US2684629A - Reaction-motor missile - Google Patents

Reaction-motor missile Download PDF

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Publication number
US2684629A
US2684629A US166593A US16659350A US2684629A US 2684629 A US2684629 A US 2684629A US 166593 A US166593 A US 166593A US 16659350 A US16659350 A US 16659350A US 2684629 A US2684629 A US 2684629A
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United States
Prior art keywords
missile
casing
reaction
zone
combustion
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Expired - Lifetime
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US166593A
Inventor
Nordfors Kurt Martin
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Saab Bofors AB
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Saab Bofors AB
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Priority to SE286895X priority Critical
Priority to SE669014X priority
Application filed by Saab Bofors AB filed Critical Saab Bofors AB
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Publication of US2684629A publication Critical patent/US2684629A/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L39/00Devices using superconductivity; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L39/24Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of devices provided for in H01L39/00 or of parts thereof
    • H01L39/2493Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of devices provided for in H01L39/00 or of parts thereof for Josephson devices
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K7/00Plants in which the working fluid is used in a jet only, i.e. the plants not having a turbine or other engine driving a compressor or a ducted fan; Control thereof
    • F02K7/10Plants in which the working fluid is used in a jet only, i.e. the plants not having a turbine or other engine driving a compressor or a ducted fan; Control thereof characterised by having ram-action compression, i.e. aero-thermo-dynamic-ducts or ram-jet engines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K7/00Plants in which the working fluid is used in a jet only, i.e. the plants not having a turbine or other engine driving a compressor or a ducted fan; Control thereof
    • F02K7/10Plants in which the working fluid is used in a jet only, i.e. the plants not having a turbine or other engine driving a compressor or a ducted fan; Control thereof characterised by having ram-action compression, i.e. aero-thermo-dynamic-ducts or ram-jet engines
    • F02K7/105Plants in which the working fluid is used in a jet only, i.e. the plants not having a turbine or other engine driving a compressor or a ducted fan; Control thereof characterised by having ram-action compression, i.e. aero-thermo-dynamic-ducts or ram-jet engines using a solid fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K7/00Plants in which the working fluid is used in a jet only, i.e. the plants not having a turbine or other engine driving a compressor or a ducted fan; Control thereof
    • F02K7/10Plants in which the working fluid is used in a jet only, i.e. the plants not having a turbine or other engine driving a compressor or a ducted fan; Control thereof characterised by having ram-action compression, i.e. aero-thermo-dynamic-ducts or ram-jet engines
    • F02K7/18Composite ram-jet/rocket engines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B15/00Self-propelled projectiles or missiles, e.g. rockets; Guided missiles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S60/00Power plants
    • Y10S60/917Solid fuel ramjet using pulverized fuel

Description

July 27, 1954 K. M.' NORDFORS REACTION-MOTOR MIssILE Filed June 7. 1950 :inventor KURT MART/lv N0 FORS Gttorneg Patented July 27, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE REACTION-MOTOR MISSILE Kurt Martin Nordfors, Karlskoga, Sweden, as-
signor to Aktiebolaget Bofors, Bofors, Sweden, a joint-stock company of Sweden 4 Claims.
This invention relates to projectiles and genn erally comparable missiles, and is particularly directed to a novel self propelled missile adapted to be discharged from a gun or the like and which having attained a suitable velocity on firing or launching thereafter by reaction obtained from combustion of fuel carried by the missile is propelled at the same or a greater velocity considerably beyond the range of projectiles depending for propulsion entirely upon high initial velocity imparted by the gun or other launching device, a further improvement over the present invention being disclosed in my application Serial No. 166,594 for U. S. Letters Patent entitled Rocket- Engine and Reaction-Motor Missile executed and iiled in the United States Patent Office concurrently herewith.
Efforts have heretofore been made to produce rotation symmetric projectiles comprising so called jet or reaction motor propulsive means but as the gases generated in the gun by the propellant charge during ring must be coniined by the projectile while the latter is in the gun barrel the making of provision for adequate passage of air into and through the combustion chamber and discharge of exhaust gases at the rear during jet propulsion has presented dif-culties.
One projectile suggested for cooperation by or with the aid of a jet propulsion comprises coaxial outer cylindrical casing and inner body elements defining between their adjacent surfaces an annular compression zone, a diuser zone, a combustion zone and an exhaust nozzle, the outer shell and inner body being xed relatively to each other, with movable means such as a close fitting ring within the exhaust nozzle intended for preventing escape of gases through the said nozzle and zones when the gun is being fired and permitting passage of air and combustion products in the opposite direction during jet operation but attainment of said objectives by such movable means has thus far been unsatisfactory.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a missile or the like embodying reaction propulsive means, which may be iired from a gun or other suitable launching apparatus and after having attained an appropriate velocity is automatically conditioned to admit air under pressure to said prcpulsive means for sustaining combustion of a fuel supply therein, although eifectively sealed against escape of gases from the launching means through the projectile at the initiation of its fiight.
A further object is to provide a missile primarily for military purposes comprising relatively movable parts which when acted upon by the air through which the missile is traveling automatically supplies air under pressure to a self-ccntained jet or reaction motor for maintaining or increasing the velocity of the missile as a whole whereby the range of the missile may be substan tially increased over that attainable when the entire propulsive force is applied at the beginning of its flight as by the charge in a gun or the like.
Other objects, purposes and advantages of the invention will hereafter more fully appear or will be understood from the following more particular description of a preferred embodiment of it diagrammatically illustrated in the accompanying drawing in which:
Fig. 1 is an axial section partly in elevation of a missile or the like as it appears at rest prior to firing, and
Fig. 2 is a corresponding view showing the re1- ative positions of the parts as they appear after the missile has attained a predetermined speed in flight and just as the operation of its contained jet or reaction propulsive means is about to be initiated.
More particularly the missile illustrated comprises an outer casing or shell l which is preferably substantially cylindrical in general contour, and an inner body 2 which may carry a charge of explosive similar to that of an artillery shell or a bomb.
At its leading end the outer shell is inwardly curved and feathered as at 3 to conform sub stantially to an adjacent zone of the generali?,r conoidal nose 4 of body 2, these parts when in contact rconstituting an effective gas seal against the escape through the missile of the gases generated by the propulsive charge of the gun during iiring. After the missile has attained a suilicient velocity however, the pressure of the air on the front surface of the nose 4 of the inner body restrains the travel of the latter relatively to the` outer casing to a degree suiiicient to separate the front edge 3 of the latter from the body nose 4 and thus provide an annular inlet port 5 for the air required for operation of the reaction motor contained in the missile. In order to eiTectively bring about this operation the inner body is tapered inwardly rearwardly of its nose 4 to provide between its outer surface and the adjacent inner surface of the outer shell a diffusion zone 5 through which air admitted by port 5 passes to a combustion chamber l the walls of which may be supplied with layers of solid fuel s applied to the corresponding surfaces cf the outer casing and inner body.
Combustion products are discharged from the rear end of the missile through an annular eX- haust nozzle 9 formed by the body and casing in such way as to cause their discharge to impel the missile as a whole forward by reaction of the exhaust gases.
The casing I is desirably provided with a packing ring I0 at a suitable point on its outer surface for cooperation with the bore of the gun or other launching device employed, the latter, if
ried, by co-action with the said packing ring inducing rotative motion of vthe missile as a whole about its axis during its forward motion. Of course it is obvious means may be provided for holding the front and rear portions of the inner body 2 in coaxial relation with vthe outer shell and limiting the extent of their relative axial movement.
When the missile is loaded the forward inlet port is closed and the gases produced by the gun charge thus react against the entire missile to impel it forward, being prevented from escape either through the missile itself or through the barrel about the latter; it is thus discharged from the gun at relatively high initial velocity but with its relatively movable parts in the relation shown in Fig. l. Upon its discharge however the air pressure acting on the nose 4 of the inner body somewhat retards the latter relatively to the outer casing and this allows the port 5 .to open whereupon air under considerable pressure is admitted through the said port to the diffuser zone 6, the rapid compression of the air causing it to attain a temperature sufcient to initiate and support combustion of the fuel S in the combustion chamber 1. Combustion products thereafter continuously issue at extremely high velocity through the exhaust nozzle 8 the form of which is designed to afford maximum reaction to propel the projectile forward at constant or increasing velocity, the forces of the excess pressure in the several zones of the missile cooperating with the external atmospheric flow resistance to maintain the relative positions of the outer casing and inner body substantially as shown in Fig. 2 until the fuel supply has been consumed.
While reference has herein been made to the employment of solid fuel for the reaction material embodied in the missile it will be appreciated that any7 other suitable fuel may be supplied and released to the combustion chamber by appropriate mechanism (not shown) and the invention is consequently not dependent on the reaction motor fuel being furnished in solid, fluid or gaseous state or any particular combination thereof it being essential only that an appropriate provision be made for combustion in the combustion chamber of a fuel suitable for providing a stream of exhaust gases which may be ejected through the exhaust nozzle at sumcient velocity and in such manner as to provide reaction for propelling the missile forward in its night.
Moreover it will be obvious that the missile may be provided with stabilizing devices if desired and may be rotationally asymmetric and designed to rotate about its axis or not during flight as desired.
It will therefore be appreciated that while I have herein described with considerable particularity one embodiment of the invention and have suggested certain modifications thereof, do not desire or intend thereby to be limited or confined thereto in any Way as other changes in the form, construction and relationship of the several parts and instrumentalities employed will readily occur to those skilled in the art and may be made if desired without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, claim and desire to protect by Letters Patent of the United States:
l. A missile of the character described comprising a hollow outer casing having a constricted forward edge, an inner body coaxial therewith and movable axially relatively thereto, said casing and body having cooperative surfaces at adjacent ends thereof forming an annular inlet port, the maximum diameter of the body surface being within the casing and greater than the diameter of the forward edge of said casing surface, cooperative surfaces adjacent the opposite ends respectively of the casing and body forming an annular exhaust nozzle and cooperative surfaces intermediate said ends forming a `combustion chamber, and a supply of fuel for combustion in said chamber said casing and inner ybody having cooperative contours adapted to maintain said port closed while the missile is traveling in a forward direction at a predetermined velocity and to open said port through relative axial movement of the casing and inner body when the missile is traveling at a Vlower velocity and thereby automatically change rthe contour of said exhaust nozzle.
2. A missile as defined in claim 1 in which said casing and shell are provided with surfaces forming a diffusion chamber ,between .said inlet port and said combustion chamber wherein air admitted through said port during rapid travel of the missile is diffused prior to its passage into the combustion chamber.
3. A missile as `defined in claim 1 in which .the forward end of the inner body is substantially conoidal and the forward end of the vouter casing of lesser diameter than the major part of the casing conforms substantially to said conoidal body end adjacent the zone of maximum diameter of the latter.
4. fn a missile a substantially cylindrical .hollow casing having at its leading end a zone of lesser diameter than the adjacent zone, a body movable relatively to the casing disposed axially therein and having a .substantially conoidal coaxial nose projecting forwardly from -the interior of the casing through said zone of lesser diameter, said nose having .a Ysurface complementary to said last mentioned zone of greater maximum diameter within the casing than the minimum diameter of said zone and cooperative therewith tc inhibit .passage of air between said nose and zone into the casing when in mutual engagement and to form an inlet port for air when disengaged, the casing in rear of said zone dening a combustion chamber about the body, and a supply of fuel for combustion in said chamber during passage of air thereinto through said port for ejection adjacent the rear end of the casing of combustion products of the fuel from said .chamber at velocity suicient -to impel the missile in the ldirection of said leading end during combustion of said fuel.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,540,594 Price Feb. 6, 1951 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 293,594 Great Britain Aug. 16, 1928 50,033 France Aug. 1, 1939 (AdditiOn t0 N0. 779,655)
US166593A 1949-06-16 1950-06-07 Reaction-motor missile Expired - Lifetime US2684629A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SE286895X 1949-06-16
SE669014X 1949-07-07

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US2684629A true US2684629A (en) 1954-07-27

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US166593A Expired - Lifetime US2684629A (en) 1949-06-16 1950-06-07 Reaction-motor missile
US166594A Expired - Lifetime US2684570A (en) 1949-06-16 1950-06-07 Rocket-engine and reaction-motor missile

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US166594A Expired - Lifetime US2684570A (en) 1949-06-16 1950-06-07 Rocket-engine and reaction-motor missile

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BE (2) BE496372A (en)
CH (2) CH286895A (en)
FR (2) FR1020175A (en)
GB (2) GB669008A (en)

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2811829A (en) * 1952-12-04 1957-11-05 Alfred A Topinka Ram jet employing carbon layer of insulation for solid carbon propellant
US2936710A (en) * 1956-01-03 1960-05-17 Curtiss Wright Corp High mach deceleration device
US2977879A (en) * 1957-09-18 1961-04-04 Atlantic Res Corp Rocket projectile
US3048009A (en) * 1956-06-21 1962-08-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Rocket motor
US3903802A (en) * 1955-08-26 1975-09-09 Us Army Shell construction sealing washer
US4052846A (en) * 1976-01-08 1977-10-11 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Baffled combustion chamber
US4135449A (en) * 1975-06-20 1979-01-23 Rheinmetall Gmbh Projectile for attacking small targets
US4338783A (en) * 1975-09-04 1982-07-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Two-stage hypersonic ramjet
DE10158277A1 (en) * 2001-11-20 2003-05-28 Mieczyslaw Milewski Device for adjusting the aerodynamics of a rocket comprises channels which guide the atmospheric air from the direction opposite the exit of the waste gas stream into the region of the jets of the propulsion system
US20090229241A1 (en) * 2008-03-07 2009-09-17 Haight Stephen D Hybrid missile propulsion system with reconfigurable multinozzle grid

Families Citing this family (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2990682A (en) * 1951-11-07 1961-07-04 Gen Electric Fuel charge
US2840322A (en) * 1952-09-23 1958-06-24 Rolls Royce Air intake for aircraft power plant installations
US2799987A (en) * 1952-12-31 1957-07-23 Edward F Chandler Solid fuel ramjet projectiles
US2989922A (en) * 1953-02-17 1961-06-27 Marvin H Greenwood Ramjet propulsion device
US2912820A (en) * 1953-07-31 1959-11-17 Quentin R Whitmore Combined ram jet and rocket engine
US2948112A (en) * 1953-12-14 1960-08-09 Kenneth W Smith Combined rocket and ram-jet engine
US2906094A (en) * 1954-04-14 1959-09-29 Glenn H Damon Fuel and rapid ignition apparatus for ignition of fuel in ram jets and rockets
US3069300A (en) * 1954-12-30 1962-12-18 Glenn H Damon Boron containing fuel and fuel igniter for ram jet and rocket
US2883829A (en) * 1955-01-24 1959-04-28 Curtiss Wright Corp Rocket engine convertible to a ramjet engine
US2926613A (en) * 1955-05-23 1960-03-01 Phillips Petroleum Co Composite rocket-ram jet fuel
DE1025215B (en) * 1955-11-07 1958-02-27 Max Koppe Dr Rer Pol Dr Rer Na Jet engine for unmanned and manned missiles of all types
US3115008A (en) * 1959-02-03 1963-12-24 Cohen William Integral rocket ramjet missile propulsion system
DE1144060B (en) * 1960-08-04 1963-02-21 Daimler Benz Ag Compound engine for aircraft
DE1213760B (en) * 1962-06-30 1966-03-31 Rheinmetall Gmbh Self-propelled hollow charge projectile
US3220181A (en) * 1962-11-08 1965-11-30 Texaco Experiment Inc Split-flow solid fuel ramjet
US3218974A (en) * 1964-03-24 1965-11-23 Samms Adolphus Air breathing booster
US3974648A (en) * 1968-08-19 1976-08-17 United Technologies Corporation Variable geometry ramjet engine
US3726219A (en) * 1970-03-24 1973-04-10 Us Navy Integral propellant case ramjet projectile
FR2666850B1 (en) * 1978-08-04 1994-09-09 Onera (Off Nat Aerospatiale) Improvements relating to statoreactor type propellers.
US4745740A (en) * 1982-09-30 1988-05-24 The Boeing Company Velocity controller for ramjet missile and method therefor
GB2165338B (en) * 1984-10-06 1988-11-02 Rolls Royce Integral rocket and ramjet engine
US5363766A (en) * 1990-02-08 1994-11-15 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Remjet powered, armor piercing, high explosive projectile
US6058846A (en) * 1998-06-03 2000-05-09 Lockhead Martin Corporation Rocket and ramjet powered hypersonic stealth missile having alterable radar cross section
US7851733B2 (en) * 2006-07-10 2010-12-14 Raytheon Company Methods and apparatus for missile air inlet
US20110314791A1 (en) * 2010-06-25 2011-12-29 Haynes Jeffrey D Method for combustion system
FR3080912B1 (en) * 2018-05-02 2020-04-03 Nexter Munitions PROJECTILE POWERED BY STATOREACTOR

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB293594A (en) * 1925-12-19 1928-08-16 Benjamin Charles Carter Improvements in or relating to apparatus for burning liquid or gaseous fuel and in the application thereof to internal combustion turbines, turbo-airscrews, projectiles, rockets and the like
FR779655A (en) * 1934-01-02 1935-04-10 Process for transforming heat energy into kinetic or potential energy
FR50033E (en) * 1938-07-05 1939-11-10 Process for transforming heat energy into kinetic or potential energy
US2540594A (en) * 1946-08-23 1951-02-06 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Ram jet engine having variable area inlets

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB590177A (en) * 1944-07-17 1947-07-10 Hydran Products Ltd Improvements in or relating to projectiles of the rocket type
GB579807A (en) * 1941-02-11 1946-08-16 Walter Gordon Wilson Improvements in and relating to the propulsion of aerial torpedoes
US2446266A (en) * 1946-02-23 1948-08-03 Thomas L Cummings Jet propelled helicopter rotor

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB293594A (en) * 1925-12-19 1928-08-16 Benjamin Charles Carter Improvements in or relating to apparatus for burning liquid or gaseous fuel and in the application thereof to internal combustion turbines, turbo-airscrews, projectiles, rockets and the like
FR779655A (en) * 1934-01-02 1935-04-10 Process for transforming heat energy into kinetic or potential energy
FR50033E (en) * 1938-07-05 1939-11-10 Process for transforming heat energy into kinetic or potential energy
US2540594A (en) * 1946-08-23 1951-02-06 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Ram jet engine having variable area inlets

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2811829A (en) * 1952-12-04 1957-11-05 Alfred A Topinka Ram jet employing carbon layer of insulation for solid carbon propellant
US3903802A (en) * 1955-08-26 1975-09-09 Us Army Shell construction sealing washer
US2936710A (en) * 1956-01-03 1960-05-17 Curtiss Wright Corp High mach deceleration device
US3048009A (en) * 1956-06-21 1962-08-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Rocket motor
US2977879A (en) * 1957-09-18 1961-04-04 Atlantic Res Corp Rocket projectile
US4135449A (en) * 1975-06-20 1979-01-23 Rheinmetall Gmbh Projectile for attacking small targets
US4338783A (en) * 1975-09-04 1982-07-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Two-stage hypersonic ramjet
US4052846A (en) * 1976-01-08 1977-10-11 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Baffled combustion chamber
DE10158277A1 (en) * 2001-11-20 2003-05-28 Mieczyslaw Milewski Device for adjusting the aerodynamics of a rocket comprises channels which guide the atmospheric air from the direction opposite the exit of the waste gas stream into the region of the jets of the propulsion system
US20090229241A1 (en) * 2008-03-07 2009-09-17 Haight Stephen D Hybrid missile propulsion system with reconfigurable multinozzle grid
US8117847B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2012-02-21 Raytheon Company Hybrid missile propulsion system with reconfigurable multinozzle grid

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US2684570A (en) 1954-07-27
FR1020174A (en) 1953-02-03
GB669014A (en) 1952-03-26
GB669008A (en) 1952-03-26
FR1020175A (en) 1953-02-03
CH287258A (en) 1952-11-30
BE496372A (en) 1950-10-02
BE496772A (en) 1950-11-03
CH286895A (en) 1952-11-15

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