in either direction.

I achieve these and other objects by providing a car consisting of a plurality of two-wheeled units, the unwheeled end of each except one being supported by the wheeled end of the adjacent unit, the unwheeled end of such one unit being supportedby an end of a fourwheeled unit. To permit operation of the car in both directions, means are provided for guiding all axles so that the vertical planes of the wheels are always substantially-tangential to the edges of the rails, regardless of whether the car is on curved or straight track.

The above and other objects of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from a study of the following description and accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. l is a schematic plan view of my wheelguiding system showing its configuration on straight track.

Fig. 2 is a schematic plan View of my wheel guiding system, showing its conguration on curved track.

Fig. 3 is a plan view of the mechanical details of one of the identical extreme end portions of a car constructed according to my invention.

Fig. 4 is' a plan view showing the mechanical details of the middle and inner end of unit A of Figs. l and 2 and the left hand end of unit B.

Fig. 5 is a plan view showing the mechanical details of the right hand end of unit B and the left hand end and middle of unit C.

Fig. 6 is an elevation View corresponding to Fig. 3.

Fig. 7 is an elevation View corresponding to Fig. 4.

Fig. 8 is an elevation view corresponding to Fig. 5.

Fig. 9 is an end view showing mechanical details of the extreme ends of the car illustrated in Figs. 3 and 6.

Referring now to the drawings, the letters A, B, and C refer, respectively, to a four-Wheeled end unit. a two- Wheeled intermediate unit, and a two-wheeled end articulated unit, semi-permanently coupled to each other to form a three-unit articulated car. For the purposes of clarity and description, each of the units will be described separately in alphabetical order.

Unit A is provided with an underfrarne consisting of center sill 10, extreme end platform 12, extreme end sill 13, side sills 15, holsters 17, crossbearers 18, intermediate platform 20 and intermediate end sill 21. Unit A is suspended near each end, from a drop axle assembly generally indicated at 22, by a pair of telescoping spring struts 24. The axle assemblies 22 each consist of end portions 25, on which the wheels 26 are journalled, and depressed intermediate portion 27, which is rigidly connected to each of the end portions. The end portions 25 each include an outwardly extending portion 28, having a longitudinally extending pivo-t 29 on which is mounted the lower forked end 31 of the inner telescoping portion 33 of strut 24. The outer telescoping portion 35 is provided at its upper end with a perforated extension 36 which is pivotally secured at 37 in clevis 39, so that free pivoting of the strut lengthwise of the car is permitted. In order to permit transverse as well as longitudinal rotation of the struts relative to the framing, clevis 39 is provided with a cylindrical extension 40 which is journalled in an opening in bracket 42 so as to permit rotation of clevis 39 in a plane transverse of the car, bracket 42 being rigidly secured to bolster 17.

The telescoping portions 33 and 35, of the struts are provided respectively with shoulders 44 and 46, and a coil spring 48 is mounted on each of the struts in compression between shoulders 44 and 46. It will be noted that in the transverse direction the struts are inclined upwardly towards the center of the car and that in the longitudinal direction the struts are inclined upwardly towards the adjacent end of the car. Since, as is evident from Fig. 6, the upper end of the struts is substantially higher than the iioor of the car, the holsters 17 may be formed with their end portions in the shape of inverted Vs, strut mounting brackets 42 being secured at the apices. The entire axle assembly is resiliently centered with respect to the underframe by a pair of transversely extending coil springs 49 each arranged with one end secured to a bracket 50 on the axle structure and their other end secured to a bracket 52 depending from center sill 10. The axle assembly is positioned longitudinally by a pair of radius rods 54 which are secured to the axle structure at 55 substantially as described in application Serial No. 729,236 of Gassner and Parsons, tiled February 187 1947, now Patent No. 2,685,845, dated August 10, 1954. The description of the axle structure, spring suspension, centering means, and radius rods, as given above is equally descriptive of each of the axle structures and their body connections on the complete articulated car, and the same numerals will be used to indicate corresponding parts on the adjacent units.

For guiding the axle so that the vertical planes of the wheels 26 are always yretained tangential to the vertical edges of the rails, a coupler actuated guide means, generally similar to that disclosed in my copending application Serial No. 322,125, tiled November 22, 1952, now Patent No. 2,834,303, dated May 13, 1958, is provided. Radius rods 54 are connected at one end to the axle at 55, as described above. A pair of laterally spaced hangers SS are pivotally mounted at 58a on depending brackets 59 which are secured to the underside of vextreme end platform 12. At their other end, each of the radius rods is pivotally secured by pin 57 to the lower swinging end of each of the hangers 58. To permit limited rotation of the radius rods in the horizontal plane, a rubber bushing may be fitted in the enlarged journal openings through which the pins 57 pass.

For providing coupler actuation the coupler actuated T-shaped tongue 6d is provided. Tongue 6i? is pivotally secured to the car underframing by means of a pin 62 passing through opening 61 and a registering vertical opening in pivot bracket 64. A tightlock coupler 66 is pivotally mounted in the center sill in a conventional manner, its pivot point being co-axial with pivot pin 62 of the coupler actuated tongue 60. The stem of tongue 60 is provided at its end with an upwardly extending yoke 68 having an opening of sufficient width to slidably receive the shank 69 of tightlock coupler 66 whereby all pivotal movements of coupler 66 may be transmitted to tongue 60 while at the same time the coupler shank is free to move longitudinally, in response to buff and draft shocks, without disturbing the xed pivot of tongue 60' Transversely extending arms 71 of tongue 60 are provided with journal openings at 73 to pivotally receive coupler actuating links '74, the opposite ends of which are pivotally secured to pins S7 of swing hangers 58. 1t should be noted that the connection of links 74 to the hanger pins 57 is accomplished in the same manner as the corresponding connection of radius rods 54 so as to permit limited rotation of links 74 in the horizontal plane. Similarly, it should be noted that the vertical pivots between links 74 and coupler actuated member 60 are also provided with suitable means such as rubber bushings to permit limited rotation of members 74 in the vertical plane; this is necessitated by the fact that as hangers 58 are caused to rotate by links 74, the height of pins 57 varies causing a very slight rotation of links 74 about pivot 73. Thus it may be seen that as coupler 66 is caused to move radially in either direction, due to operation of the preceding car on curved trackage, one of the links 74, its connecting swing hanger, the corresponding radius rod 54, and the corresponding end of the axle are urged towards the end of the car, while the other elements 74, 58, 54, and the opposite end of the axle are urged inwardly away from the end of the car, so that by properly proportioning the variousrelements the vertical planes of the wheels are at all times guided in substantially tangential relationship with the rails.

Referring to Figs. 4 and 6, the intermediate ends of units A and B and connections therebetween are shown. In unit B the numeral 77 refers to the center sill, 78 to the side sills, and 8l) to the end sill which connects the center sill and side sills at the unit end. The intermediate end of unit A is supported on drop axle stiucture 22 which is identical to the axle structure used at the opposite, or extreme end of unit A. The adjacent end of unit B is without wheels, and is supported by unit A through a tightlock semi-permanent coupler generally indicated at 82. Coupler 82 which may be of the type disclosed in my copending application, Serial No. 270,632, filed February 8, 1952, now Patent No. 2,743,943, dated May 1, 1956, corn sists of a female unit 83 which is rigidly secured to the end of center sill 77 of the B unit. Female coupler unit 83 is formed with a plurality of openings to receive projecting tongues of male unit 85, which is pivotally mounted at pin 86 on the end of center sill 1l) of unit A.

Radius rods 54, identical in structure and function with the radius rods described earlier, are each pivotally mounted at one end on pivot pin 87 of swing hangers 89, which in turn are pivotally mounted and depending for swinging longitudinally of the unit. The pivotal mounting for swing hangers 89 is provided by a pair of laterally spaced brackets 91 which are secured to the lower surface of intermediate end platform of the A unit. Coupler actuation of the axle is provided by means of links 93 which are pivotally mounted at one end on swing hanger pins 87, and are pivotally secured at their opposite ends at 95 to the end portions of brackets 97, which extend laterally from male coupler unit 85. Thus, movements of male coupler unit 85, which are identical with movements of unit B, causes corresponding movement of the adjacent axlestructure 22 so that the wheels 26 of the intermediate end of unit A are constantly guided in accordance with the angle which unit A and unit B make with one another.

Unit B is provided with an axle only at its end nearest unit C as shown in Fig. 5. The axle, suspension, and radius rod structure are identical with that described above in connection with unit A, and the same reference characters are used in referring to these elements. Unit B is provided with end platform portion 99, to the lower surface of which are secured a pair of laterally spaced swing hanger brackets itil. Swing hangers i-.83 are pivotally mounted in brackets itil at 104 and are provided with a lower pivot pin 186, to which is pivotally secured the free end of radius rods 54. The wheeled end of unit B is provided with a pivotally mounted male coupler unit 8S having laterally extending brackets 97,

as described above. For transmitting movements of coupler unit 85 to the axle, a link 93, substantially as described above, connects each bracket 97 with swing hanger pivot pins 87. Thus, as coupler unit 85 is caused to swivel in either direction by its connection with female coupler unit 83 of unit C, the adjacent axle structure 22 and wheels 26 will be guided accordingly so that the vertical plane of the wheels will be held constantly in tangential relation with the vertical plane of the rails.

Unit C is provided with a center sill 10, side sills 15, and a cross-bearer 18. The intermediate end of unit C, adjacent unit B is without Wheels, being supported by the end of unit B through semi-permanent coupler 82. The opposite or extreme end of unit C is identical to the outer end of unit A shown in Figs. 3, 6 and 9.

Referring to Fig. 2, it will be noted that when the articulated car A--B--C is coupled in a train, intermediate of the ends thereof, regardless of which direction the car is operating, the end couplers 66 will be directed by engagement with corresponding couplers on adjacent cars so that the end axles 22 and the extreme end wheels 26 are guided in accordance with track curvature. Similarly, the intermediate axles 22 and wheels 26 of unit A and unit B, respectively, are guided by intermediate couplers 82, as described above.

In order to guide the extreme rear axle when the car is at the rear end of a train and guiding by the adjacent coupler is impossible, a ysystem of linkages, or tail car mechanism (as disclosed in my co-pending application, Serial No. 322,125, led November 22, 1952) connecting the opposite end axle guiding means on the A unit is provided, and a generally similar system of linkages connecting the axle guiding mechanism of unit C with the end of unit B is provided. The tail car mechanism on unit A is in eiect, a reversing linkage including a pair ofrods 109 each pivotally connected at its outer end to the pivot pin 57 of one of the swing hangers 58 at the outer end of the unit, so that longitudinal movement of rods 109 is transmitted to the pin 57 and through them and the radius rods, to the axle. The inner end of each rod 109 is pivotally connected to one end of one of a pair of levers 112 fulcrumed on pin 114 depending from cross-bearers 18 at substantially the longitudinal center of the car. Similar rods 116 each aligned with a rod 109 are pivotally connected at their inner ends to the opposite ends of levers 112 and at their outer ends to the pivot pins 87 of swing hangers 109. Thus, in rounding curves, if unit A is at the rear end of the train, its front axle is guided by the coupling 82.through brackets 97, links 93, swing hanger pins 87, and radius rods 54, and the rear axle is oppositely directed by the transmission of movement from pins 87 through there- Versing linkage 109--116.

The tail car mechanism on unit C is similar to that on unit A except that the rods 117, beneath the wheelless end of unit C, are pivotally secured at their inner ends to levers 112 and at their outer ends to bracketsy 119 depending from the adjacent end sill of the unit B, so that when the unit C is on the rear of the train, as it rounds a curve, the rod 117 on the inner side of unit C Will be pushed toward the longitudinal center of unit C, thereby causing corresponding and aligned rod 109 to be pulled toward the center-,of the unit, causing a movement of the inner end of the axle 22' toward the center of the unit. Conversely, the outer rod117 will be pulled by its connection to the B-unit, thereby causing outer rod 109 to be pushed, with resultant movement of the outer end of the axle 22 away from the longitudinal center of the car. By properly proportioning the various axle guiding elements, the vertical planes of the wheels can be guided at all times in substantially tangential relation with the vertical edges of the railsA A safety feature of the above described construction is that each axle is under the guidance of two couplers, With the obvious exception of the tail end axle of the tail car of the train. For instance, referring to Figure 2 and presuming the car there shown is coupled at both ends to similar cars in train, each axle of unit yA will be guided by its adjacent coupler and the two axles are interconnected by the linkage 109- 116 all as previously described. Therefore should the links 74 fail or develop excessive wear, the end axle 22 would still be steered by the coupler between units A and B. `Conversely, should the links 93 fail or develop excessive wear, the intermediate axle 22 of unit A adjacent unit B would still be steered by the end coupler of the car through the linkage 109- 116. The axles of the B and C units are interconnected, though not in manner identical to the interconnection betweenthe axles of the A unit. In addition to the B and C unit axles each being steered by the adjacent coupler, each is also steered by the other coupler of the pair of adjacent couplers due to the interconnection which includes the coupler 82. Coupler 82 is part of the interconnection because through pivot pin 86 it positions the body of unit B relative to unit C, and thus positions the brackets 119 to which rods 117 are connected.

Whereas the total failure of a link will bev very rare, the wear of parts is constantly in progress and in equipment of a new type the rate of wear can only be estimated, therefore the interconnection of the pairs of axles and the subjection of each axle to the guidance of two couplers is an important safety factor as the net effect of excessive wear in any one connection is minimized.

This invention may be modified in various respects as will occur to those skilled in the art and the exclusive use of all modifications as come within the scope of the appended claims is contemplated.

What is claimed is:

1. An articulated railway car comprising a fourwheeled unit having a body and an axle adjacent each end thereof and two-wheeled units each having a body and an axle adjacent one end thereof only, said twowheeled units being coupled together with their wheeled ends supporting the unwheeled ends of adjacent units, the unwheeled end of the coupled two-wheeled units being supported by an end of the four-wheeled unit, radius rods connected at one of their ends to each end of said axles and movably connected at their other ends to the respective body, couplers at the ends of each unit, and rneans connected to each coupler and to the body ends of the adjacent radius rods for guiding the axles to maintain the vertical planes of the wheels substantially tangential to the vertical edges of the rails.

2. An articulated railway car comprising a fourwheeled unit having a body and an axle adjacent each end thereof and a plurality of two-wheeled units, each of said two-wheeled units having a body and an axle adjacent one end only of said body, said two-wheeled units being coupled together with their wheeled ends supporting the unwheeled ends of adjacent units, the unwheeled endV of the coupled two-wheeled units being supported by an end of the four-wheeled unit, a pair of swing hangers depending from each body near each axle, radius rods secured at one end to `each end of said axles, and at their other end to a swing hanger, couplers at the ends of each unit, and means connected to the couplers and to the radius rods for guiding the axles in accordance with coupler movements.

3. An articulated railway car comprising a fourwheeled unit having a body and an axle adjacent each end thereof and a plurality of two-wheeled units, each of said two-wheeled units having a body and an axler adjacent one end only of the body, said two-wheeled units being coupled together with their wheeled ends supporting the unwheeled ends of adjacent units, the unwheeled end of the coupled two-wheeled units being supported by an end of the four-wheeled unit, a coupler pivotally mounted at each end of the car, respectively, on the body of the four-wheeled unit and the body 0f the end two-wheeled unit, means operatively connecting said coupler and the adjacent end axles of the car for guiding said adjacent axles in accordance with movements of said couplers, coupling means connecting said four-wheeled unit and the adjacent two-wheeled units to each other including a single pivot on a wheeled end or' each of said units, and means operatively connecting each of said last mentioned coupling means to the adjacent axle for guiding said axle in accordance with pivotal movements of said coupling means.

4. An articulated railway car comprising a fourwheeled unit having a body and an axle adjacent each end thereof and a plurality of two-wheeled units, each of said two-wheeled units having a body and an axle adjacent one end only of the body, said two-wheeled units being coupled together with their wheeled ends supporting the unwheeled ends of adjacent units, the unwheeled end of the coupled two-wheeled units being supported by an end of the four-wheeled unit, a pair of swing hangers depending from each unit body near each axle, a pair of radius rods each secured at one end to an end of the adjacent axle and at their other end to one of the swing hangers, a coupler pivotally mounted at each end of the car, respectively, on the bodies of the four-wheel unit and the end two-wheeled unit, a tongue pivotally mounted adjacent each coupler on the bodies of the two last mentioned units, means connecting each tongue to the respective coupler for corotation therewith, and means connected to each of said tongues and to the adjacent swing hangers, for transmitting coupler movements to said swing hangers, and causing similar movement of the radius rods and ends of the adjacent end axles.

5. An articulated railway car comprising a fourwheeled unit having a body and an axle adjacent each end thereof and a plurality of two-wheeled units, each of said two-wheeled units having a body and an axle adjacent `one end only of the body, said two-wheeled units being coupled together with their wheeled ends supporting the unwheeled ends of adjacent units, the unwheeled end of the lcoupled two-wheeled units being supported by an end of the four-wheeled unit, a pair of swing hangers depending from each unit body near each axle, a pair of radius rods each secured at one end to an end of the adjacent axle and at their other end to one of the swing hangers, a coupler pivotally mounted at each end of the car, respectively, on the bodies of the fourwheeled unit and the end two-wheeled unit, a tongue pivotally mounted adjacent each coupler on the bodies of the two last mentioned units, means connecting each tongue to the respective coupler for corotation therewith interconnecting linkages interposed between and connected to each tongue and to the respective adjacent swing hangers for transmitting coupler movements to said hangers whereby to cause similar movement of the radius rods and ends of the adjacent end axles7 coupling means connecting said lfour-wheeled unit and the adjacent twowheeled units to each other including a single pivot on a wheeled end of each of said units, and further interconnecting linkages interposed between and connected to said last mentioned coupling means and to the adjacent swingy hangers for transmitting pivotal movements of said coupling means to said swing hangers and causing similarly directed movements of the radius rods and ends of the adjacent intermediate axles.

6. An articulated railway car comprising a fourwheeled unit having a body and an axle adjacent each end thereof and a plurality of two-wheeled units, each of said two-wheeled units having a body and an axle adjacent one end only of the body, said two-wheeled units `being coupled together with their wheeled ends supporting the unwheeled ends of adjacent units, the unwheeled end of the coupled two-wheeled units being supported by an end of the four-wheeled unit, a coupler pivotally mounted at each end of the car, respectively, on the body of the four-wheeled unit and the body of the end two-wheeled unit, means operatively connecting said coupler and the adjacent end axles of the car for guiding said adjacent axles in accordance with movements of said couplers, coupling means connecting said four-wheeled unit and the adjacent two-wheeled units to each other including a single pivot on a wheeled end of each of said units, a linkage operatively connecting each of said last mentioned coupling means and the adjacent axle for guiding said axle in accordance with pivotal movements of said last mentioned coupling means, and tail car means on each end unit of said car and adjacent units for guiding the rear end axle when the car is coupled at the rear of a train.

7. An articulated railway car comprising a fourwheeled unit having a body and an axle adjacent each end thereof and a plurality of two-wheeled units, 'each of said two-wheeled units having a body and an axle adjacent one end only of the body, said two-wheeled units being coupled together with their wheeled ends supporting the unwheeled ends of adjacent units, the unwheeled end of the coupled two-wheeled units being supported by an end `of the four-wheeled unit, a pair of swing hangers depending from each unit body near each axle, a pair of radius rods each secured at one end to an end of the adjacent axle and at their other end to one of the swing hangers, a coupler pivotally mounted at each end of the car, respectively, on the bodies of the four-wheeled unit and the end two-wheeled unit, a tongue pivotally mounted adjacent each coupler on the bodies of the two last mentioned units, means connecting each tongue to the respective coupler for corotation therewith, links connected to each tongue and to the respective adjacent swing hangers for transmitting coupler movements to said hangers and causing similar movement of the radius rods and ends of the adjacent end axles, coupling means connecting said four-wheeled unit and the adjacent two- Wheeled units to each other including a single pivot on a wheeled end of each of said units, an operative connection between said last mentioned coupling means and the adjacent swing hangers for transmitting pivotal movements of said last mentioned coupling means to said swing hangers and causing similarly directed movements of the radius rods and ends of the adjacent intermediate axles, and tail car means on each end unit of said car for guiding the rear end axle when the car is coupled at the rear of a train.

8. An articulated railway car comprising a fourwheeled unit having a body and an axle adjacent each end thereoi and a plurality of two-wheeled units, each of said two-wheeled units having a body and an axle adjacent one end only of the body, said two-wheeled units being coupled together with their wheeled ends supporting the unwheeled ends of adjacent units, the unwheeled end of the coupled two-wheeled units being supported by an end of the four-wheeled unit, a coupler pivotally mounted at each end of the car, respectively, on the body of the four-wheeled unit and the body of the end twowheeled unit, means operatively connecting said coupler and the adjacent end axles of the car for guiding said adjacent axles in accordance with movements of said couplers, coupling means connecting said four-wheeled unit and the adjacent two-wheeled units to each other including a single pivot on a wheeled end of each of said units, a linkage connecting each of said last mentioned coupling means and the adjacent axle for guiding said axle in accordance with pivotal movements of said last mentioned coupling means, tail car means operatively connecting the intermediate and end axle of the fourwheeled unit for guiding the end axle when the fourwheeled unit is at the rear of a train, and additional tail car means `operatively connecting the axle of the end two-wheeled unit with the adjacent unit for guiding the axle of the end two-wheeled unit when the end twowheeled unit is at the rear of a train,

9. An articulated railway car comprising a fourwheeled unit having a body and an axle adjacent each end thereof and a plurality of two-wheeled units, each of said two-wheeled units having a body and an axle adjacent one end only of the body, said two-wheeled units being coupled together with their wheeled ends supporting the unwheeled ends of adjacent units, the unwheeled end of the coupled two-wheeled units being supported by an end of the four-wheeled unit, a pair of swing hangers depending from each unit body near each axle, a pair of radius rods each secured at one end to an end of the adjacent axle and at their other end to one of the swing hangers,l a coupler pivotally mounted at each end of the car, respectively, on the bodies of the four-wheeled unit and the end two-wheeled unit, a tongue pivotally mounted adjacent each coupler on the bodies of the two last mentioned units, means connecting each tongue to the respective coupler for corotation therewith, links connected to each tongue and to the adjacent swing hangers for transmitting coupler movements to said swing hangers and causing similar movement of the radius rods and ends of the adjacent end axles, coupling means connecting said four-wheeled unit and the adjacent two-Wheeled units each to another including a single pivot on a wheeled end of each of said units, a linkage operatively connected to each of said last mentioned coupling means and to the adjacent axle for guiding said axle in accordance with pivotal movements of said coupling means, a pair of laterally spaced levers ful-crumed on the body of the four-wheeled unit intermediate its ends, two pairs of aligned longitudinally extending rods, each rod connected at its outer end to one ofthe swing hangers of the four-wheeled unit and the inner ends of two aligned rods being connected to opposite ends` of one of said levers, whereby longitudinal movement of one of the rods in one direction causes movement of the aligned rod in the opposite direction and corresponding oppositely directed movements of the two axles, a second pair of laterally spaced lever fulcrumed on the body of the end twowheeled unit intermediate its ends, and two additional pairs of laligned longitudinally extending rods, each rod of one of said additional pairs being connected at its outer end to one of the swing hangers on the two-wheeled end unit, each rod of the other said additional pair being connected at its outer end to the body of the adjacent unit, the adjacent ends of the aligned rods being connected t-o opposite ends of one of said levers, whereby longitudinal movement in one direction of the rods connected to the adjacent unit causes movement in the opposite direction of the aligned rods connected to the swing hangers, and corresponding movements of the axle.

4 10. In a railway car comprising a car body, an axle assembly comprising wheels and steerably connected to said body adjacent an end thereof, a coupler pivo-tally mounted on said body at said end of said body and comprising a shank extending substantially longitudinally of said body, and means operatively supporting the other end of said body, the improvement comprising means for steering said axle assembly in accordance with the pivotal movement of said coupler so as to maintain said wheels substantially tangent to the rails, said means comprising a member mounted on said body on a pivot pin substantially coaxial with said coupler, said member comprising a tongue extending substantially parallel with said shank and comprising a yoke, said shank being slidably engaged in said yoke so as to be free to move longitudinally with respect to said yoke and said yoke transferring pivotal movements of said coupler shank to said member, said member further having two transversely and oppositely extending arms, a longitudinally swingable swing hanger pivo-tally mounted on each side of said body and longitudinally spaced from said arms, a

pair of longitudinally extending links, one link being connected to one of said arms and spaced from said pivot pin and further connected ot one of said swing hangers, and the other link being connected to the other of said arms and spaced from said pivot pin and further being connected to the other of said swing hangers and a longitudinally extending radius rod on each side of said car, each rod connected to a swing hanger and to an end of said axle assembly, whereby pivotal movement of said coupler actuates pivotal movement of said member, and said arms move said linkslongitudinally, one link moving in the opposite direction to the other, thereby moving said swing hangers said radius rods and the ends of said axle assembly longitudinally and in opposite directions to steer said axle assembly.

11. An articulated railway car having a four wheeled unit and a plurality of two wheeled units, said four wheeled unit having a body and a steerable axle adjacent each end `of said body, said two wheeled units each having a body and a steerable axle adjacent an end of said body, the other end of said two wheeled unit being unwheeled, the unwheeled ends of said two wheeled units cach being adjacent a wheeled end of an adjacent unit, a coupler pivotally mounted on the outer end of each end unit of said car, a semi permanent coupler connecting together each two adjacent ends of adjacent units of said car, said semi permanent couplers each having a. part pivotally connected to a wheeled end of one of said units and a part detachably engageable with said rst named part and firmly connected to the unwheeled adjacent unit end, and each coupler of said car having connected thereto means extending therefrom and connected to the respective adjacent axle and steering said axle in response to pivotal movement of said coupler relative to the respective unit body to which said coupler is pivotally connected.

12. An articulated railway car having a four wheeledf unit and a plurality of two wheeled units, said four wheeled unit having a body and a steerable axle adjacent each end of said body, said two wheeled units each having a body and a steerable axle adjacent an end of said body, the other end of said two wheeled unit being unwheeled, the unwheeled ends of said two wheeled units each being adjacent a wheeled end of an adjacent unit, a coupler pivotally mounted on the outer end of each end unit of said car, a semi permanent coupler connecting together each two adjacent ends of adjacent units ot' said car, said semi permanent couplers each having a part pivotally connected to a wheeled end of one of said units and a part detachably engageable with said first named part and firmly connected to the unwheeled adjacent unit end, each coupler of said car having connected thereto means extending therefrom and connected to the adjacent axle and steering said axle in response to pivotal movement of the coupler relative to the respective unit body to whichrthe coupler is pivotally connected, and each end axle having connected thereto tail car mechanism extending from said end axle to the next adjacent axle of the car and connected to said next adjacent axle, whereby each end axle and said axle adjacent thereto are each subjected to the guidance of the two couplers adjacent respectively to said two axles.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 30.918 Grice et al Dec. 18, 1860 1,232,918 Head July 10, 1917 1,408,167 Brilhart Feb. 28, 1922 2,098,949 Giessen Nov. 16, 1937 2,208,634 Janeway July 23, 1940 2,604,857 MacVeigh July 29, 1952 2,605,718 Omar et al. Aug. 5, 1952 2,756,688 Furrer Iuly 31, 1956 2,812,725 Candlin Nov. 12, 1957 2,812,726 Bock Nov. 12, 1957 2,823,623 Heredia Feb. 18, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 552,538 Germany June 15, 1932 749,268 France July 21, 1933 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTION Patent. No5 2,921,539 January 19, 1960 John R. Furrer It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specieation of the above numbered patent requiring correcti Patent sho on and that the said Letters uld read as corrected below.

Column 8, line 1l strike out "and adjacent units"; cqlumn 9, line 38, for "lever" read levers Signed and sealed this 20th day of September 1960.

(SEAL) Attest:

KARL H. AXLINE ROBERT C. WATSON Attesting Officer l Commissioner of Patents

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US3230899A (en) * 1963-06-06 1966-01-25 Pneuways Dev Company Private L Wheeled vehicles and bogies therefor
EP0329440A2 (en) * 1988-02-19 1989-08-23 U T D C Inc. Multi-axle, steered articulated railway vehicle with compensation for transitional spirals
WO1991002673A1 (en) * 1989-08-21 1991-03-07 Sig Schweizerische Industrie-Gesellschaft Driven running gear with steerable individual units
WO1991013788A1 (en) * 1990-03-15 1991-09-19 Utdc Inc. Chassis for steerable truck
US5277127A (en) * 1989-08-21 1994-01-11 Sig Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft Driven running gear with steerable individual units
US5680819A (en) * 1992-07-24 1997-10-28 Linke-Hofmann-Busch Gmbh Vehicle combination with at least two vehicles with steered single-wheelset chassis

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US3230899A (en) * 1963-06-06 1966-01-25 Pneuways Dev Company Private L Wheeled vehicles and bogies therefor
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EP0329440A3 (en) * 1988-02-19 1990-02-07 U T D C Inc. Multi-axle, steered articulated railway vehicle with compensation for transitional spirals
WO1991002673A1 (en) * 1989-08-21 1991-03-07 Sig Schweizerische Industrie-Gesellschaft Driven running gear with steerable individual units
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US5680819A (en) * 1992-07-24 1997-10-28 Linke-Hofmann-Busch Gmbh Vehicle combination with at least two vehicles with steered single-wheelset chassis

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