US2667775A - Knitted fabric - Google Patents

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US2667775A
US2667775A US252913A US25291351A US2667775A US 2667775 A US2667775 A US 2667775A US 252913 A US252913 A US 252913A US 25291351 A US25291351 A US 25291351A US 2667775 A US2667775 A US 2667775A
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threads
pairs
fabric
courses
loops
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Fredric L Aibel
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04BKNITTING
    • D04B21/00Warp knitting processes for the production of fabrics or articles not dependent on the use of particular machines; Fabrics or articles defined by such processes
    • D04B21/10Open-work fabrics

Description

F. L. AIBEL KNITTED FABRIC Feb. 2, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Oct.' 24, 1951 f f. 4, r ,l ...Ril

INVENToR. FREDRIC L. AIBEI.

ATTORNEY Feb. 2, 1954 F. L.. AlBr-:L 2,667,775

KNITTED FABRIC Filed oct. 24, 1951 2 sheets-sheet 2 E S INVENToR.

FREDRIC L. AIBEL ATTORNY Patented Feb. 2, 1954 UNITED STATES OFFICE KNITTED FABRIC Fredi-ic L. Aibel, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Applica-tion october 24, 1951, serial No. 252,913

(o1. cfs-195) 7 Claims. 1

This invention relates to knitted fabrics of mesh formation and of net characteristics having a lace-like appearance.

Net fabrics have until comparatively recently been made exclusively on special lace or bobbinnet machines. Because of the high labor cost entailed in the operation of such machines, their use has generally been conned to countries where Wages are relatively low; and they were accordingly not generally commercially used in the United States.

Attempts have been made to produce on knitting machines netting simulating the product of net machines, because of the lower operating cost of conventionalxknitting machines. While this has resulted in some success in the production, in this country, of knitted fabrics with mesh characteristics, the disadvantages of the knitting methods employedl in this connection have been suiiiciently serious las not to enable the netting produced thereby Ato be commercially competitive with the products of the lace machines, either from a cost or a structural viewpoint.

T wo lgeneral knitting methods haveheretofore `been employed inthe production of netting simulating the products of bobbin-net lace machines. One method employs half-gauge knitting with two bars., each bar knitting atevery course. The other method employs full-gauge *knitting with two bars, one bar knitting at every course, and the other bar laying-in at every course. These methods are employedin conjunction with Warp or .Rashel machines, the construction of which is well'kn'own to thosev skilled in the art.

vdisadvantages which seriously impair its commercial use. It produces only a hexagonal mesh, whereas the conventional bobbin-net product is generally diamond-shaped; Vand since the, puru chasing public is accustomed' to diamond-shaped netting, there fiso'bviously sales resistance to the hexagonal product. Furthermore, the `netting of the said second method is'knitted as an irregular mesh,y and assumes a regular hexagonal shape lonly when-'stretched during a subsequent `nis'hing operation, after 'the fabric is 4removed `from the machine. And in such apparatusit is .important that the back beam vtensionbe properly set, since varied or improper tensions result in a distorted pattern that cannot possibly ',be Ymade truly hexagonal in the iinishing. Still r`another disadvantage of the v-said .second method resides in the fact that it employs inlay threads which intermesh with and run in :zigzag fashion through the knitted stitches .of the front bar; .and since these threads are not locked, :itl is possible to snag the ends thereof and produce flaws .throughout .the fabric. Another disadvantage of .the last-mentioned knitting method for producing netting is that it is not effectively employable with .conventional stop-motion devices which are sensitive to holes, and can accordingly stopknitting machines only when a holeis formed. Since in said second method `an end out in the back beam makes a run rather than a hole, the .conventional stop-motion machine isineffective and frequently results in yards of material having runs therein.

It is primarily within the contemplation of this invention to -obviatethe use of ,lace-making machines by employing :a :warp typeof knitting machine v-to produce .affabric in which .the-basic advantages of each of thewsaid'two prior -kni-tting methods Vare retained,A whereas theafor-es'aid shortcomings thereof are climi-nated. v More specifically, it is an object of my invention lto produce a relatively 4Wide fabric with a maximum yards of material produced per pound of yarn, and to enable the production selectively either of a diamondor hexagonal netting construction during the knitting process, rather than during the finishing process after the product is removed from the machine.

t is a further important object vof my invention to present a fabric with uniformly shaped meshes, each containing locked threads, and without the danger of a snagging of the ends to produce runs or other fabric flaws.

And it is within my contemplation to ena-ble said knitted netting to be produced -on conventional Warp or Rashel machines, or even on mod-iiied machines for the production of tricot rfabric, merely by 4employing vcertain formulas 'for tw chains, in conventional manner.

`employed with yarnv being supplied 'from two bars. A pair of threads, one from each bar, is deployed between two adjacent needles according to formula.

The basic requirements for the production of the various fabrics of my invention are: (1) that only one bar knits at any coursethe back bar floating or laying-in when the front bar knits, and the front bar floating when the back bar knits; and (2) that a pair of threads, one derived from each of the two bars, make, in the series set-up, one or more stitches on two adjacent needles.

During the operation of a machine wherein there are the above-mentioned basic requirements, there results a coalescence of certain stitches and a subsequent elongation of others.`

By combining stitch courses with float or inlay on both bars, there is effected a change in length of certain stitches, that is, there is a distortion of the stitches due to the take-up action and the 'uniform tension, all in a manner to make the fabric lose knit characteristics and assume net" characteristics. The nal fabric contains a locked symmetrical mesh free from irregularity, the legs of the polygon constituting the net formation being joined together at welldefined junctions. The said final product is a knitted fabric which so closely resembles a con- Ventional netting as to make the knitted structure thereof not readily discernible even to experienced knitters.

Referring to the drawings,

Figure 1 is an enlarged diagrammatic View of one form of fabric according to my invention, showing the formation of loop, inlay and oat elements in their theoretical undistorted and unstretched condition.

Figure 2 is a diagrammatic view substantially like Fig. 1, but showing the fabric elements in their stretched condition substantially as they appear while being knitted, the diamond-shaped mesh formations being shown considerably enlarged.

Figure 3 is a plan view, in semi-diagrammatic form, of a portion of the completed fabric of theI structure shown in Fig. 2, this view being considerably reduced from Fig. 2, but being larger than actual size, and

Figure 4 is an enlarged diagrammatic View, substantially like Fig. 2, but showing another form of fabric.

For illustrative purposes, the drawings show a number of vertical rows or series of looped, iioated and laid-in yarn. In Fig. 1, for example, the rows are identified by the reference numerals I, II, III and IV, it being understood that a multiplicity of such rows are simultaneously formed during the knitting process to make the completed fabric. Two threads are employed for forming these rows, these pairs of threads being designated as A1 and B1, A2 and B2, and Aa and B3, respectively. It will here be assumed that A1, A2 and A3 are front bar threads, and B1, B2 and Bs are rear bar threads. The horizontal courses are designated by the reference letters, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z.

During the knitting operation, the thread A1, in emerging from previously formed loop Ilia in course T, is formed by the front bar into the loop Ils in course U, and at the same time the thread B1 is laid-in by the rear bar in the same course, the laid-in portion being designated |211. In the next course V, a stitching operation is formed on thread B1, to form the loop |31; and atvthe same time the thread A1 is made to oat 4 during the course, the floating portion being des-f ignated |41. Thread A1 is then knitted into the loop |53. in the course W; and at the completion of this course, section |6s of thread A1 is carried to row II (that is, to an adjacent needle around which it is operatively wrapped in conventional manner) and formed into loop Ils in said row II, course X. While the last-mentioned action takes place, section |811 of yarn B1 is floated and carried to row II and laid in at |911- in said row X. Thread B1 is then knitted to form the loop 20a at course Y in the same row, while section Zl of thread A1 is floated through course Y/and then knitted to form the loop 22a, whereafter section 2311 thereof is carried back to row I to form loop 24a in the next adjacent course. This process is continued in subsequent courses by repeating the steps described with reference to formation of the said previously made loops, such as ila, |311 and |51 in courses U, V and W, and the oats and laid-in portions of the threads associated therewith. l

Similarly, yarns A2 and B2, and A3 and B3 are looped, floated and laid-in to form the portions of the fabric comprised of rows II, IIIand IV, and as many other rows as can be formed by the needles on the machine. The loops, fioats and laid-in sections in rows II, III and IV are designated by reference numerals analogous kto their respective counterparts above described, whereby it will be unnecessary to repeat the description for all the illustrated rows. Suiiice it to say that loops |811, Hic, Hb, llc, |311, |30, |511, |511, |511, |111, |711, 26311, 22e, 24h and 2de correspond to previously described loops lila, Ha, |33, |511, |111, 2da, 2211 and 24a; and that the iioats, laid-in and other sections |21, I2c, |411, idc, |611, |6c, |811, IBC, |911, |90, 2lb, 2Ic, 2311 and 23e correspond to the previously described analogous sections 23., a, isa, las., '9a 2|a and 23a.

In order to readily be able to follow the intermovement of the various threads from the formation of loops, floats and laid-in sections to the final desired mesh formation, it should be borne in mind that in the structure above described, the arrangement ofthe components of the rows and courses illustrated in `Figure 1 is merely diagrammatic, and shows the fabric elements in their theoretically unspread condition. Actually, during the knitting process tension is continuously being applied to the fabric elements being formed, so that there is an inter-sliding movement between adjacent interengaged thread sections, whereby the appearance of the loop, float and inlay sections is substantially like that illustrated in Fig. 2.

More specifically, the knitting tension causes a shortening of certain interknitted loops and a corresponding elongation of the diagonally carried-over laps and laid-in or oat sections, as well as an elongation of adjacent loops in the same course extending from iioated yarn, there being accordingly pairs of elongated portions forming the four sides of a diamond-shaped mesh configuration, and the shortened loops virtually coalescing into what may be regarded as knots tying together the terminals of said sides. In other words,r althoughV there is uniformtension throughout the fabric elements being knitted, there is actually a distortion of the fabric whereby it no longer resembles a knitted fabric but rather a net fabric that looks closely like the product of bobbin-net machines.

Thus, by referring to Fig. 2, it will be seen that in the operatively stretchednfabric containing the '5 vertical rows of wales V. VI.. '.VIII. IXand X, there has been a `.eontractior.1 .of 'theloops la, 13a, and lla, 29a, for example, as Well as of the corresponding loops Hb, 1.3.11, and llb, 213e., and llc, 13e, and llc, 2.0, the `contracted or coalesced pairs of loops extending in parallel horizontal rows vsuch as rows .Rand -S the Iloops of each pair being in .adjacent parallel courses. Between adjacent parallel pairs .of the coalesced loops.. along rows R vand S for example, are the elongated thread portions that form the legs V.of the said diamond formations. These elongated Yportions are, for example, the diagonally-,carried-oyer lap section Ib and the Afloat section |81), forming one side of the diamond D; adjacent loop l on the same course forming a second side of the diamond; the diagonallyecarried-back lap section 231 and the float section 251, .forming a third. side of the diamond; and the adjacent loop 22a on the same course forming the fourth .side of the diamond. It is apparent that all other diamond formations are produced in the .same manner.

It Will be clarifying to note that if the arrows K, L, M and N indicate the opposing pulls that cause tension in the respective sections |611, |51, |211 and |011, the pairs of theloops in rows `S and R are contracted due to these pulls, Whereas the carried-over lap sections and loops, such as lap |611 and loop |51, for example, extending from unknitted iioat |41), are elongated, together with unknitted float |81), by the .contraction of said pairs of loops. In other words, the slack caused by the contraction of vsaid pairs of coalescing loops is taken up by thread sections that are either directly extending from or are themselves un.- knitted laid-in or floated thread sections.

The fabric of Fig. 2 is obviously greatly enlarged. In actual size the coalesced lockedloops are Visible only as fine juncturesfor the well-defined sides of the diamond formations, in view of the fine denier yarns that are used for this fabric, The finished product is a locked vsymmetrical mesh, of lace-like appearance; and the product comes off the machine in nished shape.

In Figure 4, which shows another form of fabric according to my invention, a plurality of pairs of threads E1 and F1 are employed, these being respectively front and rear bar threads. This fabric contains the vertical rows or Wales XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI and XVII, and horizontal rows or courses O, G, P, H and Q. Considering the thread elements that make up the diamond formation D1, for example, it Will be necessary to follow the threads in Wales XII, XIII and XIV.

Thread E1, extending through previously formed loop 2.6, is formed into `a loop 21 at course 0 in Wale XIII, and at the same time thread F1 is laid-in at 2.8. The lap 29 is then carried over as a oat to the next adjacent Wale XIV and stitched into a loop 30. In the meantime the extension of laid-in portion 28 is formed into loop 3| which extends diagonally into Wale XII and interloops, at course P, With the loop 32 in said last-mentioned Wale, the opposite lap 33 of loop 3| being carried over diagonally to Wale XIV i vention, there is a vcertain basic structure.

.and 33 upon the operative contraction of loops 2:1

and 3L0-'to form one side ofthe diamond D1. 'It will .similarly 'be noted that the other sides 'of the diamond are formed from threads which are either themselves iioats, or which extend Afrom floats or laid-'in portions..

It wll further be noted that in both forms of the fabric herein illustrated, as Well .as Vin many other forms possible Within the scope of "my in- In such basic structure there are aplurality of pairs of Warp threads carried over from one Wale to an adjacent Wale, the two threads of each of said pairs forming loops in each AWale at different courses, there being courses in which one of said threads is unknitted and ,not formed into loops. In such courses the said unknitted 'threads are either floated or inlaid.

'For example, in Figure 2, the pair of threads A2 and B2 have portions 16s and |8111, respectively, carried over from Wale VII to adjacent Wale VIII, portion |611 forming loop |11, in Wale VIII Aat course X, and portion 18h forming loop 23h in course Y, portion .|911 of thread B2 being unlcnitted (and being laid-in) in course X, and portion 2lb of thread Az 'being unknitted (and floating) in course Y. Similarly, in Figure 4, one of the pairs of threads `E1 and F1 have portions 29 and 33, respectively, carried over from Wale XIII to Wale XIV, portion 29 :forming loop 3d in Wale XIV at course P, andportion 33 being laid-in, that is, being unknitted, at said latter course. By referring A.to Wale XIII, it will also be noted that terminal loop portion 38 of portion of an .F1 thread 'is positioned in said Wale XIII at the uppermost portion .of course H, lap 35 of .thread E1 being also disposed in course .accordingly the structure of Figure 4 conforms to the basic requirement above mentioneol, there being a plurality of pairs of warp threads, carried over from one Wale to an adjacent Wale., .there being loops formed by said threads in each Wale at different courses, there being courses in whichone of the two threads is either floated or laid in. Y

In forming the fabric of Figures 1 and 2, .the following formula is employed:

Chain I: 20, 22, 20, .24, 22, .24 Chain III 00, 02, 00, 44., 42, 44

In the production ofthe fabric of Figure 4, the following formula is used:

Chain I: 20, Oi), 24, 44 Chain II: 00, 02, 44, 42

Other forms of fabric, as aforesaid, may be made by employing the above-menti0ned basic structure, but employing other formulas. For example, to produce a fabric With hexagonal meshes, the following formula may be employed:

Chain I: 20, 22, 22, 20, 24, 22 22, 24 Chain II: 00, l02, 20, 0i), 44, 42, 24, 44

Any of the fabrics produced in accordance with my invention can be readily fabricated by those skilled in the art; and the resulting fabric will have a very Well-defined lace-like appearance as well as the other characteristics hereinabove mentioned.

In the description hereinabove given the various threads or yarns are designated as Warp threads since they are supplied from Warp beams. The carried-over and carried-back portions of the threads, such as |61, and 2311 of Fig. l, are lap portions and they are herein fre- 'quently Vdesignated as such. Although in warp knitting machines the back bar can either float or lay-in, whereas the front bar can only oat, the functions of the laid-in and floated sections of the threads are substantially similar, in this invention, in producing the elongations and contractions above-mentioned. And hence, since such iioats and laid-in sections are all unknitted portions of the threads, they are designated in the claims, for convenience, as unknitted oats, regardless of whether or not they are technical floats or laid-in sections.

In the above description, the invention has been disclosed merely by way of example and in preferred manner; but obviously many variations and modifications may be made therein. It is to be understood, therefore, that the invention is not limited to any specific form or manner of practicing same, except insofar as such limitations are specified in the appended claims.

I claim:

l. In a lace-like knitted fabric of substantially uniform polygonal mesh formation, a plurality of pairs of warp threads formed into a plurality of wales and courses, the two threads of each of said pairs forming interengaged contracted loops in wales at different courses, to constitute juncture portions of said polygonal mesh formation, one of the two threads of each of said pairs having oated portions in certain courses and the other of said two threads having laid-in portions in certain other courses, a plurality of pairs of said threads extending from one wale to another Wale in a single course to form sides of said polygonal mesh formation.

2. In a lace-like knitted fabric of substantially uniform polygonal mesh formation, a plurality of pairs of warp threads formed into a plurality of wales and courses, the two threads of each of said pairs forming loops in wales at different courses, one of the two threads of each of said pairs being unknitted in certain courses and the other of said two threads being unknitted in certain other courses, a plurality of pairs of thread sections extending diagonally from one Wale toanother and interengaging said loops, said loops being of contracted formation and constituting the junctures of the sides of the polygonal meshes of said formation, said diagonally extending pairs of thread sections being of relatively extended length and constituting the sides of said polygonal meshes.

3. In a lace-like knitted facric of substantially uniform diamond-shaped mesh formation, a plurality of pairs of warp threads formed into a plurality of wales and courses, the two threads of each of said pairs forming contracted loops in wales at different courses, one of the two threads of each of said pairs being unknitted in certain courses and the other of said two threads being unknitted in certain other courses, each diamond-shaped mesh comprising four sides interconnected with said contracted loops, said sides each comprising a, pair. of thread sections, the pairs of thread sections at opposite sides of the mesh comprising, respectively, two sections of one of the said two threads, and two sections of each of the said two threads.

4. In a lace-like knitted fabric of substantially uniform polygonal mesh formation, a plurality of pairs of warp threads formed into a plurality of wales and courses, the two threads of each of said pairs forming contracted and elongated loops at different courses, a plurality of pairs of said threads extending from one wale to another in a. single course, one thread of each of said pairs constituting knitted loops in two successive courses, and the other thread of each of said pairs constituting inlaid sections in said two successive courses, said threads which constitute said knitted loops constituting floats, and said other threads constituting knitted loops in the courses respectively preceding and following said two successive courses.

5. In a lace-like knitted fabric of substantially uniform polygonal mesh formation, a plurality of pairs of warp threads formed into a plurality of wales and courses, the two threads of each of said pairs forming contracted and elongated loops at different courses, each loop being interengaged with another single loop, one thread of each of said pairs of threads forming a single elongated loop in a polygon of said polygonal mesh formation.

6. In a lace-like knitted fabric of substantially uniform polygonal mesh formation, a plurality of pairs of warp threads formed into a plurality of wales and courses, the two threads of each of said pairs forming contracted and elongated loops at diierent courses, a plurality of pairs of said threads extending from one wale to an adjacent wale in a single course, one thread of each of said pairs having an inlaid portion and the other thread of each of said pairs having a floated portion in a side of a polygon of said polygonal mesh formation.

7. In a lace-like knitted fabric of substantially uniform polygonal mesh formation, a plurality of pairs of warp threads formed'into a plurality of wales and courses, the two threads of each of said pairs forming contracted and elongated loops at different courses, the junctures of adjacent sides each being formed from a single contracted loop.

FREDRIC L. AIBEL.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,050,120 Friedberger Jan. 14, 1913 1,139,344 Clewley May 11, 1915 1,187,158 McGinley June 13, 1916 1,993,766 Welch et al Mar. 12, 1935 2,403,793 Feinstein July 9, 1946

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2878661A (en) * 1959-03-24 aibel
US2992550A (en) * 1959-05-13 1961-07-18 Hagin Frith & Sons Knitted mesh
US3118294A (en) * 1964-01-21 Method for manufacturing knitted nets and products
US3447345A (en) * 1966-10-21 1969-06-03 Milton Kurz Knitted mesh fabric
US3653233A (en) * 1968-12-05 1972-04-04 Titone Research & Dev Corp Machine knitting
US3931721A (en) * 1974-07-22 1976-01-13 Vf Corporation Warp knitted elastic fabric
US20160073592A1 (en) * 2013-05-01 2016-03-17 Nine Ip Limited Crop protection netting

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1050120A (en) * 1912-03-21 1913-01-14 Simon Friedberger Knitted fabric.
US1139344A (en) * 1914-11-18 1915-05-11 Simon Friedberger Twisted-net fabric.
US1187158A (en) * 1915-02-18 1916-06-13 Simon Friedberger Twisted net fabric.
US1993766A (en) * 1931-10-19 1935-03-12 Celanese Corp Knitted fabrics and the manufacture thereof
US2403793A (en) * 1944-10-27 1946-07-09 Sam Feinstein Knitted fabric

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1050120A (en) * 1912-03-21 1913-01-14 Simon Friedberger Knitted fabric.
US1139344A (en) * 1914-11-18 1915-05-11 Simon Friedberger Twisted-net fabric.
US1187158A (en) * 1915-02-18 1916-06-13 Simon Friedberger Twisted net fabric.
US1993766A (en) * 1931-10-19 1935-03-12 Celanese Corp Knitted fabrics and the manufacture thereof
US2403793A (en) * 1944-10-27 1946-07-09 Sam Feinstein Knitted fabric

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2878661A (en) * 1959-03-24 aibel
US3118294A (en) * 1964-01-21 Method for manufacturing knitted nets and products
US2992550A (en) * 1959-05-13 1961-07-18 Hagin Frith & Sons Knitted mesh
US3447345A (en) * 1966-10-21 1969-06-03 Milton Kurz Knitted mesh fabric
US3653233A (en) * 1968-12-05 1972-04-04 Titone Research & Dev Corp Machine knitting
US3931721A (en) * 1974-07-22 1976-01-13 Vf Corporation Warp knitted elastic fabric
US20160073592A1 (en) * 2013-05-01 2016-03-17 Nine Ip Limited Crop protection netting

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