US2847513A - Sound effect control - Google Patents

Sound effect control Download PDF

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US2847513A
US2847513A US579000A US57900056A US2847513A US 2847513 A US2847513 A US 2847513A US 579000 A US579000 A US 579000A US 57900056 A US57900056 A US 57900056A US 2847513 A US2847513 A US 2847513A
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tape
relay
sound
recorded
sound effect
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US579000A
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Jr Hubert J Schlafly
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TELEPROMPTER CORP
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TELEPROMPTER CORP
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B5/00Electrically-operated educational appliances
    • G09B5/04Electrically-operated educational appliances with audible presentation of the material to be studied

Description

1958 H. J. SCHLAFLY, JR 2,847,513
SOUND EFFECT CONTROL Filed April 18, 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Hubert J. Schlafly,Jr. uwfl MM ATTORNEYS g- 1958 H. J. SCHLAFLY, JR
SOUND EFFECT CONTROL 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 18, 1956 x \N g 1 \N 1% 71ml 5 ()1 W wdE m w @E m Yawn-m 1 T ATTORNEYS I Aug. 12, 1958 H. J. SCHLAFLY, JR
SOUND EFFECT CONTROL 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed April 18. 1956 INVENTOR Hubert J. Sch|c|fly,Jr.
ATTORNEYS United Stew P n 2,847,513 scum) EFFECT CONTROL Hubert J. Schlatly, J12, Hollis, N. Y., assignor to Teleprompter Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application April 18, 1956, Serial No. 579,000
3 Claims. c1. 179- 1004 This invention relates to educational and entertaine ment apparatus and more particularly to a method and apparatus associable with a script display device for controlling the presentation of sound effects as accompani ments to a lecture, speech or the like given by a speaker or'actor with the help of a cuing device which presents to him his lines from a moving script carrier. The invention provides a method and means whereby a plural-. ity of sound eflfects recorded on a common record medium such asmagnetic tape can be caused tobe reproduced in sequence at desired times and phases of the script or other material to be delivered, which phases may be selected and changed at will without recording the sound effects. I I
I The invention will now be described in detail with reference to the accomanying drawings in which;
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic viewof one form ofappa ratus according to the present invention suitable for the practice thereof; I I II Fig. 2 is a fragmentary View of a magnetic tape for use in the apparatus of Fig. 1 having recorded thereon signals in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view of another form of apparatus according to the invention suitable for prac'- tice thereof, the apparatus of Fig. 3 being combined with that shown to the right of the dash line'A-A in Fig. 1 to provide 'a complete cuing and sound effect system;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary view of a magnetic tape for use in the apparatus of Fig. 3 having recorded thereon signals in accordance with the invention; I
Fig.5 is a diagrammatic view of another form of apparatus according to the invention suitable for the practice thereof, the apparatus of Fig. 5 being combined with that shown to the right of the dash line A'-A in Fig. 1 to provide a complete cuing and sound eifect system; I I
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary view of a magnetic tape for use in the apparatus of Fig. 5 having recorded thereon signals in accordance with the invention; and I I Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic view of still another form of apparatus according to the invention suitable for practice thereof. I I
In Fig. 1 there is shown a front elevationalvi'ew partly broken away of a scriptdisplay device, generally indicated at 2, suitable for use in the invention to initiate the playback of sound eifects as accompaniments to the oral presentation of written material displayed in that device. This device may be of the general type shown in my copending application Serial No. 220,5 O6. It includes a housing 3 within which a script carrier 4, in the form of a strip-like sheet of paper or the like", is advanced from supply to take-up rolls within the housing by remotely controlled apparatus not forming part of the present invention. The words or lines of the speaker are written or printed on the script sheet 4, successive portions thereof being exhibited to the speaker at'an aperture 5 in the housing 3 for observation by him as the script sheet is advanced from supply to take-up rolls. A
marker 6 is advantageously provided to indicate the line of script instantaneously intended to be read from the device. Adjacent one edge of the aperture 5, or elsewhere within the housing adjacent the portion of the strip 4 between the supplyand take-up rolls, there is provided a support in the form of a bar 8 extending crosswise of the sheet 4. The bar 8 supports one or more sets of contacts generally indicated at'10 for the supply of signals to the remaining apparatus of Fig. 1 or alternatively to that of Fig. 3 or 5. I
In Fig. l the remaining apparatus comprises a sound recording and reproducing device 16 and a control unit shown at the dash line box 18. The sound reproducing device 16 reproduces from a recordmedium sound effects which are desired to accompany delivery of the speech or other material on the carrier 4 in cuing apparatus 2. The device 16 is moreover employed for therecording of those sound effects onto a record medium used therein.
In the script display device 2' the set of contacts 10 advantageously includes two brushes -12 which may for example take the form of Phosphor bronze springs mounted on bar 8 to bear against sheet 4. Brushes 12 are connected together to a circuit, conveniently provided by the chassis of the script display unit 2, which is connected via a conductor in cable 20 to control 'unit 18. Advantageously the chassis of script display device 2 is connected to a building ground through its power cable ZLwhich is supplied with a suitable polarized plug. The circuit represented in unit 2 by brushes 12 is identified for convenience in control unit 18 as groundalso.
An additional brush 14 in the set of contacts 10 is insulated from ground, and the brush 14 is electrically connected through aseparate conductor of the cable 20 to a terminal or junction 64 in control unit 18. I
The middle brush 14 may be short-circuited to its associated brushes 12 by conductive discontinuiti'es' in the insulating paper sheet 4, applied at desired time phases of the intelligence written or printed onto the sheet 4. For this purpose use is advantageously made of conductive strips 26, for example of aluminum foil backed with adhesive material, which may be aflixed to sheet 4. In Fig. 1 one such strip is shown just about to pass under the brushes 10. It is located lengthwise of sheet 4 to pass under the brushes 12 and 14 when the line of script, atwhieh the sound effect to be initiated or triggered by that strip is to begin, passes the marker 6. I v
While two grounded brushes 12 may be provided to give some tolerance on the transverse location of the strips 26, one is of course suflicient.
of the speech recorded on sheet 4, these phases being adjustable simply by changing the position of strips 26 lengthwise of sheet 4. I In the embodiment shown these signals takethe form of a briefly maintained short circuit connection in unit 18 of terminal 64 with chassis ground in that unit. Other forms of signal can of course be provided instead. These signals are employed according. to the invention as initiatingsignals for the playback of sound effects desired to bereproduced as accompanimentsto the oral rendition of the material written or printed on the sheet 4. This playback is effected by the sound reproducingtapparatus 16;. his a feature of the invention that the plural sound effects are reproduced from a single record medium, on which duced. In Fig. 1 thesound reproducer 16 is shown as a magnetic tape sound reproducing device of the kind comm'only referred to as a tape recorder, such apparatus including sound recording asfwell as reproducing. elements; The recorder '16 includessupply and take-up The script display unit 2 thereforeperm'its delivery I tocontrol unit 18 of electricalsignals at desired phases reels 23 and 30 from one to the other of which passes a magnetic tape 32 having recorded thereon the sound effects desired to be reproduced. In its passage from the supply to the take-up roll the tape 32 is carried, by a capstan 33, past a playback head 34 in which the recorded variations in magnetization on the tape generate signals which are amplified in an amplifier 36 for energization of a loud-speaker 38. The transducer head 34 may also serve as a recording head, it being supplied during recording, via switching apparatus not shown, with voltages representative of the sounds to be recorded on tape 32. An input jack for voltages representative of sounds to be recorded is shown at 419. A recordplayback control 41 shifts the entire apparatus 16 from playback to recording condition and vice versa.
The drive mechanism (not shown) for the supply and take-up reels and for the capstan in the tape recorder 16 is controlled in its operation by a solenoid operated switch 42, and the energizing circuit for the solenoid actuating coil is connected into the control unit 13 by a cable 44. In one known form of tape recorder the switch 42 is arranged to hold the recorder 16 in a nonoperating condition as regards motion of the tape past the playback head 34, when the solenoid of switch 42 is energized.
Tape recorder 16 is of the so-called two track type, in which the recording and playback head 34 engages only part of the width of the tape. In addition to transducer 34 there is provided a separate recording and playback head or transducer 4-6 which engages a fraction of the width of tape 32 not employed for recording of the signals intended to be reproduced through transducer head 34. In the diagrammatic showing of Fig. l the transducers 34 and 46 are shown engaging tape 32 at different positions lengthwise thereof. This is a perfectly workable arrangement, although the two transducers will in fact usually be positioned side by side, i. e. one above the other in the plan view of Fig. 1, so as to engage the tape at the same position lengthwise thereof, as illustrated in Fig. 2.
Discontinuities provided in the tape, in the form of signals recorded on the track engaged by transducer 46, constitute recorded stopping signals employed to stop the tape at the ends of the recorded sound efiects. To this end transducer 46 is coupled to an amplifier 48 whose output energizes a relay indicated at the dash line box 50, either directly as shown or through another, more sensitive relay. Transducer 46, amplifier 48 and relay 50 constitute a discontinuity-responsive stop signal reproducer. In accordance with the invention stop signals are recorded, on the half of the tape engaged by transducer 46, between the successive sound efiects. The signals picked up by transducer 46 are employed via the relay to disable reproducer 16 at the end of a sound efiect on tape 32, leaving-the reproducer in condition to be set into operation for playback of the next sound efiect when the next strip 26 in the cuing apparatus 2 develops an initiating signal at brushes 16 and 12.
Signals from brushes in cuing unit 2 and from relay 50 are used to achieve this operation of reproducer 16 with the help of control unit 18,10 which the contacts of relay 50 are connected by a cable 52. Reprodncer 16 receives operating power, for example from a 110 volt lighting circuit, via a cable 54. An on-oif switch 55 controls application of power from this cable to recorder-reproducer 16.
The control unit 18 is advantageously of the type disclosed in my copending application Serial No. 526,476. It includes two relays generally indicated at 56 and 58, each provided with a plurality of contacts presently to be described. The actuating coils of these relays are connected in series with the plate-cathode conduction paths of grid-controlled gaseous discharge tubes 59 and 61. These are maintained in normally nonconducting condition by return of their grids through resistors 60 and 62 to a source of negative bias. The tubes may be operated with A. C. voltage, applied as indicated be tween their grounded cathodes and the coils of relays 56 and 58. In relay 56, the junction 64 between resistors 60 and 62 is connected, via cable 21), with insulated brush 14 in the cuing unit 2.
The contacts of the relays 56 and 58 are arranged in the form of double pole double throw switches, the
poles, blades or common contacts C and C being coupled to a spring-loaded armature in each relay so as to provide in each relay two normally closed contacts NC NC and two normally open contacts N0 and N0 Output connectors 66 and 68 are provided for association one with each of relays 56 and 56. Two conductors of cable 44 from the solenoid of switch 42 connect with the two terminals of connector 66 and two conductors of cable 52 which connect with the normally open contacts in relay 50 also connect with the terminals of connector 68. In connector 66 one terminal is connected to one of the common termnals C of relay 56 while the other terminal is connected to the normally closed contact NC short-circuited by the relay 56 to contact C, for a de-energized condition of the relay.
With this connection the energizing circuit for the solenoid of switch 42 is completed through contacts C and NC, of relay 56 so long as that relay is de-energized, and the sound reproducer 16 is maintained in an inoperative condition. When therefore a sound effect is.
. to be played back, for example, the first of those recorded on the reel of tape in reproducer 16 to be initiated by the first conducting strip 26 on script carrier 4, the passage of that strip 26 under brushes 10 in Fig. l grounds junction 64 in the grid circuit of tube 59, effectively unbiasing it. Tube 59 accordingly conducts and relay 56 is energized. The connection between its contacts C and N0 is accordingly broken; the solenoid in switch 42 is tie-energized, and the tape in reproducer 16 is set into motion.
To hold relay 56 in energized condition there is provided a holding circuit in relay 58. To this end contact N0 in relay 56 is connected to contact C of relay 58, and contact NC of relay 53 is grounded to the same circuit as that of brushes 12. In relay 58 moreover this grounded contact N0 is connected to one of the terminals in connector 68 and thence via cable 52 to one of the normally open contacts in relay 56) of reproducer 16 while the other contact of relay 56 is connected through cable 52 and the other terminal of connector 68 to the junction 65 of resistors 60 and 62 in the grid circuit of tube 61.
Since when relay 56 is energized junction 64 is grounded (through contacts C and N0 of relay 56 and through contacts C and NC of relay 5%), relay 58 provides a holding circuit for relay 56 until relay 58 is energized. Upon the appearance of a stopping signal under transducer 46 at the end of a recorded sound effect, relay 58 is so energized to break the holding circuit for relay 56 and hence to interrupt the motion of the tape in reproducer 16 when the sound eflfect is completed. Moreover the operation is such that once the tape has come to rest the circuit is ready for actuation anew by a subsequently arriving discontinuity 26 and for the initiation thereby of playback of the next sound effect. 7
Referring to Fig. 2, the tape 32 is shown in association with playback heads 34 and 46. These are seen to engage separate fractions of. the width of the tape. The sound eifects to be reproduced, whether musical or other, are recorded on the fraction of the tape width engaged by the playback head 34-. For stopping the tape separate signals which may for example be in the form of a single tone of high audio frequency are recorded on the fraction of the tape engaged by playback head.46. The direction of tape motion is assumed in Fig. 2 to be from left to right as indicated by the arrow. The length of tape indicated by the bracket B is that occupied by a sound effect to be reproduced, this recording being diagrammatically indicated by a curve 70. In view of the typical length of such a sound effect, the tape is shown broken within the bracket B. On the other half of the tape engaged by transducer 46 over a length of tape C positioned after the trailing end of the sound effect indicated at B there is recorded a discontinuity or stopping signal in the form of an audio tone indicated by curve 72. When after playback of sound eifect 70 has been completed the stop signal indicated by curve '72 is picked up by playback head 46, it causes energization of relay 50 and closure of its normally open contacts. Grid junction 65 in control unit 18 is then grounded, resulting in energization of relay 58, de-energization of relay 56, and stopping of the tape in reproducer 16.
Sound effect 73, assumed to be the first of those recorded on the tape, is preceded by an initial stop signal 74. Normally a second sound effect 76 will follow stop signal 72, to be in turn followed by another stop signal, by still another sound effect, and so on. While the sound effects 74), 76, etc., will typically be of varying length along the tape, the stop signals 72, 74, etc., will all be of the same length.
It will of course be understood that the relative positions of the stop signal generating discontinuity 72 and the preceding sound effect 70 (as well as of the succeeding sound effect 76) depends upon the relative position of transducers 34 and 46 lengthwise of the tape, it being not necessary that these relative positions he the same. The recorded stop signal must be positioned to' energize the transducer 46 only after the complete sound effect 70 has passed the transducer 34. A proper relative positioning of the signals 76 and '72 is insured in practice however by using the sound re'p'roducer 16 to record the sound effects and stop signal discontinuities on the tape in the first place.
An obvious modification of the embodiment illustrated in Fig. l is that in which the contacts of relay 50 are normally closed instead of normally open. With a tape recorder 16 so modified the relay 58 can be dispensed with. Contact N0 in relay 56 would then be passed directly to one of the terminals in connector 68 while the other terminal of that connector remains grounded in control unit 18. The contacts of relay 50 would then themselves complete the holding circuit to ground for relay 56 until relay 59 is energized by playback of the stop signal 72 at the end of the sound effect.
It is a feature of the present invention that the stop signals 72, 74, etc., are automatically controlled to the proper length by using the recording-reproducing apparatus 16 to record them, as well as to record the sound effects 79, 76, etc. When the successive sound effects 70, '76, etc., are recorded on tape 32, stop signals are provided, one after each sound effect and hence one before each sound effect and also one before the first. For recording, the head 34 is energized with voltages representative of the sound eifects to be recorded, derived via an amplifier from a microphone or equivalent source applied to input jack 4t}. For the generation of the stop signals the recorder-reproducer 16 includes an oscillator 78 capable of producing a signal such as a one thousand cycle tone. Oscillator '73 is controlled to operate so long as a push-button switch 80 is closed.
For recording purposes, a push-button switch 82 is provided in control unit 18 by means of which relay 56 can be manually energized. In recording a series of sound effects for use with a particular script on a carrier 4 in the script display device 2, recorder-reproducer 16 is first set to record condition by means of recordplayback control 41. Clo-sing of switch 32 then de-energizes the solenoid in switch 42 and sets tape 32 into mo tion. After'a suitable lead portion of tape has been transferred from the supply reel to the pick-up reel, switch S0- is closed. Thisresult's in the recording of the first stop signal 74 and stoppage of the tape. The output of oscillater 78 is applied to transducer 46 and also via amplifier 48 to relay 50, being capable of energizing the latter. In preparing the tape 32, after the recording of each sound effect has been completed, a stop signal is recorded by depressing switch 80 until the tape comes to a stop, as it does by operation of relay 50. Cessation of tape motion entails the end of the stop signal, e. g. 72, even though oscillator 78 may remain energized. The length along tape 32 of the stop signal 72 is determined by the mechanical inertia and momentum properties of reproducer t6 and by the electrical time constants of the elements intervening between transducer 46 and effective cutoff of power to the tape drive, viz., in Fig. 1 relays 50, 56, 58 (if employed) and the solenoid in switch 42.
Since the mechanical and electrical inertia of the system is the same on playback as on recording operation, when on playback a recorded stop signal energizes relay 5'0 the tape will be brought to a stop just as the trailing end of the stop signal, e. g. 72, comes under transducer 46. When an initiating signal then arrives for the next sound effect and the tape is set into motion, the last of signal '72 is at once moved away from transducer 46 and the tape continues to move until the next recorded sto signal is encountered. I
Returning now to the description of the tape recording or preparation process, after the initial stop signal 74 has been recorded and the tape stopped, the tape is set in motion again by closing switch 82 and, without delay, the sound effect to be recorded is supplied to recorderreproducer 16. After the first sound effect 70 has been recorded, the tape is allowed to run for a second or two and a stop signal 72 is recorded by closing switch 80. The next sound eifect 76 is then recorded in the same 'way', immediately upon'renewed closing of switch 82.
This process is repeated until all sound effects have been recorded, the last being followed by a recorded stop signal. For this recording or tape preparation process of course the script display unit 2 can be dispensed with.
For oral delivery of the script by the speaker or speakers involved, with accompanying sound effects, the source of sound effect initiating signals, such as the unit 2, is connected to control unit 18. The recorder-reproducer unit 16 is then shifted at control 41 to playback setting.
The tape after being rewound is threaded onto the take up reel and is run, by closing switch 82, until it is brought to a stop by the first stop signal 74. The motion of the script carrier .4 in the script display device 2 will then automatically effect playback of the recorded sound effects' in the desired sequence, at the phases of the script determined by the positions of the short-circuiting strips 26 lengthwise of carrier 4. I
Fig. 3 illustrates another form of sound recording and reproducing apparatus employable with the apparatus of Fig. l to the right of the dash line AA in Fig. l to provide a sound eifect reproducing system according to the invention.
In Fig. 3 the magnetic recorder and reproducer or tape recorder is indicated at 84. It includes (in addition to erasing apparatus, not shown, which is also included in the tape recorder 16 of Fig. l) a recording and playback head 86. The transducer 86 is coupled (for playback operation, as shown) to an amplifier 36 and also before the first and after the last thereof. They are detected by a photoelectrically sensitive circuit which energizes a relay 50, connected as in the embodiment 6r 7 Fig. 1 (according to the normally open or normally closed arrangement of its contacts) to one or another relay 56 or 58 in control unit 18. This photoelectric signal generator is indicated generally at 90. Together with an amplifier 49 connected thereto and a relay 50, it constitutes the stop signal reproducer of the embodiment of Fig. 3. The circuit 90 includes, in place of the transducer 46 of Fig. l, a lamp 94 which illuminates one side of the tape in its passage between pulleys 92. It also includes a photocell 96 shielded with a baffle 98 from direct illumination by lamp 94 but positioned to receive light reflected by the tape from the lamp. The pulleys 92 guide the tape in its motion between the supply and take up reels past the lamp 94 and photocell 96.
The photocell output signal is amplified in an amplifier 49 to develop a signal strong enough to actuate relay 50 when the reflectance of the tape is increased by means of a tab 1%, illustrated in Fig. 4. As indicated in Fig. 4 the tape 88 has applied thereto after the end of a recorded sound effect B a tab 1% of highly reflecting material such as white paper, which may be provided with an adhesive for aflixation to the tape. Such tabs can be made of thin material so as to pass through the tape driving train of the recorder-reproducer 84 Without interfering with the operation thereof and without prejudice to storage of the tape on supply and take-up reels. A tab 100 is provided ahead of the first recorded sound efiect and after every recorded sound effect.
The length of tabs 100 is adjusted with respect to the momentum and inertia characteristics of the reproducer 84 and to the time constants of relays t), 56 and 58 (if relay 58 is employed) and of solenoid operated switch 42 in reproducer 84 so that by the time the tape has been brought to a stop by a signal induced in photocell 96 by such a tab, the tab will have passed out of range of the photocell in its progress toward the take-up reel.
In preparing a tape for the embodiment of Fig. 3 use is made of the tape starting control switch 82 in control unit 18 and of a control in tape recorder 84 for manually stopping the tape. This control may take any suitable form and is shown in Fig. 3 as a normally open push-button switch 102 which, when closed, applies a battery 103 in parallel with the output of amplifier 49 to energize relay 50. Of course the embodiment of Fig. 3 may however employ the two track tape recorder 16 of Fig. 1 together with the optical stop signal system shown in Fig. 3. In that case the tape can be stopped during the recording process by means of the control 89 shown in Fig. 1. In either event, after a suitable lead of a blank tape has been run onto the take-up reel, the tape is stopped and a tab 106 is applied thereto opposite the photocell. The tape is then restarted, and the first sound effect is immediately recorded. After the sound effect has been recorded, the tape is stopped again and another tab is applied thereto opposite the photocell, and so on.
Fig. 5 illustrates still another form of sound recording and reproducing apparatus employable with the apparatus of Fig. 1 to the right of dash line A-A in Fig. l to provide a sound effect reproducing system according to the invention. The tape recorder 84 of Fig. 5 may be similar or identical to that of Fig. 3, and it may consequently be again a two track recorder of the type illustrated in Fig. 1. In Fig. 5 however the discontinuities on the record medium employed as stop signals are conductive rather than optical discontinuities. In Fig. 6, which illustrates a recorded tape prepared for use in the apparatus of Fig. 5, tabs 1% of electrically conductive material are shown applied to the tape between the recorded sound effects and before the first and after the last thereof. These cooperate with a stop signal reproducing circuit generally indicated at 166 in Fig. 5 to generate an electrical signal which energizes relay 5%. The circuit 106 includes conducting pulleys 1&8 and 110 which are insulated from each other and over which the 8 tape is passed, and a voltage source 112 connected in series with pulleys 198 and and with the energized coil of relay 50.
The tabs 1% illustrated in Fig. 6 may for example be of adhesive backed aluminum foil and are applied to the side of the tape 88 engaged by pulleys 1&8 and 115). When the tabs arrive at the pulleys, they short-circuit them to energize relay 50 and stop the tape. Their length must be at least great enough to span the separation of pulleys 1G8 and 110, and is adjusted so that by the time the tape has been brought to rest in response to the short circuit of pulleys 108 and 110 which they effect, that short circuit will have been opened.
The technique of recording sound effects on magnetic tape, applying tabs 104 thereto and using the prepared tape with the apparatus of Fig. 5 in conjunction with a speech or dramatic presentation or the like is the same as that described in conjunction with Fig. 3. For stopping motion of the tape by manual control during the recording process, both before recording of the first sound effect is begun and after the recording of each sound effect has been completed, there is shown in Fig. 5 a normally open push-button switch 1&5 in parallel with pulleys 108 and 110. Here again however if the recorder-reproducer 16 of Fig. l is used in conjunction with the stop signal reproducing apparatus 1126 of Fig. 5, relay 5% in Fig. 5 may be energized to stop the tape during the recording process for application of tabs 104 by means of switch 8% and oscillator '78 (Fig. 1).
Fig. 7 illustrates still another form of the invention in which the discontinuities in the recorded tape between successive sound efiects take the form of Zones of silence. In this figure a stop signal reproducer generally indicated at a dash line box develops, from a recorded stopping signal in the form of a length of quiet tape passed through the tape recorder 84, an electrical signal employed to stop the tape with the help of the control unit 18. The tape starting or sound effect initiating signals are supplied as before from a suitable source such as the script display unit 2 to control unit 18 for actuation of the tape drive control solenoid 42 of tape recorder 84.
In the particular arrangement shown in Fig. 7 only one of the relays 56 and 58 of the control unit 18 is employed. Consequently only one is shown.
The stop signal reproducer 12G takes its input from the leads to the voice coil of speaker 38 in the recorderreproducer 84 and, in response to a suitably selected interval of silence on the tape 88 during playback, represented by the absence of an audio voltage on those leads for a corresponding time, the reproducer 120 delivers a tapestopping signal in the form of a negative bias voltage. This is applied to the junction 64 in the grid circuit of tube 59 which controls relay 56 in control unit 18. This negative pulse drives tube 5& out of conduction, deenergizing relay 56 to permit energization of solenoid 42 and hence stopping of the tape.
In the reproducer 126) the speaker voice coil voltage is applied to a step-up transformer 122. Across the secondary winding of this transformer there is connected, in series, a rectifier 124, a parallel resistance-capacitance combination 128, 130, and a further resistor 126. The rectifier is so poled that when transformer 122 is excited the capacitor 130 will develop a charge which makes negative the plate thereof adjacent the rectifier, and this plate is connected to the control grid of a grid controlled gas discharge tube 134 whose cathode is grounded through the energizing coil 136 of a relay indicated at 138. A potentiometer 140 and a resistor 142 are connected in series across a source of bias voltage 144 to permit the application of an adjustable negative bias voltage to the grid in tube 134, the tap on potentiometer 140 connecting to the plate of capacitor 130 remote from the rectifier 124.
Relay 138 includes a pair of normally open contacts indicated at 146, connected between the negative ter- 9 minalof bias source 144 and junction 64 in the grid circuit of tube 59.
a A capacitor 148 is connected between the plate of tube 134 and ground, and a resistor 150 is connected between the ungrounded side of this capacitor and the normally open contact N in relay 56 for the application of a B+ voltage from contact C when the relay 56 is energized.
The setting of potentiometer 140 is such that, in the absence of :a D. C. B+ voltage applied to tube 134 through relay 56, tube 134 is biased beyond plate current cutoff, the tube moreover remaining cutoff from an intermediate level of plate voltage below the full B+ value applied to contact C in relay 56.
The tape 88 is prepared by a method presently to be described so that the successive sound effects are recorded thereon with intervals between them of predetermined linear length. For development of sound effects as accompaniments to a speech or dramatic presentation the recorded tape 88 is then threaded onto the take-up reel and advanced until the beginning of the first sound effect approaches the playback head 86 to a maximum spacing which is less than the predetermined length just referred to. With recorder-reproducer 84 energized at its on-off switch 55 but with the tape stopped by energized condition of solenoid switch 42 therein, a cuing signal from the script display device 2 will then enerzgize relay 56 via cable 20 and set the tape into mo tion via relay contacts C and NC in the manner already described with reference, for example, to Fig. 1. A holding circuit for relay 56 is provided in Fig. 7 by connecting contact N0 thereof to junction 64 through a dropping resistor 152 so dimensioned that the potential assumed by junction 64 when contact N0 is raised to B+ voltage is above the extinction potential of tube 59.
As soon as contact N0 is placed at B+ potential capacitor 148 begins to charge so that the potential on the plate of tube 134 begins to rise. The time constant of capacitor 148 and resistor 150 is however so selected that, for the bias setting on tube 134 determined at potentiometer 14f), tube 134 is not brought to the point of ignition until elapse of the time interval corresponding, according to the speed of motion of the tape, to the maximum spacing already referred to. Before elapse of this time interval the beginning of the first recorded sound effect appears at playback head 86. Consequently audio voltage is applied to transformer 122. This voltage is rectified by rectifier 124, rapidly increasing the negative bias applied to the grid of tube 134 until the tube is driven past the point of plate current cutoff even for full B+ voltage applied to its plate.
At the end of the recorded sound effect the energization of rectifier 124 disappears and the accumulated supplementary bias voltage across capacitor 130 begins to discharge through resistor 128. The grid of tube 134 therefore rises and will, after a determinable lapse of time, reach the firing voltage of tube 134. When tube 134 conducts, relay 138 is energized, causing extinction of tube 59, de-energization of relay 56, stoppage of the tape and removal of B+ from tube 134.
The time constant of the R. C. combination 128, 130 is so selected that the lapse of time between the cessation of voltage input to transformer 122 and the firing of tube 134 corresponds to or exceeds the balance, in the predetermined linear length of tape separating adjacent sound effects, above the maximum spacing above referred to. Of course, the selection for combination 128, 130 is made high enough to prevent inadvertent stoppage of the tape on silences intentionally included in the recorded sound effects.
With the tape stopped by leak off of charge from capacitor 130, there will remain for passage past the playback transducer 86, out of the linear tape interval separating adjacent sound effects, less than the maximum spacing above referred to. This insures that when the tape is restarted by the next succeeding initiating signal 10 from the script display unit 2, audio signal will arrive at transformer 122 before the rise in plate voltage on tube 134 can cause a premature stopping of the tape;
In recording a tape for use in the apparatus, shown in Fig. 7, if the apparatus of that figure is used for the recording process, the tape may be started before the recording of each sound effect by means of a normally open push-button switch 82, connected as in Fig. 1 between ground and the junction 64 in the grid circuit of tube 59. The stop signal reproducing circuit will bring the tape to a stop after the end of each sound effect, causing the recording on the tape of a stopping signal which begins at the end of input signal to transducer 86, as used for recording, and which ends under that transducer when the tape comes to a stop. After the tape stops on completion of the recording of a sound effect, the tape is restarted by closing switch 82 and care is taken to begin the recording .of sound for the next sound effect before the tape has traveled the maximum spacing already referred to which corresponds to the firing time of tube 134 for zero charge on capacitor 130. This maximum spacing is determined as already explained by the R. C. charging combination 148, and by the bias setting at potentiometer 140.
The essential requirement is that the spacing of adjacent sound effects on the tape must in the embodiment of Fig. 7 be that required for stopping of the tape by discharge of capacitor 130, plus no more than the length of tape during whose passage through the recorder capacitor 148 can be allowed to charge until, for no charge on capacitor 130, tube 134 will be brought to fire. For this reason the spacing is advantageously made to include that required to stop the tape plus a margin of safety amounting to a small fraction of the length of tape defined in the foregoing sentence. This spacing may be obtained in the recording process without even stopping the tape between sound effects.
Alternatively of course the stop signal initiating circuit 120 might be employed to close the normally open contacts of a relay 50 connected as shown in Figs. 1, 3 and 5, relay 58 in the control unit 18 then being employed when de-energized to provide a holding circuit for relay 56 and receiving in turn its energizing signal from the relay 50.
While the invention has been described herein in terms of a number of preferred arrangements, the invention as set forth in the appended claims is not limited thereto. Obviously other cabling and wiring arrangements may be employed and obviously likewise the invention is not limited to use with sound reproducing apparatus employing for control of motion of the record medium on which the sound effects are recorded the solenoid operated switch which has been described. The invention comprehends, for the reproduction of plural sound effects at desired times, control of sound reproducing apparatus of any kind whose operation can be started and stopped by electrical means.
Neither is the invention restricted to use with the particular curing apparatus which has been illustrated as a source ,of sound effect initiating signals. In the curing device, when employed, there may be provided discontinuities of any form which can be sensed by apparatus at a sensing station capable of developing a first series of electrical control signals for setting into motion the record medium which bears the recorded sound effects to be reproduced. Similarly in the sound reproducing apparatus employed for reproduction of recorded sound effects, the record medium may include for interruption of its motion via a stopping signal generator discontinuities of any form which can be distinguished from the recorded sound effects themselves.
While certain of the appended claims refer to the oral delivery of a speech, it will be understood that the invention defined'by these claims is useful in dramatic presentations by an actor or actors, whether on the live stage, in motion pictures, television or otherwise, and including pantomime, as well as in the delivery of a speech or speeches in the sense of oratory.
I claim:
1. Apparatus for the reproduction of sound efli'ects as accompaniments to the oral delivery of a speech, said apparatus comprising in combination a speech cuing device including a movable record medium bearing graphic indicia of the speech to be delivered, means disposed along said medium to generate first electrical control signals at selected phases of the motion of said medium, a sound reproducer including a second record medium for the spaced recording thereon of said sound eifects and of record medium stopping signals between adjacent sound effects as recorded on said second record medium, means to generate upon playback of said second medium second electrical control signals representative of said stopping signals, means to initiate motion of said second medium in response to said first control signals, and means to interrupt motion of said second medium in response to said second control signals.
2. Apparatus for the reproduction of sound effects as accompaniments to the oral delivery of a speech, said apparatus comprising in combination a speech cuing device including a movable record medium bearing graphic indicia of the speech to be delivered, means disposed along said medium to generate first electrical control signals at selected phases of the motion of said medium, a sound reproducer including a second record medium for the spaced recording thereon of said sound effects,
means to generate upon playback of said second record medium second electrical control signals representative of intervals between successive of said sound efiects as recorded on said second record medium, means to initiate motion of said second record medium in response to said first control signals, and means to interrupt motion of said second record medium in response to said second control signals.
3. A speech cuing and sound efiect system comprising a movable record medium bearing graphic indicia of a speech and further bearing sound effect signal initiating discontinuities, means responsive to passage of said discontinuities to generate sound efiect initiating control signals, a sound reproducing device adapted to reproduce sound effects successively recorded on a second record medium, a stepping signal generator responsive to discontinuities in said second record medium, and control apparatus responsive to said control signals to initiate motion of said second record medium and responsive to signals from said stopping signal generator to interrupt motion of said second record medium.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,501,048 Haller Mar. 21, 1950 2,552,788 Hoover May 15, 1951 2,615,992 Flory Oct. 28, 1952 2,633,055 Badmaiefi Mar. 31, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF -CORRECTION Patent No. 2, 847,513
August 12, 1958 Hubert J, Schlafly, Jr. fied that error umbered pat read as c It is hereby certi of the above "11 appears in the -printed s Patent should pecification ent requiring correction and that the said Letters orrected below.
Column 1, line 27,
for "recording" read re-recording column 9,, line 11, for "from" read for column 10, lines 59 and 61, for "curing", each occurrence, read cuing e (SEAL) Attest:
\ KARL Ha AXLINE ROBERT C. WATSON Attesting ()Hicer ommissioner of Patents
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3026769A (en) * 1958-08-29 1962-03-27 Zeiss Ikon Ag Device for recording switching impulses
US3134089A (en) * 1960-10-13 1964-05-19 Bogoff Stanley Signal apparatus
US3181421A (en) * 1962-01-29 1965-05-04 Impcomation Inc Visual and audio presentation system
US3662120A (en) * 1968-06-13 1972-05-09 Diffusien De La Culture Europ Tape recorder useful as an automated teaching apparatus
US3879756A (en) * 1973-03-13 1975-04-22 Economy Co Automatic drive stop control utilizing motor voltage transients

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2501048A (en) * 1946-10-11 1950-03-21 Haller Raymond And Brown Inc Announcing system
US2552788A (en) * 1946-10-29 1951-05-15 James Arthur Gleason Inaudible control circuit for starting and stopping phonograph systems
US2615992A (en) * 1949-01-03 1952-10-28 Rca Corp Apparatus for indicia recognition
US2633055A (en) * 1949-10-03 1953-03-31 Badmaieff Alexis Automatically controlled multitrack rerecording and reproducing sound system

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2501048A (en) * 1946-10-11 1950-03-21 Haller Raymond And Brown Inc Announcing system
US2552788A (en) * 1946-10-29 1951-05-15 James Arthur Gleason Inaudible control circuit for starting and stopping phonograph systems
US2615992A (en) * 1949-01-03 1952-10-28 Rca Corp Apparatus for indicia recognition
US2633055A (en) * 1949-10-03 1953-03-31 Badmaieff Alexis Automatically controlled multitrack rerecording and reproducing sound system

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3026769A (en) * 1958-08-29 1962-03-27 Zeiss Ikon Ag Device for recording switching impulses
US3134089A (en) * 1960-10-13 1964-05-19 Bogoff Stanley Signal apparatus
US3181421A (en) * 1962-01-29 1965-05-04 Impcomation Inc Visual and audio presentation system
US3662120A (en) * 1968-06-13 1972-05-09 Diffusien De La Culture Europ Tape recorder useful as an automated teaching apparatus
US3879756A (en) * 1973-03-13 1975-04-22 Economy Co Automatic drive stop control utilizing motor voltage transients

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