US2802450A - Fountain pens - Google Patents

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US2802450A
US2802450A US407940A US40794054A US2802450A US 2802450 A US2802450 A US 2802450A US 407940 A US407940 A US 407940A US 40794054 A US40794054 A US 40794054A US 2802450 A US2802450 A US 2802450A
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capillary
nib
reservoir
pen
section
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US407940A
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Frederick R Wittnebert
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Parker Pen Co
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Parker Pen Co
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B43WRITING OR DRAWING IMPLEMENTS; BUREAU ACCESSORIES
    • B43KIMPLEMENTS FOR WRITING OR DRAWING
    • B43K5/00Pens with ink reservoirs in holders, e.g. fountain-pens
    • B43K5/18Arrangements for feeding the ink to the nibs

Definitions

  • the present invention relates to capillary fountain pens of the type having a capillary reservoir, which fills by capillary action, and retains the ink in the pen by capillary action except in a writing operation when the ink iiows out of the pen by capillary action.
  • the pen is of the capillary type wherein the reservoir has a capacity similar to that of conventional fountain ens.
  • An object ofthe invention is to provide a capillary fountain pen of the foregoing character, of simple and inexpensive construction.
  • a further object is to provide a capillary fountain pen having capillary iiller-and-reservoir element and feed means made up of fibrous material, such as glass fibres, in which the fibres are combed and arranged in generally parallel relation whereby the capillary spaces between the fibres and formed by the fibres extend generally longitudinally of the fibrous mass for facilitating feed of the ink by capillary action from one end of the element to the other.
  • fibrous material such as glass fibres
  • a still further object is to provide a capillary fountain pen of the foregoing character having a novel arrangement for establishing capillary ink feed between the capillary element and the writing element.
  • Still another object is to provide a capillary fountain pen having a capillary element made up of brous material in which the fibres extend generally longitudinally of the pen with their forward ends adjacent the Writing element, and wherein means is provided for compacting the portion of the iibres adjacent the writing element for establishing smaller capillary spaces, and hence greater capillarity at the compacted portion than in the remainder of the element for facilitating capillary feed of the ink from the capillary element to the writing element.
  • Another object is to provide a capillary fountain pen of the foregoing character wherein the capillary element and the writing element can be easily inserted in and removed from the holder or barrel provided therefor.
  • Another object is to provide a capillary fountain pen including a barrel or holder and ⁇ a capillary fibrous mass therein, in which tubular means is provided for containing at least a portion of the fibres and is insertable and removable through the forward end of the barrel, the tubular means effecting the -desired confinement and prearrangement of the fibres when mounted in the pen barrel.
  • Figure 2 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of the fore portion of the pen of Figure 1;
  • Figure 3 is a cross sectional view taken on line 3--3 of Figure 2;
  • Figure 4 is a cross sectional view taken on line 4-4 of Figure 2;
  • Figure 5 is a cross sectional view taken on line 5--5 of Figure 2; j
  • Figure is a view similar to Figure 1, showing a modiied form of filler-and-reservoir element
  • the cap ⁇ 18 insofar as the present invention is concerned may be a conventional cap and preferably includes an outer casing 20 of metal and an inner cap element 22 of resilient material.
  • the two elements, 20 and 22, are secured together by suitable means such as a screw 24 which also secures a pocket clip 26 to the cap.
  • the inner element 22 has an inner surface 28 adjacent at its open end suitably shaped for engagement i with the tapered surface of the front section 12 of the barrel for releasably gripping the pen when the cap is It is desired that the outer element 20 of the cap extend beyond the inner element and is of appropriate length that when the surface 28 engages the barrel in gripping relation, the outer element abuts the shoulder 16 whereby the cap is limited in a telescoping movement over the barrel.
  • Thebarrel sections 12 and 14 have cooperating bore portions 30 and 32 respectively which when the sections are fitted together as shown in Figure l, together form a reservoir space or section in which are disposed certain Vportions of the capillary iiller-and-reservoir element.
  • the barrel sections 12 and 14 are connected together and normally supported in the desired relationship by means of a sleeve 34 extending substantially throughout the i length ⁇ of the lreservoir section and having its front end extended into the bore portion 3l) where it is provided with outwardly struck, rearwardly extending tangs 36 formed by a convenient punching operation.
  • the sleeve is driven into the bore portion 30 and is so dimensioned relative to the diameter of the bore portion that when it i is so driven in the tangs bite or cut into the surface of the bore portion and iirmly secure the sleeve therein.
  • the sleeve is thus rigidly mounted and is of suiiicient strength to support the rear section 14 which is telescoped thereon.
  • the rear section 14 is provided with an annular element 38 on its inner surface adjacent its forward end of resilient i friction gripping material such as rubber or a rubber-like product dimensioned for releasably gripping the sleeve when the section is telescoped thereon. If desired, the resilient i friction gripping material such as rubber or a rubber-like product dimensioned for releasably gripping the sleeve when the section is telescoped thereon. If desired, the
  • gripping element 38 may be secured in an annular groove 37 as shown so as to be secure against dislodgment in the sliding movement of the section onto and olf of the l sleeve.
  • the bore portion 32 may be slightly larger than the external diameter of the sleeve so as to avoid friction engagement between the respective surfaces, all friction gripping action taking place between the gripping element 38 and the sleeve.
  • 'Ilhe front section 12 of the barrel is generally tapered forwardly, and terminates in a hood portion having an inclined forward end, the hood portion y extending over the writing nib 39.
  • the nib and its relation with the remaining elements of the pen will be de scribed fully hereinafter.
  • a reduced bore 42 Leading forwardly from the bore portion 30 in the forward barrel section is a reduced bore 42 having a forward counterbore 44 forming a forwardly facing shoulder 43, and asecond vcounterbore 46 forwardly of the first or channel 47 is provided inthe section 12 in communi- If desired, the
  • thev height or level to which the ink rises is determined by the dimension of the spaces.l
  • The' capillary element y#iff' has ⁇ a portion-50f ⁇ idisp0sed in the reservoir sectionof the pen holderanda second portion 52 extending forwardlyithrough the bore 42, the
  • The: tubular'member54- at its rear portion may be of luniformshapefthat is, it isof uniform cross sectional contour, and it is kso dimensioned 'as ⁇ to frictionally engagethe surface of the bore 42i for normally retaining it in place in the bore.
  • the tubular'member'fl includes a guard or shield 56 at its adjacent the forward end, definedV at the forward end by the forward tip of the guard or shield 5'6 for exposure therethrough of the forward end of the glass bres making up the capillary element.
  • This opening 58 is positioned for predetermined relation with the writingelement'or nib 39 which overlies vtheV opening.
  • the nib 39 includes a reartubular body portion 62 and a forward tapered j writing tip portion 64 which risslitted longitudinallyV as shown at 66 from its writing tip end rearwardly ak substantiali'distance so thatat least a substantial portion of the slit overlies the opening 58z ⁇
  • the slit may terminate in a pierceV 67 asis customary.
  • the tubular body'portionV 62 of the nib is dimensioned for frictional engagement with the surface of the counterbore 44 and wheninserted in the barrel section surrounds the tubular member'54 l and abuts the shoulder 43'for limiting the rearward movement' ofthe nib.
  • the nib is preferably slotted at 6Sso that the tubular body portion .isenabled' to'cojntract and expand to a limited extent and is preferably self-biased outwardly so as to frictionally engage the surfaceofthe counterbo're. frictionally engagethe tubular member. 54, but such fric;
  • the body portion of the nib may. also tional engagement is not relied upon for retaining'the nib or the tubular member 54 in place, since ⁇ the-1atterhas suicient frictional engagement with the surface of the bore ⁇ 42.
  • the forward counterbore 46 is so dimensioned relative to the nibj 39 as to form a capillary space 70 fat .leastpartially surrounding thenib and-disposed over the nibr ⁇ slit 66.
  • This ⁇ capillary space is'of proper dimension to retain a film of ink therein in overlying relation--to -the i.
  • nib for providing a ready supply of ink for feeding to i the nib so that the pen is in condition for ⁇ instant writing after a prolonged period of non-use. This space also aids in the filling operation as will be brought out later.
  • the capillary element 43 and particularly the portion 52 thereof may be twisted to a limited extent for rendering it more adaptable to handling in inserting it into the tubular member 54.
  • the twisting action tends to contract or compact the fibres which then tend to expand after insertion and yieldingly engage the surface of the tube.
  • the fibres accordingly remain in their pre-arranged relative positions.
  • the tubular member thus produces a confining action on the fibres and maintains them in a more or less uniform condition so that the spaces formed between the fibres are of relatively uniform dimension longitudinally of the element.
  • the forward end portions of the fibres at 59 are relatively compacted and are held against the writing nib, the nib being maintained in actual engagement withrthe tubular member or at least in close proximity thereto.
  • the spaces between the fibres in this relatively compacted portion are thus of somewhat smaller dimension, and greater Y capillarity, than in the remainder of the element.V This condition facilitates the passage of ink from the capillary element to the nib, as will 'be brought out more fully hereinafter.
  • the portion 50 of the capillary element that is disposed in the reservoir section of the pen is also constituted by combed fibres and these also may besomewhat twisted to retain them in a condition in which they can be easily handled, as in inserting the element in the pen.
  • this portion of the fibres is coiled as shown in the drawing so as to 4maintain the parallel relationship between the fibres of the mass.
  • VOne -form of construction embodying the present invention includes the portion 5G of the iiller-and-reservoir elementtpositioned in the forward end of therreservoir section and anV additional-reservoir cartridge 72 disposed inthe sleeve 34 and removable from the rearward end thereof upon separation of the barrel sections.
  • the cartridge 72 includes a casing 74y having a capillary llerand-reservoir element Si) therein and a plate 76 adjacent its forward end suitably secured therein and provided with one or more apertures 78 ( Figure 5) for exposure of the element 80 therethrough and capillary ink transfer engagement with the capillaryelement 48.
  • the fillerand-reservoir element 80 may also be referred toas a capillary element.
  • the element S6 serves as a supplementalelement or reservoir, being connected with and acting as an addition -to the element 4S.
  • the element S6 may be made of any of a number of desired materials.- One such material is glass fibre similar. to the 'element 48 and it may be random packed. The masecured at its forward end by the plate 76 and may be retained in a central position at itsrear end by the mass of material 80 surrounding it.
  • the vent tube is prefen ably apertured as at 81, or slotted, to provide more efficient venting to the mass of material 80, and itsfor- Y ward eend: extends into kthe coils 5f).
  • the casing 74 is provided with suitable means such as a screen element 83f-secured in the rear end .of the casing, Vwhichfserves to retain the capillary material Si) in the-casing whilevlv permitting venting of the material and the vent tube.
  • suitable means such as a screen element 83f-secured in the rear end .of the casing, Vwhichfserves to retain the capillary material Si) in the-casing whilevlv permitting venting of the material and the vent tube.
  • the rear end of the casing 74 may'be engagedby a urges the cartridge forwardly in response to forward movement of the rear barrel section onto the sleeve 34.
  • the plate 76 engages the portion 50 of the capillary element 48 and retains the latter against undesired displacement or stray migration of the bres. A certain limited space is left around the coils of the portion 50, as well as in the center of the coils. Communication is thus provided from the forward end of the vent tube 82 to the passage 47.
  • the bore portion 32 in the rear barrel section 14 is suitably vented at its rear end to atmosphere such as by a vent opening 86 leading rearwardly through the rear end of the rear barrel section.
  • vent tube 82 provides direct venting to the capillary element 48, eliminating the necessity for venting through the mass 80 when the latter becomes empty. Venting of the mass 80 is also effected through the apertures 81, whereby venting of portions of the mass at intervals is accomplished.
  • the cartridge 72 can be removed from the barrel after removing the rear barrel section from the sleeve 34, whereupon the cartridge is exposed at the rear open end of the sleeve 34.
  • Another cartridge may be replaced simply by inserting it in the sleeve 34 and upon the barrel sections being re-united, the rear section forces the cartridge into proper contact engagement with the forward capillary element 48.
  • capillary fountain pens An important feature in effective operation of capillary fountain pens is that there must be continuous 'and uninterrupted feed of ink from the reservoir to'the writing nib. This consideration is apart from the matter of filling the reservoir by capillary action.
  • the fibres in the portion 52, being confined in the tubular member S4 are compacted to an extent at least as great as those in the portion 50, and may be compacted to a slightly greater extent, and as was pointed out above, the forward ends of the glass fibres at S9 are confined and more greatly compacted by the guard or shield 56 and the nib 60. This results in spaces between the libres yof lesser dimension and greater capillarity than the spaces in the remaining portion of the capillary element.
  • the greater capillarity thus established enhances the capillary flow of ink from the upper portion of the capillary element to the lower portion (as considered in a writing position).
  • the ink in the capillary element forms a column which tends to extend throughout the length of the capillary element.
  • This portion of the capillary element not only provides greater capillarity for the purpose just stated, but also because it is relatively more confined or compacted, it is maintained in firm engagement with the nib. As a consequence ink transfer between the capillary element and the nib is facilitated.
  • the space between the capillary element and the nib is of at least as great capillarity as the spaces between the fibres; the compacting action constantly urges the bres into engagement with the nib and maintains such relation.
  • the nib slit 66 overlies at least a portion of the opening 53 in the tubular member and hence overlies the end portion of the fibres.
  • the space in the nib slit thus forms a continuation of the capillary spaces between the fibres so that a continuous and uninterrupted feed from the fibres to and through the nib slit is maintained.
  • the capillary material in the pen thus includes a capillary filler-and-reservoir element of capacity similar to that of a conventional fountain pen, and feed means capable of feeding ink from the ller-and-reservoir element tothe nib.
  • the capillarity of the capillary material at no position decreases in a forward direction, and is more on the G. order of a forward. progression of increasing capillarity, with distinctlyy greater capillarity at the portion 59 and between the latter and the nib, than in any of the portions rearwardly thereof.
  • the preferred method of filling the pen is to immerse the rear end of the cartridge 72 in a supply of ink, after removal of the rear barrel section 14.y Ink flows into the spaces between the libres by capillary action, filling the element 80 and then the element v4S. Air in the element 80 is expelled through the apertures in the vent tube, through the forward end of the latter, through the space between the coils of the portion 50, and then through the passage 47 and out through the forward end of the pen.
  • the pen may also be filled from the front end, if that should be desired, even though rear-end-lling is preferred; in front-end-iilling, the front end is immersed in a supply of ink to an appropriate extent, and the ⁇ ink passes into the space 70, through the nib slit and through the opening 58 into the spaces between the libres.
  • the capacity of the pin may be as great or as small as desired within the limits of capillary action in the capillary element. As shown and described hereinabove, the capacity of the reservoir is quite large because of the relatively large dimension of the iller-and-reservoir elements which substantially fill the reservoir section of the barrel. All portions of the fibrous material may be considered as reservoir portions, in that they function to store ink.
  • the tubular member 54 serves as a convenient means for mounting the capillary element 48 in the barrel and removing it therefrom. For this purpose it may be pre- N ferred that the coils of the portion 50 be limited in number and occupy only the forwardmost end portion of the reservoir section. Upon gripping the tubular lelement 54 and withdrawing it out lof the forward end of the bore 42 the capillary element 48 is withdrawn from the barrel section. The portion 52 of the capillary element is retained in the tubular member by the friction engagement with the inner surface thereof, and upon removal of the tubular member from the pen barrel the capillary element is removed therewith.
  • the pen nib may also be withdrawn forwardly merely by gripping it and drawing forwardly on it. The nib and tubular member may be withdrawn together from the barrel, and thereafter the nib withdrawn from the tubular member. For re-insertion, the nib is placed on the tubular member and the two are inserted in the bore together.
  • the coils 50 are made up of fibres that are disposed generally parallel with each other and may be considered as extending longitudinally. At any rate the spaces formed by and existing between the fibres extend continuously and without interrupting throughout the length of the capillary element as determined by the length of the fibres and the ⁇ direction of their extension. Such continuous spaces facilitate the action of ink in feeding therethrough.
  • the coils 50 may project or extend throughout the reservoir section.
  • FIG. 6 The pen shown in this gure is similar to that of Figure 1 except that the plate 76 is omitted and the coils 50 are extended. throughout .the length of the casing 74. This penalso is adapted to rearend-lling. Filling is accomplished by removing the rear barrel section V14 and immersing the rear end of the casing '74 (and sleeve 34) in a supply of ink. Filling is accomplished in a manner described above in connection with the pen of Figure l. The remaining details of construction of the pen of Figure 6 are similar to those of the pen of Figure l.
  • the'barrel 90 has a reservoir section 92V in the greater part of the .length of the barrel. Leading forwardly ⁇ through the' forward end of the barrel is a reduced diameter bore 94 in which are mounted the feed bar 96 and nib 93."
  • the rear end portion ofthembarrel may be of slightly reduced .diameter as at 100, and. closed by a blind cap 102.
  • a vent may be provided in theblind cap or in the cap for fitting over the front end.
  • the feed bar 96 ⁇ may be in theform of a rigid bar, con posed of a suitable material such as plastic.
  • the lower portion. of the feed bar ⁇ may be ofrelatively, heavy dimension, and in the upper portion is a groove 104 ⁇ opening through thel rear end and extending up to a point closely adjacent but spaced from the forward end Vof the feed bar.
  • the feed bar at its forwardend is tapered forwardly at 106 andthe' groove in that portion progresses to a point, that is, diminishes in dimension both Vsidewise and vertically, in a manner similar to thatdescribed abovein connection with 'the guard or shield 56;
  • the nib.98' may be conventionalin form having an arcuate body portion and a tapered and slitted writing tip 108.'
  • the feed bar 96 may be substantially circular in cross section although it need not be accurately so, and the' feed bar and nib with the nib fitted to the feed bar,
  • the dimensions of the several elements are such that the feed bar and nib are frictionally retained in ⁇ the bore in the assembly.
  • the nib has a slit 110andrthe customary pierce positioned for atleast partially overlying the groove l104 for capillary engagement with Vthe capillary material therein to be described later.
  • the reed bar 961s also provided with a bore 112 opening out throughthe rear or inner end thereof in which is inserted a vent. tube' 114 extending substantially the full length of the reservoir section.
  • the bore 112 has a transverse extension 116 opening out to the exterior forwardly of the barrel for. venting the interior of the reservoir section which, in the present instance, is forwardly rather than rearwardly in the filling operation.
  • the ibresmaking up the filler-and-reservoir element and the feed are indicated generally at 118.' These fibres are Vsimilarly combed or prealigned so that the individual strands or filaments extend generally parallel and longitudinallyof'the mass which they form. The fibres are wound around the vent tube 114 substantially throughout the length of the reservoir section 92,'and a portion of the libres is extended through the groove or bore 104 up tothe forward end of the latter.
  • the mass making up the filler-and-reservoir element which is designated specically as 120 ⁇ preferably is made up from a relatively small or small-diameter bunch, coiled or wrapped around the vent-tube, of appropriate dimensions to be extended into the grooveror bore 104, ias shown at 122.
  • the strands or filaments in the portion 122 are compacted to an extent at least as great as those in the portion 120 so as to form a continuous'progression of capillarity that does not decrease in forward direction but preferably increases in a forward direction.
  • These fibres in the portion 122 are substantially of uniform length, and at their forward ends, are relatively more greatly compacted in the portion-124 because ⁇ of the forwardly decreasing dimensions of the groove at that location.
  • vent tube 114 is apertured as at 126 for facilitating venting as was described above.
  • the rear end of the filler-and-reservoir element portion, 118A may be engaged by a screen 128 ⁇ suitably secured inethe bore 100 r' for retaining/the capillary material in placer lThe screenpermits ready' ⁇ passageof air therethrough.
  • Thepen- is preferably -iilled 'from the rear end, which U Yn1ay-be Yaccomplished4A by removingf-thevblind cap and inserting thef-rearendl in a supply of inlgas Vwas described in connectionL with the first form.
  • U Yn1ay-be Yaccomplished4A by removingf-thevblind cap and inserting thef-rearendl in a supply of inlgas Vwas described in connectionL with the first form.
  • it may bedone byiinserting the forward end ⁇ in a supply of ink to a suitabledepth, e. -g., to a position slightly below the transverse bore 116.
  • the pen ofthis embodiment represents a simpleV conl.
  • cluding sections separableat a positionv Within the ends v of the reservoir section'of the cavity, a nib mounted in the -forward section of said cavity, a capillary ller-andreservoir ⁇ element in saidcavity in capillary ink transfer engagement with said lnib Vand having a portion disposed in the forward end ofthe reservoir section of the cavity,
  • rear barrel section being telescoped over said sleeve and having an annular resilient member on its inner wall releasably gripping the sleeve for retaining the barrel section-thereon, and a cartridge removably disposed in said sleeve containing a capillary element in capillary ink transfer'engagernent with the rear end of the rst capillary element.
  • a capillary pen comprisingv a barrel having a forwardly opening cavity including a rear large reservoir section and a forward reduced section and the barrel including sections separable at a position within the ends of the reservoir section of the cavity, a nib mounted in the forward section of the cavity, a capillary element in said cavity in capillary ink transfer engagement with said nib and having a portion disposed in the forward end of the reservoir section of the cavity, a sleeve extended into the reservoir section in the forward barrel section and extending rearwardly therefrom and secured therein by rearwardly facing tangs struck out from the sleeve and gripping the wall of the cavity, the rear barrel section being telescoped over said sleeve and having an annular resilient member on its inner wall releasably gripping the sleeve for retaining the barrel section thereon, and a cartridge removably disposed in said sleeve and including a casing having a forward wall with an opening therein and a flexible and resilient capillary element in said cas

Description

Aug- 13, 1957 F', R. WITTNEBERTv 2,802,450
FOUNTAIN PENS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed'Feb. s, 1954 INVENToR. FREDERICK R.WITTNEBERT A TTY Aug. 13, 1957 F. R. wn'TNEBr-:RT
FOUNTAIN PENS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 3, 1954 INVEN TOR.
FEEDERKK R'. W l TTNEBERT iinited States Patent O 2,802,450' FOUNTAIN PENS Frederick R. Wittnebert, Whitewater, Wis., assignor to The Parker Pen Company, Janesville, Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin Application February 3, 1954, Serial No. 407,940 2 Claims. (Cl. 1Z0-50) The present invention relates to capillary fountain pens of the type having a capillary reservoir, which fills by capillary action, and retains the ink in the pen by capillary action except in a writing operation when the ink iiows out of the pen by capillary action.
The pen is of the capillary type wherein the reservoir has a capacity similar to that of conventional fountain ens. p An object ofthe invention is to provide a capillary fountain pen of the foregoing character, of simple and inexpensive construction.
A further object is to provide a capillary fountain pen having capillary iiller-and-reservoir element and feed means made up of fibrous material, such as glass fibres, in which the fibres are combed and arranged in generally parallel relation whereby the capillary spaces between the fibres and formed by the fibres extend generally longitudinally of the fibrous mass for facilitating feed of the ink by capillary action from one end of the element to the other.
A still further object is to provide a capillary fountain pen of the foregoing character having a novel arrangement for establishing capillary ink feed between the capillary element and the writing element.
Still another object is to provide a capillary fountain pen having a capillary element made up of brous material in which the fibres extend generally longitudinally of the pen with their forward ends adjacent the Writing element, and wherein means is provided for compacting the portion of the iibres adjacent the writing element for establishing smaller capillary spaces, and hence greater capillarity at the compacted portion than in the remainder of the element for facilitating capillary feed of the ink from the capillary element to the writing element.
Another object is to provide a capillary fountain pen of the foregoing character wherein the capillary element and the writing element can be easily inserted in and removed from the holder or barrel provided therefor.
Another object is to provide a capillary fountain pen including a barrel or holder and `a capillary fibrous mass therein, in which tubular means is provided for containing at least a portion of the fibres and is insertable and removable through the forward end of the barrel, the tubular means effecting the -desired confinement and prearrangement of the fibres when mounted in the pen barrel.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent upon reference to the following detail description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which- Figure l is a longitudinal sectional view of a fountain pen embodying the present invention, and a cap applied thereto;
Figure 2 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of the fore portion of the pen of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a cross sectional view taken on line 3--3 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a cross sectional view taken on line 4-4 of Figure 2;
Figure 5 is a cross sectional view taken on line 5--5 of Figure 2; j
Figure is a view similar to Figure 1, showing a modiied form of filler-and-reservoir element;
. applied thereto.
2,802,450 Patented Aug. 13, 1957 iCC abutment by the cap 18 of the pen when the cap is applied `to the barrel. The cap` 18 insofar as the present invention is concerned may be a conventional cap and preferably includes an outer casing 20 of metal and an inner cap element 22 of resilient material. The two elements, 20 and 22, are secured together by suitable means such as a screw 24 which also secures a pocket clip 26 to the cap. The inner element 22 has an inner surface 28 adjacent at its open end suitably shaped for engagement i with the tapered surface of the front section 12 of the barrel for releasably gripping the pen when the cap is It is desired that the outer element 20 of the cap extend beyond the inner element and is of appropriate length that when the surface 28 engages the barrel in gripping relation, the outer element abuts the shoulder 16 whereby the cap is limited in a telescoping movement over the barrel.
Thebarrel sections 12 and 14 have cooperating bore portions 30 and 32 respectively which when the sections are fitted together as shown in Figure l, together form a reservoir space or section in which are disposed certain Vportions of the capillary iiller-and-reservoir element.
The barrel sections 12 and 14 are connected together and normally supported in the desired relationship by means of a sleeve 34 extending substantially throughout the i length `of the lreservoir section and having its front end extended into the bore portion 3l) where it is provided with outwardly struck, rearwardly extending tangs 36 formed by a convenient punching operation. The sleeve is driven into the bore portion 30 and is so dimensioned relative to the diameter of the bore portion that when it i is so driven in the tangs bite or cut into the surface of the bore portion and iirmly secure the sleeve therein. The sleeve is thus rigidly mounted and is of suiiicient strength to support the rear section 14 which is telescoped thereon. The rear section 14 is provided with an annular element 38 on its inner surface adjacent its forward end of resilient i friction gripping material such as rubber or a rubber-like product dimensioned for releasably gripping the sleeve when the section is telescoped thereon. If desired, the
gripping element 38 may be secured in an annular groove 37 as shown so as to be secure against dislodgment in the sliding movement of the section onto and olf of the l sleeve. The bore portion 32 may be slightly larger than the external diameter of the sleeve so as to avoid friction engagement between the respective surfaces, all friction gripping action taking place between the gripping element 38 and the sleeve. y
'Ilhe front section 12 of the barrel, as noted above, is generally tapered forwardly, and terminates in a hood portion having an inclined forward end, the hood portion y extending over the writing nib 39. The nib and its relation with the remaining elements of the pen will be de scribed fully hereinafter.
Leading forwardly from the bore portion 30 in the forward barrel section is a reduced bore 42 having a forward counterbore 44 forming a forwardly facing shoulder 43, and asecond vcounterbore 46 forwardly of the first or channel 47 is provided inthe section 12 in communi- If desired, the
3 cation with the bore 42 substantially throughout the length of the latter and with the reservoir section and the exterior, serving as a vent passage for a purpose to be described later.
The capillary filler-and-reservoir-element referred :to aboveV and indicated in its entiretyeat 48is, in its preferred form, made up of a plurality of glass fibrescombed' and pre-aligned so that they extend lgenerally longitudinally and parallel witheach other. ina bundleeor group in pre-aligned fashion form a plurality of longitudinally extending Vspaces between the bres. when the fibrous mass `is immersed in OrsubjeCted'to va supply of ink,-the ink rises-byifcapillary actionthrough the Vcapillary spaces. Other things being equal; thev height or level to which the ink rises" is determined by the dimension of the spaces.l The filler-and-reservoirele ment 48-constitutes the means by which'thepeneis filled and the means for retaining the supply-of ink'intthef-pen,
as well'as means for feeding ink from thestorage'portion to` thev writing element; for convenience' hereinghowever,"
it may be referred to as a capillary element;A
The' capillary element y#iff'has `a portion-50f`idisp0sed in the reservoir sectionof the pen holderanda second portion 52 extending forwardlyithrough the bore 42, the
Thev fibres when arranged Y These spaces are of- -capillary dimension=so that latter functioning as a reservoir or storage element'and a feedelementl to the writing nib; The vportionrSZ Vis confined within'a tubular'member 54removably-and frictionally `held in the bore 42: The: tubular'member54- at its rear portion may be of luniformshapefthat is, it isof uniform cross sectional contour, and it is kso dimensioned 'as `to frictionally engagethe surface of the bore 42i for normally retaining it in place in the bore. However, Athe friction established between `the two ele-AV ments is such` that the tubular member can be removed froml the pen when gripped and drawn forwardly.` The tubular'member'fl includes a guard or shield 56 at its adjacent the forward end, definedV at the forward end by the forward tip of the guard or shield 5'6 for exposure therethrough of the forward end of the glass bres making up the capillary element.
This opening 58 is positioned for predetermined relation with the writingelement'or nib 39 which overlies vtheV opening. The nib 39 includes a reartubular body portion 62 and a forward tapered j writing tip portion 64 which risslitted longitudinallyV as shown at 66 from its writing tip end rearwardly ak substantiali'distance so thatat least a substantial portion of the slit overlies the opening 58z` The slit may terminate in a pierceV 67 asis customary. The tubular body'portionV 62 of the nib is dimensioned for frictional engagement with the surface of the counterbore 44 and wheninserted in the barrel section surrounds the tubular member'54 l and abuts the shoulder 43'for limiting the rearward movement' ofthe nib. The nib is preferably slotted at 6Sso that the tubular body portion .isenabled' to'cojntract and expand to a limited extent and is preferably self-biased outwardly so as to frictionally engage the surfaceofthe counterbo're. frictionally engagethe tubular member. 54, but such fric;
The body portion of the nib may. also tional engagement is not relied upon for retaining'the nib or the tubular member 54 in place, since`the-1atterhas suicient frictional engagement with the surface of the bore`42.
The forward counterbore 46 is so dimensioned relative to the nibj 39 as to form a capillary space 70 fat .leastpartially surrounding thenib and-disposed over the nibr` slit 66.
This `capillary space is'of proper dimension to retain a film of ink therein in overlying relation--to -the i.
nib for providing a ready supply of ink for feeding to i the nib so that the pen is in condition for` instant writing after a prolonged period of non-use. This space also aids in the filling operation as will be brought out later.
The capillary element 43 and particularly the portion 52 thereof may be twisted to a limited extent for rendering it more adaptable to handling in inserting it into the tubular member 54. The twisting action tends to contract or compact the fibres which then tend to expand after insertion and yieldingly engage the surface of the tube. The fibres accordingly remain in their pre-arranged relative positions. The tubular member thus produces a confining action on the fibres and maintains them in a more or less uniform condition so that the spaces formed between the fibres are of relatively uniform dimension longitudinally of the element. The fibres vextend through theV tubular member and terminate at the opening S8, and the guard or shield 56, which is rounded in cross section and tapered to a point longitudinally, diminishes in cross sectional dimensions in a forward direction. Because of the diminishing space in the interior of the' guard or shield, the forward end portions of the fibres at 59 are relatively compacted and are held against the writing nib, the nib being maintained in actual engagement withrthe tubular member or at least in close proximity thereto.. The spaces between the fibres in this relatively compacted portion are thus of somewhat smaller dimension, and greater Y capillarity, than in the remainder of the element.V This condition facilitates the passage of ink from the capillary element to the nib, as will 'be brought out more fully hereinafter.
The portion 50 of the capillary element that is disposed in the reservoir section of the pen is also constituted by combed fibres and these also may besomewhat twisted to retain them in a condition in which they can be easily handled, as in inserting the element in the pen. Preferably also this portion of the fibres is coiled as shown in the drawing so as to 4maintain the parallel relationship between the fibres of the mass.
VOne -form of construction embodying the present invention includes the portion 5G of the iiller-and-reservoir elementtpositioned in the forward end of therreservoir section and anV additional-reservoir cartridge 72 disposed inthe sleeve 34 and removable from the rearward end thereof upon separation of the barrel sections. The cartridge 72 includes a casing 74y having a capillary llerand-reservoir element Si) therein and a plate 76 adjacent its forward end suitably secured therein and provided with one or more apertures 78 (Figure 5) for exposure of the element 80 therethrough and capillary ink transfer engagement with the capillaryelement 48. For convenience, the fillerand-reservoir element 80 may also be referred toas a capillary element. The element S6 serves asa supplementalelement or reservoir, being connected with and acting as an addition -to the element 4S.. The element S6 may be made of any of a number of desired materials.- One such material is glass fibre similar. to the 'element 48 and it may be random packed. The masecured at its forward end by the plate 76 and may be retained in a central position at itsrear end by the mass of material 80 surrounding it. The vent tube is prefen ably apertured as at 81, or slotted, to provide more efficient venting to the mass of material 80, and itsfor- Y ward eend: extends into kthe coils 5f). The casing 74 is provided with suitable means such as a screen element 83f-secured in the rear end .of the casing, Vwhichfserves to retain the capillary material Si) in the-casing whilevlv permitting venting of the material and the vent tube.
The rear end of the casing 74 may'be engagedby a urges the cartridge forwardly in response to forward movement of the rear barrel section onto the sleeve 34. The plate 76 engages the portion 50 of the capillary element 48 and retains the latter against undesired displacement or stray migration of the bres. A certain limited space is left around the coils of the portion 50, as well as in the center of the coils. Communication is thus provided from the forward end of the vent tube 82 to the passage 47. vThe bore portion 32 in the rear barrel section 14 is suitably vented at its rear end to atmosphere such as by a vent opening 86 leading rearwardly through the rear end of the rear barrel section. The vent tube 82 provides direct venting to the capillary element 48, eliminating the necessity for venting through the mass 80 when the latter becomes empty. Venting of the mass 80 is also effected through the apertures 81, whereby venting of portions of the mass at intervals is accomplished.
The cartridge 72 can be removed from the barrel after removing the rear barrel section from the sleeve 34, whereupon the cartridge is exposed at the rear open end of the sleeve 34. Another cartridge may be replaced simply by inserting it in the sleeve 34 and upon the barrel sections being re-united, the rear section forces the cartridge into proper contact engagement with the forward capillary element 48.
An important feature in effective operation of capillary fountain pens is that there must be continuous 'and uninterrupted feed of ink from the reservoir to'the writing nib. This consideration is apart from the matter of filling the reservoir by capillary action. The fibres in the portion 52, being confined in the tubular member S4 are compacted to an extent at least as great as those in the portion 50, and may be compacted to a slightly greater extent, and as was pointed out above, the forward ends of the glass fibres at S9 are confined and more greatly compacted by the guard or shield 56 and the nib 60. This results in spaces between the libres yof lesser dimension and greater capillarity than the spaces in the remaining portion of the capillary element. The greater capillarity thus established enhances the capillary flow of ink from the upper portion of the capillary element to the lower portion (as considered in a writing position). The ink in the capillary element forms a column which tends to extend throughout the length of the capillary element. Thus at least a portion of the ink flows into the forwardmost end of the capillary element and due to the greater capillarity in that portion, the ink when it reaches that portion, ows with greater activity therethrough and to the nib. This portion of the capillary element not only provides greater capillarity for the purpose just stated, but also because it is relatively more confined or compacted, it is maintained in firm engagement with the nib. As a consequence ink transfer between the capillary element and the nib is facilitated. The space between the capillary element and the nib is of at least as great capillarity as the spaces between the fibres; the compacting action constantly urges the bres into engagement with the nib and maintains such relation. The nib slit 66 overlies at least a portion of the opening 53 in the tubular member and hence overlies the end portion of the fibres. The space in the nib slit thus forms a continuation of the capillary spaces between the fibres so that a continuous and uninterrupted feed from the fibres to and through the nib slit is maintained. The capillary material in the pen thus includes a capillary filler-and-reservoir element of capacity similar to that of a conventional fountain pen, and feed means capable of feeding ink from the ller-and-reservoir element tothe nib. The capillarity of the capillary material at no position decreases in a forward direction, and is more on the G. order of a forward. progression of increasing capillarity, with distinctlyy greater capillarity at the portion 59 and between the latter and the nib, than in any of the portions rearwardly thereof.
The preferred method of filling the pen is to immerse the rear end of the cartridge 72 in a supply of ink, after removal of the rear barrel section 14.y Ink flows into the spaces between the libres by capillary action, filling the element 80 and then the element v4S. Air in the element 80 is expelled through the apertures in the vent tube, through the forward end of the latter, through the space between the coils of the portion 50, and then through the passage 47 and out through the forward end of the pen. The pen may also be filled from the front end, if that should be desired, even though rear-end-lling is preferred; in front-end-iilling, the front end is immersed in a supply of ink to an appropriate extent, and the `ink passes into the space 70, through the nib slit and through the opening 58 into the spaces between the libres.
The capacity of the pin may be as great or as small as desired within the limits of capillary action in the capillary element. As shown and described hereinabove, the capacity of the reservoir is quite large because of the relatively large dimension of the iller-and-reservoir elements which substantially fill the reservoir section of the barrel. All portions of the fibrous material may be considered as reservoir portions, in that they function to store ink.
The tubular member 54 serves as a convenient means for mounting the capillary element 48 in the barrel and removing it therefrom. For this purpose it may be pre- N ferred that the coils of the portion 50 be limited in number and occupy only the forwardmost end portion of the reservoir section. Upon gripping the tubular lelement 54 and withdrawing it out lof the forward end of the bore 42 the capillary element 48 is withdrawn from the barrel section. The portion 52 of the capillary element is retained in the tubular member by the friction engagement with the inner surface thereof, and upon removal of the tubular member from the pen barrel the capillary element is removed therewith. The pen nib may also be withdrawn forwardly merely by gripping it and drawing forwardly on it. The nib and tubular member may be withdrawn together from the barrel, and thereafter the nib withdrawn from the tubular member. For re-insertion, the nib is placed on the tubular member and the two are inserted in the bore together.
An important advantage of combed or pre-aligned libres resides in the fact that the bres extend generally longitudinally throughout the length of the capillary element.
In referring to the longitudinal direction, it will be understood that the coils 50 are made up of fibres that are disposed generally parallel with each other and may be considered as extending longitudinally. At any rate the spaces formed by and existing between the fibres extend continuously and without interrupting throughout the length of the capillary element as determined by the length of the fibres and the `direction of their extension. Such continuous spaces facilitate the action of ink in feeding therethrough.
It is also contemplated that instead of utilizing the arrangement of Figures 1 5, the coils 50 may project or extend throughout the reservoir section. Such a construction is shown in Figure 6. The pen shown in this gure is similar to that of Figure 1 except that the plate 76 is omitted and the coils 50 are extended. throughout .the length of the casing 74. This penalso is adapted to rearend-lling. Filling is accomplished by removing the rear barrel section V14 and immersing the rear end of the casing '74 (and sleeve 34) in a supply of ink. Filling is accomplished in a manner described above in connection with the pen of Figure l. The remaining details of construction of the pen of Figure 6 are similar to those of the pen of Figure l.
is shown in Figures 7 and 8. This pen also utilizes capil` lary materialconsisting of bres, preferably glass fibres.,
In 'this form the'barrel 90 has a reservoir section 92V in the greater part of the .length of the barrel. Leading forwardly`through the' forward end of the barrel is a reduced diameter bore 94 in which are mounted the feed bar 96 and nib 93." The rear end portion ofthembarrel may be of slightly reduced .diameter as at 100, and. closed by a blind cap 102. A vent may be provided in theblind cap or in the cap for fitting over the front end.
The feed bar 96`may be in theform of a rigid bar, con posed ofa suitable material such as plastic. The lower portion. of the feed bar `may be ofrelatively, heavy dimension, and in the upper portion is a groove 104` opening through thel rear end and extending up to a point closely adjacent but spaced from the forward end Vof the feed bar. The feed bar at its forwardend is tapered forwardly at 106 andthe' groove in that portion progresses to a point, that is, diminishes in dimension both Vsidewise and vertically, in a manner similar to thatdescribed abovein connection with 'the guard or shield 56;
The nib.98' may be conventionalin form having an arcuate body portion and a tapered and slitted writing tip 108.' The feed bar 96 may be substantially circular in cross section although it need not be accurately so, and the' feed bar and nib with the nib fitted to the feed bar,
together areiinserted in'the bore 94.A The dimensions of the several elements are such that the feed bar and nib are frictionally retained in `the bore in the assembly.' The nib has a slit 110andrthe customary pierce positioned for atleast partially overlying the groove l104 for capillary engagement with Vthe capillary material therein to be described later. The body`ofthefnib, together with the groove 104 as shown in Figure 8, form in eect a tubular element confining the. fibrous materialV therein in a manner similar to that described above in connection with the rst embodiment.
The reed bar 961s also provided with a bore 112 opening out throughthe rear or inner end thereof in which is inserted a vent. tube' 114 extending substantially the full length of the reservoir section. The bore 112 has a transverse extension 116 opening out to the exterior forwardly of the barrel for. venting the interior of the reservoir section which, in the present instance, is forwardly rather than rearwardly in the filling operation.
The ibresmaking up the filler-and-reservoir element and the feed are indicated generally at 118.' These fibres are Vsimilarly combed or prealigned so that the individual strands or filaments extend generally parallel and longitudinallyof'the mass which they form. The fibres are wound around the vent tube 114 substantially throughout the length of the reservoir section 92,'and a portion of the libres is extended through the groove or bore 104 up tothe forward end of the latter. The mass making up the filler-and-reservoir element which is designated specically as 120` preferably is made up from a relatively small or small-diameter bunch, coiled or wrapped around the vent-tube, of appropriate dimensions to be extended into the grooveror bore 104, ias shown at 122. The strands or filaments in the portion 122 are compacted to an extent at least as great as those in the portion 120 so as to form a continuous'progression of capillarity that does not decrease in forward direction but preferably increases in a forward direction. These fibres in the portion 122 are substantially of uniform length, and at their forward ends, are relatively more greatly compacted in the portion-124 because` of the forwardly decreasing dimensions of the groove at that location. The feeding phenomena associated with the arrangement as thus described with respectto the compactness and consequent capillarity is fully described above.
Preferably the vent tube 114 is apertured as at 126 for facilitating venting as was described above. The rear end of the filler-and-reservoir element portion, 118A may be engaged by a screen 128`suitably secured inethe bore 100 r' for retaining/the capillary material in placer lThe screenpermits ready' `passageof air therethrough.
Thepen-is preferably -iilled 'from the rear end, which U Yn1ay-be Yaccomplished4A by removingf-thevblind cap and inserting thef-rearendl in a supply of inlgas Vwas described in connectionL with the first form. However, if it should bedesired-to-f1ll from itheforward `end, it may bedone byiinserting the forward end `in a supply of ink to a suitabledepth, e. -g., to a position slightly below the transverse bore 116. A# Ink'ffeeds through the nib slit andthe libres in the portions 124,' 122 Yand-so onup intoV and rthrough thel portion of the libres making up lthe iiller-andreservoir element. Air in the'iibrous mass is enabled to passi-throughl the aperturesw126 and downwarly through they vent -tube-and-out the `transverse bore 116.
The pen ofthis embodimentrepresents a simpleV conl.
cluding sections separableat a positionv Within the ends v of the reservoir section'of the cavity, a nib mounted in the -forward section of said cavity, a capillary ller-andreservoir` element in saidcavity in capillary ink transfer engagement with said lnib Vand having a portion disposed in the forward end ofthe reservoir section of the cavity,
a sleeve secured in the reservoir section in the forward barrel section and extending rearwardly therefrom, the
rear barrel section being telescoped over said sleeve and having an annular resilient member on its inner wall releasably gripping the sleeve for retaining the barrel section-thereon, and a cartridge removably disposed in said sleeve containing a capillary element in capillary ink transfer'engagernent with the rear end of the rst capillary element.
2. A capillary pen comprisingv a barrel having a forwardly opening cavity including a rear large reservoir section and a forward reduced section and the barrel including sections separable at a position within the ends of the reservoir section of the cavity, a nib mounted in the forward section of the cavity, a capillary element in said cavity in capillary ink transfer engagement with said nib and having a portion disposed in the forward end of the reservoir section of the cavity, a sleeve extended into the reservoir section in the forward barrel section and extending rearwardly therefrom and secured therein by rearwardly facing tangs struck out from the sleeve and gripping the wall of the cavity, the rear barrel section being telescoped over said sleeve and having an annular resilient member on its inner wall releasably gripping the sleeve for retaining the barrel section thereon, and a cartridge removably disposed in said sleeve and including a casing having a forward wall with an opening therein and a flexible and resilient capillary element in said casing and compacted against said forward wall and exposed through said opening into capillary ink transfer engagement with said first capillary element.
References Cited in the lile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 884,412 Oberdoerster Apr. 14, 1908 2,528,408 Zodtner Oct. 3, 1950 2,554,654 Wittnebert May 29, 1951 2,642,043 Miessner June 16, 1953 2,648,309 Bartell Aug. 11, 1953 2,670,711 Wittnebert Mar. 2, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 642,437 Great Britain Sept. 6, 1950 129,473 Sweden Sept. 12, 1950 808,420 Germany July 16, 1951
US407940A 1954-02-03 1954-02-03 Fountain pens Expired - Lifetime US2802450A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2949888A (en) * 1955-10-17 1960-08-23 Sheaffer W A Pen Co Writing implement
US2958085A (en) * 1955-08-30 1960-11-01 Faber Castell A W Fountain pen
US5954444A (en) * 1998-04-27 1999-09-21 Albright; Kenneth C Dynamic feather dip pen

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US884412A (en) * 1907-11-27 1908-04-14 Frank J Oberdoerster Fountain-pen.
GB642437A (en) * 1945-03-26 1950-09-06 Parker Pen Co Improvements in or relating to fountain pens
US2528408A (en) * 1947-07-11 1950-10-31 Parker Pen Co Fountain pen
US2554654A (en) * 1946-06-13 1951-05-29 Parker Pen Co Fountain pen
DE808420C (en) * 1949-07-20 1951-07-16 August Weber Fountain pen
US2642043A (en) * 1950-07-07 1953-06-16 Miessner Inventions Inc Fountain pen
US2648309A (en) * 1950-09-23 1953-08-11 Parker Pen Co Fountain pen
US2670711A (en) * 1947-09-13 1954-03-02 Parker Pen Co Fountain pen

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US884412A (en) * 1907-11-27 1908-04-14 Frank J Oberdoerster Fountain-pen.
GB642437A (en) * 1945-03-26 1950-09-06 Parker Pen Co Improvements in or relating to fountain pens
US2554654A (en) * 1946-06-13 1951-05-29 Parker Pen Co Fountain pen
US2528408A (en) * 1947-07-11 1950-10-31 Parker Pen Co Fountain pen
US2670711A (en) * 1947-09-13 1954-03-02 Parker Pen Co Fountain pen
DE808420C (en) * 1949-07-20 1951-07-16 August Weber Fountain pen
US2642043A (en) * 1950-07-07 1953-06-16 Miessner Inventions Inc Fountain pen
US2648309A (en) * 1950-09-23 1953-08-11 Parker Pen Co Fountain pen

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2958085A (en) * 1955-08-30 1960-11-01 Faber Castell A W Fountain pen
US2949888A (en) * 1955-10-17 1960-08-23 Sheaffer W A Pen Co Writing implement
US5954444A (en) * 1998-04-27 1999-09-21 Albright; Kenneth C Dynamic feather dip pen

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