US268751A - Hot-air furnace - Google Patents

Hot-air furnace Download PDF

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US268751A
US268751A US268751DA US268751A US 268751 A US268751 A US 268751A US 268751D A US268751D A US 268751DA US 268751 A US268751 A US 268751A
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air
chamber
fire
hot
passage
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT-GENERATING MEANS, e.g. HEAT PUMPS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H3/00Air heaters

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  • N PETERS Pmmuu nmr. Wlihingion. D.C.
  • JOSEPH TRAYIS or PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
  • FIG. 1 is a horizontal section of my improved hot-air furnace, taken on the line 1 1, Fig. 2.
  • Fig. 2 is a vertical section thereof.
  • Fig. 3 is a longitudinal vertical section of the same.
  • Figs. 4'and 5 are detail views, and
  • Fig. 6 is a horizontal section through the air-passage under the ash-pit.
  • This invention pertains to improvements in hot-air furnaces, and is adapted, among other purposes, for heating buildings, and its principles are capable of embodiments in heaters, so called, both fixed and portable, and in stoves.
  • B is the fire pot or chamber, having an extended area of grate-surface, G, to permit the building of a. thin fire, and at the same time secure the requisite amount of heat with an ordinary draft,the fuel being capable of being spread out to readily expose it to the draft.
  • the grate' is supported upon a frame or flanges,
  • the front of the ash-pit has its openings 0 covered as usual by a draft regulator or slide, 0 to regulate the draft, admitted both directly into the fire-pot and above the fire-pot, as occasion may require, or, in other words, to lessen or increase the amount of air admitted above the fuel for the consumption of the gases according.
  • the bottom of the ash-pit E is made of thin metal plate E, and forms the top wall or surface of an airpassage, F, the bottom of which is formed by the bottom plate of the furnace.
  • the air is admitted therein through two openings, 0, arranged in the front end of heater. This exposes the incoming air to the heat of the thin bottom plate of the ash-pit, it being thus made 9
  • the passage F is subdivided about centrally to permit the heat to readily affect the air.
  • a partition 0 having the two openings 0 at its front and two openings, 0 at its rear, one on each side and at each end of the parti tion, the two former, c, to admit air into each 5 compartment formed by the subdividing partition, whence it is admitted through the latter openings, 0 into the hereinafter-described compartments of the heater.
  • 0 c are air-deflectors, one arranged in each passage and at right angles to the partition c.
  • Each deflector extends from the central partition, 0 to a point a short distance from each side of the passage F, and causes the air to travel over the greatest possible space to thoroughly subject it to the action of the heat in the bottom passage, F, before admitting it into the upper part of the heater.
  • the bottom air-passage, F extends the entire length of the heater, it being formed beyond the upright air chamber and deflector at the rear of the fire-pot by the bottom of the heater and a plate, 0 which plate 0 forms the bottom of the inclosin g case H, hereinafter described, arranged a suitable distance above said bottom of heater and firmly secured in position to the sides of the heater.
  • each of said openings 0 in a line with the back of the said upright deflector or chamber, and a valve, 0', is hung in each of two openings in the rear part of the heater, one on each side of partition 0 of the chamber F.
  • the former admit hot air into the rear part of passage F or permit it to be cut off therefrom, as may be desired, while the latter admit cold or atmospheric air into or cut it oil" from said rear part of passage, whence it is conducted into the air-tubes, presently described.
  • D is the fire-pot lining, composed of sections of fire-brick adapted to tit the sides and ends of the fire-chamber, and provided with vertical passages or channels D, arranged contiguously to each other and extending entirely through them from top to bottom, the lining resting upon the grate-frame O.
  • the passage or channels in the lining D terminate at their lower ends in an arch or recess,D made in the lower edge of the lining, as clearly shown.
  • the arch or recess D rests above or covers the air-apertures of the frame 0, to permit the passage of air up through the channels or passages in the lining into the chamber above the fire-pot for the combustion of the gases arising therefrom.
  • This form of lining isolates the air from contact with the walls or surface of the furnace, and efl'ectually heats the air for the perfect combustion of the gases, while protecting the walls of the furnace from unequal expansion and contraction, and economizin g the heat already acquired by passing the air through the ash-pit.
  • crownsheet H Fitted upon the fire-chamber and extended rearwardly from the fire-chamber is the crownsheet H, made preferably of cast-iron and in sections, each section having downwardly-projecting flanges d at its sides and ends, to efiect the securing thereof removably and separately in positionone upon the fire-chamber and one each over the chambers having the two sets of air-tubesupon their inclosin g case H.
  • These separately-removable sections dispense with rivets or like fastenin gs, and permit the ready cleaning of the sides of the fines or casing H,
  • I is an air chamber and deflector, forming the fire-back of the pot or chamber B, while between its upper end and crown-sheet H is an opening, e, for the passage and descent of the flame and products of combustion.
  • the lower end of the deflector or chamber I opens into the air-inlet F under the ash-pit, and at its sides into the surrounding air-chamber G, hereinafter described, thus opening up a communication between the air-inlet and air-chainber G, and passing the air heated into the said chamber, thereby greatly augmenting the heat ing of the air.
  • I is a second air chamber and deflector, arranged at a point about midway between the chamber and deflector I and the rear end of the furnace, its upper end and sides opening into the surrounding air-chamber G, while its lower-end occupies a position removed from the bottom of the furnace, providing a passage between it and the bottom for the passage and ascent of the smoke and other products of combustion on their way to the smoke-exit.
  • This arrangement of chambers and deflectors effects the passingof the heatoveran extended area, and the thorough heatin g of the air passed into the hot-air chamber.
  • ing case H is the hot-air chamber G.
  • K is an upright or vertical partition, dividing longitudinally the inner casing, H, and
  • L L are two dampers or valves, hung so as to be separately operated each upon a shaftbearin g in the partition K and the outer casing, A, and adapted to permit openingand closing the openings 6 at different times.
  • Said shafts are provided with handles outside of the casing A, to enable the convenient operation of the dampers to open and close communication between the fire-chamber and the aforesaid compartments.
  • Similar dampers, M M are arranged to likewise operate in the smoke exit or pipe.
  • the partition K subdividing the sections of crown-sheet covering the casin g H and the top ofthe furnace being dividedin line with said. partition and removable, access is readily obtained to either compartment to permin the separate cleaning thereof.
  • the purpose of the aforesaid arrangement is to per- Init, particularly while using bituminous coal, cleaning the heater without extinguishing the fire, and thus enable the keeping up of the temperature of the apartment the entire season.
  • a pipe attached to the top of the furnace at a suitable point, passes through the floorthereof, and is covered with a register.
  • the chamber or passage F having the subdividing partitions 0 openings 0' at the end, and valved openings 0 on each side of the partition, and the deflectors 0 disposed at right angles to the partition 0 substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

Description

(No Model.) v 3 Sheets-Sheet 1.
J. TRAVIS.
' HOT AIR FURNACE.
No. 268,751. ,Patented Dec. 5. 1882.
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L. Q I U1 Lil- Q FL? QQ' f G I 1 @3 'L limnginh WITNESSES www Jitwmey u. ravens. Photo 'lhognphar, Wuhlngton. .c.
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 2.
J. TRAVIS; HOT AIR FURNACE.
Patented Dec. 5, 1882.
WITNESSES 259/, 71 i 7 d N. PETERS. PIwtn-ljihomphnr. wumn m n c.
(No Model.) 8 Sheets-Shut 3.
J. TRAVIS.
' 110': AIR'PURNAGE. I No. 268,751. Patented Dec. 5. 1882.
wigmsiik a? flw.
N PETERS, Pmmuu nmr. Wlihingion. D.C.
N ED] STATES PATENT QFFICE.
JOSEPH TRAYIS, or PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
HOT-AIR FURMNACE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 268,751, dated December 5, 1882..
' Application filed April 28, 1882. (Nomodel) T 0 all whom it mag concern:
and usefullmprovementsin Hot-Air Furnaces,
of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure 1 is a horizontal section of my improved hot-air furnace, taken on the line 1 1, Fig. 2. Fig. 2 is a vertical section thereof. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal vertical section of the same. Figs. 4'and 5 are detail views, and Fig. 6 is a horizontal section through the air-passage under the ash-pit.
This invention pertains to improvements in hot-air furnaces, and is adapted, among other purposes, for heating buildings, and its principles are capable of embodiments in heaters, so called, both fixed and portable, and in stoves.
The practical and economic objections to ordinary heaters are, first, that they do not give out an amount of heated air for warming purposes commensurate with the quantity of fuel consumed; second, that in raising the airheating surfaces to the required temperature z for effective heating. a draft is generated,
f stated, above the fuel admitted upon a small which,'owing to the imperfection of the con struction of those heaters, carries away a very large percentage of the heat generated by the combustion in the furnace; third, that ordinarily the bulk of the fuel in the fire-pot is so great, compared to the grate-surface, that the combustion is very imperfect; and, fourth, they are so constructed that it is difficult to get at their interior parts to clean or repair them.
To cure these and other defects, in common with other heaters of the same class, and to provide an economic and effective heating-furnace, is the object of my invention.
It therefore consists in the combination and arrangement of parts, substantially as hereinafter more fully set forth-and claimed.
In carrying out my invention I employ, as will be seen by reference to the accompanying drawings, a furnace, A.
B is the fire pot or chamber, having an extended area of grate-surface, G, to permit the building of a. thin fire, and at the same time secure the requisite amount of heat with an ordinary draft,the fuel being capable of being spread out to readily expose it to the draft. The grate'is supported upon a frame or flanges,
0, upon the sides of the fire-pot, and provided 5 5 which are arranged, one in line with the front side of the fire pot or chamber B, while the other wall is arranged aboutin line with and forms a continuation of one Wall of the downwardlyopening deflector, hereinafter referred to. The front of the ash-pit has its openings 0 covered as usual by a draft regulator or slide, 0 to regulate the draft, admitted both directly into the fire-pot and above the fire-pot, as occasion may require, or, in other words, to lessen or increase the amount of air admitted above the fuel for the consumption of the gases according. to the amount of fuel in combustion in the firepot, thus avoiding the abatement of the combustion, as would be the case were as great draft feeding the air simultaneously, as before fire as that upon a larger fire. The bottom of the ash-pit E is made of thin metal plate E, and forms the top wall or surface of an airpassage, F, the bottom of which is formed by the bottom plate of the furnace. The air is admitted therein through two openings, 0, arranged in the front end of heater. This exposes the incoming air to the heat of the thin bottom plate of the ash-pit, it being thus made 9 The passage F is subdivided about centrally to permit the heat to readily affect the air.
by a partition, 0 having the two openings 0 at its front and two openings, 0 at its rear, one on each side and at each end of the parti tion, the two former, c, to admit air into each 5 compartment formed by the subdividing partition, whence it is admitted through the latter openings, 0 into the hereinafter-described compartments of the heater.
0 c are air-deflectors, one arranged in each passage and at right angles to the partition c.
compartment of the bottom air chamber or i Each deflector extends from the central partition, 0 to a point a short distance from each side of the passage F, and causes the air to travel over the greatest possible space to thoroughly subject it to the action of the heat in the bottom passage, F, before admitting it into the upper part of the heater. The bottom air-passage, F, extends the entire length of the heater, it being formed beyond the upright air chamber and deflector at the rear of the fire-pot by the bottom of the heater and a plate, 0 which plate 0 forms the bottom of the inclosin g case H, hereinafter described, arranged a suitable distance above said bottom of heater and firmly secured in position to the sides of the heater. behind each of said openings 0 in a line with the back of the said upright deflector or chamber, and a valve, 0', is hung in each of two openings in the rear part of the heater, one on each side of partition 0 of the chamber F. The former admit hot air into the rear part of passage F or permit it to be cut off therefrom, as may be desired, while the latter admit cold or atmospheric air into or cut it oil" from said rear part of passage, whence it is conducted into the air-tubes, presently described.
D is the fire-pot lining, composed of sections of fire-brick adapted to tit the sides and ends of the fire-chamber, and provided with vertical passages or channels D, arranged contiguously to each other and extending entirely through them from top to bottom, the lining resting upon the grate-frame O. The passage or channels in the lining D terminate at their lower ends in an arch or recess,D made in the lower edge of the lining, as clearly shown. The arch or recess D rests above or covers the air-apertures of the frame 0, to permit the passage of air up through the channels or passages in the lining into the chamber above the fire-pot for the combustion of the gases arising therefrom. This form of lining isolates the air from contact with the walls or surface of the furnace, and efl'ectually heats the air for the perfect combustion of the gases, while protecting the walls of the furnace from unequal expansion and contraction, and economizin g the heat already acquired by passing the air through the ash-pit.
Fitted upon the fire-chamber and extended rearwardly from the fire-chamber is the crownsheet H, made preferably of cast-iron and in sections, each section having downwardly-projecting flanges d at its sides and ends, to efiect the securing thereof removably and separately in positionone upon the fire-chamber and one each over the chambers having the two sets of air-tubesupon their inclosin g case H. These separately-removable sections dispense with rivets or like fastenin gs, and permit the ready cleaning of the sides of the fines or casing H,
the exterior of the air-tubes J, and the crownsheet of soot and other unconsumed products of combustion, and obviate the use'of A valve, 0 is arranged rods or rivets commonly used for securing the crown-sheet in position.
I is an air chamber and deflector, forming the fire-back of the pot or chamber B, while between its upper end and crown-sheet H is an opening, e, for the passage and descent of the flame and products of combustion. The lower end of the deflector or chamber I opens into the air-inlet F under the ash-pit, and at its sides into the surrounding air-chamber G, hereinafter described, thus opening up a communication between the air-inlet and air-chainber G, and passing the air heated into the said chamber, thereby greatly augmenting the heat ing of the air. 7
I is a second air chamber and deflector, arranged at a point about midway between the chamber and deflector I and the rear end of the furnace, its upper end and sides opening into the surrounding air-chamber G, while its lower-end occupies a position removed from the bottom of the furnace, providing a passage between it and the bottom for the passage and ascent of the smoke and other products of combustion on their way to the smoke-exit. This arrangement of chambers and deflectors effects the passingof the heatoveran extended area, and the thorough heatin g of the air passed into the hot-air chamber.
J is a series of air-tubes set in the chamber of the case H, theirlower ends passing through the plate 0 and communicating with the airpassage F, while their upper ends pass through the crown-sheet, and pass the air into the hotair chamber G after being heated on its passage through them. The upper ends of these tubes J are each somewhat enlarged or flared, as at g, and thus enabled to be supported without the use of rivets, flanges, or similar fastenings. It will be seen that when the tubes are passed down, their lower ends being first introduced through the apertured sections of crown-sheet H and the bottom of the inclosing case H, the flared ends thereof will fill and rest in their apertures. Surrounding the 'fii'echamber B and the tube and deflector inclos-.
ing case H is the hot-air chamber G.
K is an upright or vertical partition, dividing longitudinally the inner casing, H, and
the hot-air chamber G from top to bottom, en-
tirely dividing the heater, saving the fire-cham her, into two compartments of about equal capacity or size, one end of said partition'disposed against the rear end of said'casing and about in line with a plane passing vertically throughthe smoke-exit at its middle, and the other end disposed similarly in relation to the opening a of the fire pot or chamber B and against the chamber 1.
L L are two dampers or valves, hung so as to be separately operated each upon a shaftbearin g in the partition K and the outer casing, A, and adapted to permit openingand closing the openings 6 at different times. Said shafts are provided with handles outside of the casing A, to enable the convenient operation of the dampers to open and close communication between the fire-chamber and the aforesaid compartments. Similar dampers, M M, are arranged to likewise operate in the smoke exit or pipe. The partition K, subdividing the sections of crown-sheet covering the casin g H and the top ofthe furnace being dividedin line with said. partition and removable, access is readily obtained to either compartment to permin the separate cleaning thereof. The purpose of the aforesaid arrangement is to per- Init, particularly while using bituminous coal, cleaning the heater without extinguishing the fire, and thus enable the keeping up of the temperature of the apartment the entire season. To enable the passing of the heated air into the apartment or room or rooms above, a pipe, attached to the top of the furnace at a suitable point, passes through the floorthereof, and is covered with a register.
Having thus fully described my invention, I claim and desire to secure by Letters Paten t- 1. In a furnace or heater, the inner casing, II and 11, having the subdividing partition K, the fire-pot B, and the dampers L L and M M, in combination, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
2. In a furnace or heater, the combination of the external airchamber or passage, F, arranged immediately under and having its top wall formed by the bottom of the ash-pit, with the hot-air chamber 1, opening at its lower end into the passage E and at its sides into the chamber G, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
3. In a hot air furnace or heater, the chamber or passage F, having the subdividing partitions 0 openings 0' at the end, and valved openings 0 on each side of the partition, and the deflectors 0 disposed at right angles to the partition 0 substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
4. In a furnace or heater, the combination, with the combustion-chamber B, hot-air chamber G, air-passage F, arranged under the ashpit, and inner case, B, of the combined heatdeflectors and air-chambers I I, one opening into the air-passage F at its lower end and having its upper end separated from the crownsheet of the combustion-chamber, and the other, I, separated from the bottom of the casing H, while its upper end opensinto the hotair chamber G, and the air-tubes J J, interposed between the chambers or deflectors I I and between the deflector I and the back end ofthe case H, substantially as and for the pnrpose set forth.
In testimony whereof I afflx my signature in presence of two witnesses.
JOSEPH TRAVIS.
Witnesses a l S. H. GARILEY, JOHN G. FODELL.
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