US2667740A - Means for supplying and cooling rocket type combustion chambers - Google Patents

Means for supplying and cooling rocket type combustion chambers Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2667740A
US2667740A US166512A US16651250A US2667740A US 2667740 A US2667740 A US 2667740A US 166512 A US166512 A US 166512A US 16651250 A US16651250 A US 16651250A US 2667740 A US2667740 A US 2667740A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
means
liquid
supplying
combustion chambers
combustion
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US166512A
Inventor
Esther C Goddard
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
DANIEL AND FLORENCE GUGGENHEIM
DANIEL AND FLORENCE GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION
Original Assignee
DANIEL AND FLORENCE GUGGENHEIM
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by DANIEL AND FLORENCE GUGGENHEIM filed Critical DANIEL AND FLORENCE GUGGENHEIM
Priority to US166512A priority Critical patent/US2667740A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2667740A publication Critical patent/US2667740A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/60Constructional parts; Details
    • F02K9/62Combustion or thrust chambers
    • F02K9/64Combustion or thrust chambers having cooling arrangements
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/44Feeding propellants
    • F02K9/52Injectors

Description

Feb. 2, 1954 R. H. GODDARD MEANS FOR SUPPLYING AND COOLING ROCKET TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS Filed June 6, 1950 JNVENTOR. ROBERT H.GODDARD DEC'D. ESTHER C GODDARD, EXECUTPIX Patented Feb. 2, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MEANS FOR SUPPLYING AND COOLING ROCKET TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS Application June 6, 1950, Serial No. 166,512

This invention relates to combustion chambers of the general type commonly used in rockets and rocket craft. Such combustion chambers are supplied with combustion elements in liquid form and these combustion liquids support continuous combustion. The highly-heated combustion gases are rapidly ejected through an open conical rearward discharge nozzle.

It is one important object of this invention to provide improved means for feeding fuel and oxidizing liquids to such a combustion chamber in concentric portions and for rapidly rotating each liquid portion as it is delivered into the combustion chamber through an axial and disclike nozzle.

A further object of the invention is to provide a special construction to prevent freezing of the liquid fuel by a very cold oxidizing liquid, such as liquid oxygen.

Supplemental means is also provided for sup plying additional liquid fuel at the periphery oi the combustion chamber and for thereby cooling the side wall of said chamber. This supplemental means in the preferred form contemplates the use of a porous combustion chamber wall and the provision of an outer wall or casing enclosing a jacket space about said wall and to be supplied with the liquid oxidizer.

The invention further relates to arrangements and combinations of parts which will be hereinafter described and more particularly pointed out in the appended claim.

Preferred forms of the invention are shown in the accompanying drawing, in which Fig. 1 is a sectional side elevation of a combustion chamber embodying this invention;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional side elevation of certain parts shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional side elevation of additional parts shown in Fig. 1; and

Fig. 4 is a detail sectional plan view showing a modified combustion chamber wall construction.

Referring to Figs. 1 to 3, a combustion chamber C is provided with an open rearward discharge nozzle N and with an end member Ill positioned opposite the nozzle N. The end member in has a conical outward extension H and a transverse plate I2 having a depressed middle portion M.

A plurality of concentric tubes to 24 are provided for the admission of a liquid fuel and a liquid oxidizer to the combustion chamber C. The tube 20 is mounted at the center of the conical extension H and the depressed portion l4 and is rigidly supported thereby.

The tubes 2| to 24 are concentrically mounted 1 Claim. (Cl. 60-35-43) within the tube 20 and are secured in spaced relation by radial vanes V (Fig. 2). A spiral-ribbed rotator 3'9 is mounted in the passage P in the tube 24, and annular spiral-ribbed rotators 3| and 32 are mounted in the annular passages P2 and P3 between the tubes 20 and 2i and the tubes 22 and 23 respectively. The rotators 30 and 3| are of one hand and the rotator 32 is of the opposite hand.

The passage P2 between the tubes 20 and 2| is a supply passage for a liquid oxidizer, as is also the passage P in the tube 24. The passage P3 between the tubes 22 and 23 is for the supply of a liquid fuel, as gasoline. The annular passages between the tubes 2| and 22 and between the tubes 23 and 24 are air passages to protect the liquid fuel in the passage P3 from the extremely cold liquid oxidizer in the passages P and P2.

The liquid oxidizer may be supplied direct from pump or storage to the passage P, and may be supplied to the outer annular passage P2 through a feed pipe 35. The'liquid fuel may be supplied to the passage P3 through a feed pipe 36. Both liquids are supplied under pressure.

The inner end of the tube 20 is connected to the upper portion 40 of a distributor D which is in the form of a downwardly convex double hollow disc entirely open at its periphery. The

outer or lower wall 43 of the double hollow disc or distributor D is held in position with respect to the upper portion 40 by cross pins 42 as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. The inner ends of the tubes 2| to 24 are expanded as shown in Fig. 2 and extend into the space within the distributor D.

When liquid fuel and a liquid oxidizer are thus supplied under pressure to the concentric passages P, P2 and P3, these liquids are directed forcibly downward and outward into the distributor D. The liquid fuel is rapidly rotated in one direction between inner and outer portions of the liquid oxidizer which are rotating rapidly in the opposite direction. Very complete intermingling of the fuel and oxidizer is thus accomplished, and the thoroughly mixed combustion liquids are ejected all around the fullyopen periphery of the distributor D. Any ordinary igniter, such as a spark-plug 44, may be provided to start combustion.

It is usually necessary to cool the combustion chamber wall, and for this purpose additional liquid fuel may be supplied through a pipe 50 (Fig. 3) which communicates with an annular jacket space S. This space in turnis connected to the chamber C through an annular slot 52. The slot In the preferred construction, the wall 60 of v the chamber 0 is formed of porous but non-combustible material, and an outer casing 62 encloses an annular jacket space C2, to which space additional liquid oxidizer may be delivered through a feed pipe 63. This liquid oxidizer is commonly very cold and exerts an additional cooling effect on the wall 60. As the liquid oxidizer percolates through the porous wall 60, it completes combustion of any liquid fuel supplied through the pipe 50 and particularly of that portion of said liquid fuel which flows downward along the inner surface of the wall.

By the use of the feeding means above described, very complete combustion is attained and the operation of the combustion chamber is correspondingly effective and economical.

In the modified construction shown in Fig. 4, the chamber wall 10 is of refractory material and is reenforced by an outer metal casing I l. The wall 10 is provided with inclined openings '12, to which additional liquid oxidizer is supplied through a feed pipe 14 and branch connections 15. The inclined position of the feed openings 12 causes the liquid oxidizer to enter the chamber C2 in a more or less tangential direction, so that it will cool the wall and also effectively unite with the film of liquid fuel supplied through the slot 52.

Having thus described the invention and the advantages thereof, it will be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the details herein disclosed, otherwise than as set forth in the claim, but what is claimed is:

In a combustion chamber for propulsive use and having an open rearward discharge nozzle, in combination, feeding means for two liquid combustion elements comprising an axial member providing an axial passage for a liquid oxidizer, a tube surrounding said axial member and providing an intermediate passage for a liquid fuel, and an outer annular member surrounding said tube and providing an outer annular passage for additional liquid oxidizer, means in said tube and passages to rotate the fuel and oxidizer respectively in opposite directions, said axial member and tube and said tube and outer annular member being separated to provide annular insulating air spaces, and a double hollow and outwardly convex distributing disc being axially mounted on said outer annular member and with the outer ends of said axial member and tube outwardly flanged and projecting into the annular space between the upper and lower portions of the distributing disc with the combustible material discharged peripherally of said distributing disc.

ESTHER C. GODDARD. Executrz'a: of the last will and testament of Robert H. Goddard, deceased.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,451,063 Anthony Apr. 10, 1923 1,790,927 Kreager Feb. 3, 1931 1,989,164 Beckwith 1 Jan. 29, 1935 1,995,934 Marigold Mar. 26, 1935 2,064,914 I-Ieinzel 1- Dec. 22, 1936 2,183,313 Goddard Dec. 12, 1939 2,395,403 Goddard Feb. 26, 1946 2,515,645 Goddard July 18, 1950 2,536,600 Goddard Jan. 2, 1951 2,561,795 Hess et al -1 July 24, 1951 2,565,039 Mueller .1 Aug. 21, 1951 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 617,578 Great Britain Feb. 8, 1949

US166512A 1950-06-06 1950-06-06 Means for supplying and cooling rocket type combustion chambers Expired - Lifetime US2667740A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US166512A US2667740A (en) 1950-06-06 1950-06-06 Means for supplying and cooling rocket type combustion chambers

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US166512A US2667740A (en) 1950-06-06 1950-06-06 Means for supplying and cooling rocket type combustion chambers

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2667740A true US2667740A (en) 1954-02-02

Family

ID=22603625

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US166512A Expired - Lifetime US2667740A (en) 1950-06-06 1950-06-06 Means for supplying and cooling rocket type combustion chambers

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2667740A (en)

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2847826A (en) * 1952-09-10 1958-08-19 Ca Nat Research Council Pulsating torch igniter
US2850975A (en) * 1954-05-27 1958-09-09 Bendix Aviat Corp Acceleration pressurized bi-propellant liquid fuel rocket
US2933888A (en) * 1956-11-23 1960-04-26 Africano Alfred Cooling system for a rocket engine
US2956399A (en) * 1956-11-16 1960-10-18 Clair M Beighley Fluid cooled homogeneous ceramic rocket motor wall structure
US3069847A (en) * 1959-12-10 1962-12-25 United Aircraft Corp Rocket wall construction
DE1142253B (en) * 1960-01-29 1963-01-10 Boelkow Entwicklungen Kg Combustion chamber for Fluessigtreibstoffe
US3136119A (en) * 1952-09-12 1964-06-09 Research Corp Fluid-solid propulsion unit and method of producing gaseous propellant
US3148505A (en) * 1960-01-04 1964-09-15 North American Aviation Inc Radially firing pyrotechnic igniter
US3446024A (en) * 1965-12-13 1969-05-27 United Aircraft Corp Axial concentric sheet injector
US3546883A (en) * 1967-06-08 1970-12-15 Bolkow Gmbh Liquid fuel rocket engine construction
DE1751740B1 (en) * 1968-07-20 1971-06-16 Kayser Lutz Tilo Rocket engine for liquid and / or gasfoermige fuels
US3662547A (en) * 1970-03-16 1972-05-16 Nasa Coaxial injector for reaction motors
US3710574A (en) * 1969-07-22 1973-01-16 R Pearson Fluid distribution and injection systems
US3712059A (en) * 1970-12-03 1973-01-23 Textron Inc Reverse flow internally-cooled rocket engine
US4621492A (en) * 1985-01-10 1986-11-11 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Low loss injector for liquid propellant rocket engines
US4771599A (en) * 1986-10-20 1988-09-20 United Technologies Corporation Tripropellant rocket engine with injector
US4894986A (en) * 1988-05-11 1990-01-23 Royal Ordnance Bipropellant rocket engines
EP0359662A1 (en) * 1988-09-14 1990-03-21 Societe Europeenne De Propulsion Device for tapping hot gas from a combustion chamber, and injection head equipped therewith
US6185927B1 (en) * 1997-12-22 2001-02-13 Trw Inc. Liquid tripropellant rocket engine coaxial injector
DE102004029029A1 (en) * 2004-06-09 2006-01-05 Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Injection head
RU2626189C1 (en) * 2016-10-03 2017-07-24 федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Самарский национальный исследовательский университет имени академика С.П. Королева" Low-thrust rocket engine on gaseous hydrogen and oxygen with centrifugal and spray nozzles
WO2018167204A1 (en) * 2017-03-15 2018-09-20 Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Thrust chamber device and method for operating a thrust chamber device

Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1451063A (en) * 1923-04-10 Burner
US1790927A (en) * 1931-02-03 kreager
US1989164A (en) * 1931-08-24 1935-01-29 Jesse D Beckwith Gas burner
US1995934A (en) * 1933-09-18 1935-03-26 Trust Company Gas burner
US2064914A (en) * 1932-08-23 1936-12-22 Heinzel Joseph Oil and gas burner
US2183313A (en) * 1938-07-07 1939-12-12 Robert H Goddard Combustion chamber for aircraft
US2395403A (en) * 1939-03-06 1946-02-26 Daniel And Florence Guggenheim Rotatable combustion apparatus for aircraft
GB617578A (en) * 1946-10-07 1949-02-08 Donald Louis Mordell Improvements in or relating to gas-turbine-engine fuel-systems
US2515645A (en) * 1947-03-22 1950-07-18 Daniel And Florence Guggenheim Feeding means for rotating combustion chambers
US2536600A (en) * 1948-02-07 1951-01-02 Daniel And Florence Guggenheim Rotating, feeding, and cooling means for combustion chambers
US2561795A (en) * 1949-02-03 1951-07-24 Selas Corp Of America Gas and oil burner
US2565039A (en) * 1946-10-05 1951-08-21 Herman G Mueller Vortical flame gas burner

Patent Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1451063A (en) * 1923-04-10 Burner
US1790927A (en) * 1931-02-03 kreager
US1989164A (en) * 1931-08-24 1935-01-29 Jesse D Beckwith Gas burner
US2064914A (en) * 1932-08-23 1936-12-22 Heinzel Joseph Oil and gas burner
US1995934A (en) * 1933-09-18 1935-03-26 Trust Company Gas burner
US2183313A (en) * 1938-07-07 1939-12-12 Robert H Goddard Combustion chamber for aircraft
US2395403A (en) * 1939-03-06 1946-02-26 Daniel And Florence Guggenheim Rotatable combustion apparatus for aircraft
US2565039A (en) * 1946-10-05 1951-08-21 Herman G Mueller Vortical flame gas burner
GB617578A (en) * 1946-10-07 1949-02-08 Donald Louis Mordell Improvements in or relating to gas-turbine-engine fuel-systems
US2515645A (en) * 1947-03-22 1950-07-18 Daniel And Florence Guggenheim Feeding means for rotating combustion chambers
US2536600A (en) * 1948-02-07 1951-01-02 Daniel And Florence Guggenheim Rotating, feeding, and cooling means for combustion chambers
US2561795A (en) * 1949-02-03 1951-07-24 Selas Corp Of America Gas and oil burner

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2847826A (en) * 1952-09-10 1958-08-19 Ca Nat Research Council Pulsating torch igniter
US3136119A (en) * 1952-09-12 1964-06-09 Research Corp Fluid-solid propulsion unit and method of producing gaseous propellant
US2850975A (en) * 1954-05-27 1958-09-09 Bendix Aviat Corp Acceleration pressurized bi-propellant liquid fuel rocket
US2956399A (en) * 1956-11-16 1960-10-18 Clair M Beighley Fluid cooled homogeneous ceramic rocket motor wall structure
US2933888A (en) * 1956-11-23 1960-04-26 Africano Alfred Cooling system for a rocket engine
US3069847A (en) * 1959-12-10 1962-12-25 United Aircraft Corp Rocket wall construction
US3148505A (en) * 1960-01-04 1964-09-15 North American Aviation Inc Radially firing pyrotechnic igniter
DE1142253B (en) * 1960-01-29 1963-01-10 Boelkow Entwicklungen Kg Combustion chamber for Fluessigtreibstoffe
US3446024A (en) * 1965-12-13 1969-05-27 United Aircraft Corp Axial concentric sheet injector
US3546883A (en) * 1967-06-08 1970-12-15 Bolkow Gmbh Liquid fuel rocket engine construction
DE1751740B1 (en) * 1968-07-20 1971-06-16 Kayser Lutz Tilo Rocket engine for liquid and / or gasfoermige fuels
US3710574A (en) * 1969-07-22 1973-01-16 R Pearson Fluid distribution and injection systems
US3662547A (en) * 1970-03-16 1972-05-16 Nasa Coaxial injector for reaction motors
US3712059A (en) * 1970-12-03 1973-01-23 Textron Inc Reverse flow internally-cooled rocket engine
US4621492A (en) * 1985-01-10 1986-11-11 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Low loss injector for liquid propellant rocket engines
US4771599A (en) * 1986-10-20 1988-09-20 United Technologies Corporation Tripropellant rocket engine with injector
US4894986A (en) * 1988-05-11 1990-01-23 Royal Ordnance Bipropellant rocket engines
EP0359662A1 (en) * 1988-09-14 1990-03-21 Societe Europeenne De Propulsion Device for tapping hot gas from a combustion chamber, and injection head equipped therewith
US6185927B1 (en) * 1997-12-22 2001-02-13 Trw Inc. Liquid tripropellant rocket engine coaxial injector
EP0924424A3 (en) * 1997-12-22 2002-05-22 TRW Inc. Liquid tripropellant rocket engine coaxial injector
DE102004029029A1 (en) * 2004-06-09 2006-01-05 Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Injection head
DE102004029029B4 (en) * 2004-06-09 2018-12-13 Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Injection head
RU2626189C1 (en) * 2016-10-03 2017-07-24 федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Самарский национальный исследовательский университет имени академика С.П. Королева" Low-thrust rocket engine on gaseous hydrogen and oxygen with centrifugal and spray nozzles
WO2018167204A1 (en) * 2017-03-15 2018-09-20 Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Thrust chamber device and method for operating a thrust chamber device

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3747336A (en) Steam injection system for a gas turbine
EP1741917B1 (en) Booster rocket engine using gaseous hydrocarbon in catalytically enhanced gas generator cycle
CA1110857A (en) Dual fluid fuel nozzle
US5359847A (en) Dual fuel ultra-low NOX combustor
US2946185A (en) Fuel-air manifold for an afterburner
JP4386589B2 (en) Rocket engine
US5099645A (en) Liquid-solid propulsion system and method
US2488911A (en) Combustion apparatus for use with turbines
US5404715A (en) Liquid propellant rocket engine with parallel auxiliary flow, and an integrated gas generator
US4787208A (en) Low-nox, rich-lean combustor
US2791883A (en) Propellant system
US2479777A (en) Fuel injection means for gas turbine power plants for aircraft
US2683963A (en) Reaction engine with automatic pressure regulation
US6865878B2 (en) Hybrid rocket engine and method of propelling a rocket
US2635426A (en) Annular vaporizer
US2168313A (en) Combustion means
US5966926A (en) Liquid fuel injector purge system
US2671312A (en) Device for feeding reagents to the mixing chambers of rockets
US3088273A (en) Solid propellant rocket
US2679137A (en) Apparatus for burning fuel in a fast moving gas stream
US20030074886A1 (en) High performance rocket engine having a stepped expansion combustion chamber and method of making the same
US2433943A (en) Operation of jet propulsion motors with nitroparaffin
US2183313A (en) Combustion chamber for aircraft
US3077073A (en) Rocket engine having fuel driven propellant pumps
US6640536B2 (en) Hybrid rocket motor using a turbopump to pressurize a liquid propellant constituent