US2635127A - Interelectrode separator for rechargeable batteries - Google Patents

Interelectrode separator for rechargeable batteries Download PDF

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Publication number
US2635127A
US2635127A US22470851A US2635127A US 2635127 A US2635127 A US 2635127A US 22470851 A US22470851 A US 22470851A US 2635127 A US2635127 A US 2635127A
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Prior art keywords
electrodes
casing
membrane
electrolyte
battery
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Michel N Yardney
Martin E Kagan
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Yardney International Corp
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Yardney International Corp
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R3/00Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel
    • F23R3/02Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the air-flow or gas-flow configuration
    • F23R3/16Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the air-flow or gas-flow configuration with devices inside the flame tube or the combustion chamber to influence the air or gas flow
    • F23R3/18Flame stabilising means, e.g. flame holders for after-burners of jet-propulsion plants
    • F23R3/22Flame stabilising means, e.g. flame holders for after-burners of jet-propulsion plants movable, e.g. to an inoperative position; adjustable, e.g. self-adjusting
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/24Alkaline accumulators
    • H01M10/28Construction or manufacture
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts
    • H01M2/14Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts
    • H01M2/14Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements
    • H01M2/16Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements characterised by the material
    • H01M2/164Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements characterised by the material comprising non-fibrous material
    • H01M2/1653Organic non-fibrous material
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts
    • H01M2/14Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements
    • H01M2/16Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements characterised by the material
    • H01M2/1666Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements characterised by the material comprising a non-fibrous layer and a fibrous layer superimposed on one another
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts
    • H01M2/14Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements
    • H01M2/16Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements characterised by the material
    • H01M2/1686Separators having two or more layers of either fibrous or non-fibrous materials
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts
    • H01M2/14Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements
    • H01M2/16Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements characterised by the material
    • H01M2/1606Separators; Membranes; Diaphragms; Spacing elements characterised by the material comprising fibrous material
    • H01M2/162Organic fibrous material
    • H01M2/1626Natural fibres, e.g. cotton, cellulose
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2300/00Electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0002Aqueous electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0014Alkaline electrolytes

Description

April 14, 1953 M. N. YARDNEY ETAL INTERELECTRODE SEPARATOR FOR RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES Filed May 5, 1951 A sinfered DI nus IN V EN TORS H m @6 AA W M f T KM M MM T N. E G. A

Patented Apr. 14, 1953 INTERELECTRODE SEPARATOR FOR RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES Michel N. Yardney, New York, and Martin E.

Kagan, Bronx, N; Y., assignors to- Yardney International Corp., New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application May 5, 1951, Serial No. 224,708

,11 Claims. 1

The present invention relates to electric batteries, more particularly to. batteries of the rechargeable silver-and-zinc type.

In various co-pending applications assignedto the assignee of the present application, such as Ser. No. 738,702, filed April 1, 1947, 66,291 and 66,292, filed December 20, 1948, 197,730, filed November 27, 1950, all issued April 29, 1952 as Patents Nos. 2,594,709, 2,594,710, 2,594,711 and 2,594,713, respectively, and Ser. No. 131,320, filed December 6, 1949, now Patent No. 2,601,133, issued June 17, 1952, there have been disclosed rechargeable batteries wherein one or more positive electrodes, consisting essentially of silver, and one or more negative electrodes, consisting essentially of zinc and/or zinc compounds, are immersed in an alka line electrolyte and are spaced from oneanother by semi-permeable separators or membranes, the entire assembly being held in compression in a suitable casing;

The separators employedinthebatteries heretofore described consisted either of regenerated cellulose (cellophane) or a combination of one or morecellophane layers with an additional layer or layers of a more permeable material, such as porous, absorbent paper; in-the latter case it had been found advantageous to insert the more permeable layer or layers between the cellophane and the active electrode material in order to 1 protect the cellophane from direct contact with the electrode materialwhich could give riseto undesirable chemical reactions. It is a property of these separators to swell in the alkaline electrolyte and, by virtue of having been introduced with a relatively tight fit into the battery casing along with electrodes of substantially non-compressible, compact material, toexert pressure upon the electrodes and to be themselves compressed to prevent undue dilation of their interstices. 1

In the development of batteries adapted to be recharged a large number of times the need has arisen for providing a non-conductive separator whose semi-permeable characteristics (including the ability toswell and to exert pressure) should be similar to those of cellophane yet which should exhibit even greater ability to withstand repeated chargings and dischargings without a method of lastingyly protecting'adjacent electrodes fromcontact with one another while enabling the passage of ions between them.

In accordance with the present invention there is provided, as a separator between electrodes of a battery as set forth above, at least one layer of polyvinyl alcohol, either alone or in combination with a layer or layers of cellophane and/orof a more porous material such as natural cellulosic paper (i. e. paper left in its naturally absorbent state, such as filter paper, Aldex paper, blotting paper). The polyvinyl alcohol may be a simple polymer with unlinked chains, or its chains may be cross-linked with the aid oi suitable agents such as bifunctional aldehydes, alcohols or acids. In the latter case greater mechanical and chemical stability is obtained, at the expense of a slight decrease in the permeability of the membrane which may be compensated, in terms of internal cell resistance, by reducing the number and/or the thickness of the layers used. Furthermore, a more crystalline and, hence, mechanically and chemically more resistant molecule structure may also be'obtained by placing the membraneunder tensile stress, as by wrapping it in stretched condition around an electrode.

.Amongthe agents adapted to form the crosslinkagesbetween the polyvinyl alcohol chains of the membrane there may be mentioned oxalic acid, :malonic acid, itaconic acid, formaldehyde, and glyoxal.

, The accompanying drawing shows, schematically and by way of example, a battery con structed in accordance with therpresent invention.

iThe battery shownin the drawing comprises a housing 19 wherein there are assembled twonegative electrodes Ha, llb and a positive electrode 12v sandwiched between the former. The active material of the negative electrodes is comminuted zinc which inthedischarged condition of the battery is oxidized to ZnO (and possibly also hydrolized, at least in part, to' Zll(OI-I)a); the active material of the positive electrode is comminuted silver which may be sintered as described in co-pending application Ser. No. 174,076, filed July 15, 1950. Negative leads 13a, I319, merging at 13, and a positive lead l4 project from the negative electrodes Ha, Ho and from the positive electrode l2, respectively.

The electrodes Ila and Nb are individually wrapped in sections I511, 15b of a generally U- shaped envelope 15 of porous paper, as described in co-pending application Ser. No. 153,830; an envelope l6 of cellophane surrounds the positive electrode l2. Between the positive electrode assembly l2, It, on the one hand, and the negative assembly Ila, Ilb, l5a, 15b, on the other hand, there is interposed a semi-permeable separator in the form of a membrane l1, this membrane consisting of polyvinyl alcohol which may or may not be cross-linked as described above. An electrolyte (not shown) of potassium hydroxide, saturated with zinc, permeates the entire assembly which is held under pressure in the casing ID.

The membrane I1 is preferably stretched when winding it about the electrode 12, the resulting tension being maintained, for example, by heatsealing the overlapping edges of the membrane as indicated at 18.

Although the polyvinyl alcohol separator ll has been shown in the drawing as an envelope completely surrounding the electrode I 2, it should be understood that the same may also be used, instead, as a simple sheet placed between two electrodes, as a wrapper around a negative electrode, and so forth, and that in general this separator may be given any of the configurations disclosed for the cellophane separators in the various co-pending applications mentioned above. Also, the layers of porous paper and of cellophane shown in the drawing may be omitted or interchanged, or additional such layers may be included. Furthermore, it should be noted that at least part of the zinc of the negative electrode may be replaced by a different electronegative material, e. g. cadmium, and that at least part of the silver of the positive electrode may be similarly replaced by a different electropositive material, e. g. nickel.

What is claimed is:

1. A battery comprising a casing, an alkaline electrolyte in said casing, a positive and a negative electrode of substantially non-compressible, compact material in said electrolyte, and a membrane of polyvinyl alcohol interposed between said electrodes and permeated by said electrolyte, said electrodes and said membrane forming part of an assembly fitting tightly inside said casing, said permeated membrane exerting pressure upon said electrodes in said casing.

2. A battery according to claim 1 wherein each of said electrodes comprises a comminuted active material.

3. A battery according to claim 2 wherein the :active material of said positive electrode contains silver and the active material of said negative electrode contains zinc.

4. A battery according to claim 1 wherein the active material of said negative electrode contains zinc and said electrolyte is saturated with Z1110.

5. A battery according to claim 1, including means maintaining said membrane under ten sion.

6. The combination according to claim 1 wherein the polyvinyl alcohol is modified by means of an agent forming cross-links between the chains of said alcohol.

7. The combination according to claim 6 wherein said agent is selected from the group which consists of bifunctional alcohols, aldehydes and acids.

8. A battery according to claim 1 wherein said negative electrode contains an active material selected from the group which consists of zinc and cadmium.

9. A battery according to claim 1 wherein said positive electrode contains an active material selected from the group which consists of silver and nickel.

10. A battery comprising a casing, an alkaline electrolyte in said casing, a positive and a negative electrode of substantially non-compressible, compact material in said electrolyte, a membrane of polyvinyl alcohol interposed between said electrodes and permeated by said electrolyte, and at least one layer of a porous, non-conductive material inserted between said membrane and at least one of said electrodes, said electrodes, said membrane and said layer forming part of an assembly fitting tightly inside said casing, said permeated membrane exerting pressure upon said electrodes in said casing.

11. A battery comprising. a casing, an alkaline electrolyte in said casing, a positive and a negative electrode of substantially non-compressible, compact material in said electrolyte, a membrane of polyvinyl alcohol interposed between said electrodes and permeated by said electrolyte, and at least one layer of cellophane inserted between said membrane and at least one of said electrodes, said electrodes, said membrane and said layer forming part of an assembly fitting tightly inside said casing, said permeated membrane exerting pressure upon said electrodes in said casing.

MICHEL N. YARDNEY. MARTIN E. KAGAN.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date Re. 22,065 Young Apr. 7, 1942 2,176,427 Kershaw Oct. 17, 1939 2,256,105 McConnell Sept. 16, 1941 2,420,456 White May 13, 1947 2,422,045 Ruben June 10, 1947 2,448,052 Roberts Aug. 31, 1948 2,519,399 Roberts Aug. 22, 1959 2,566,114 Bloch Aug. 28, 1951 2,594,709 Andre Apr. 29, 1952 2,594,710 Andre Apr. 29, 1952 2,594,711 Andre Apr. 29, 1952 2,594,712 Andre Apr. 29, 1952 2,594,713 Andre Apr. 29, 1952 OTHER REFERENCES Vinyl Products Bulletin, V. 7-1148 on EL- VANOL by DuPont.

Nye (Abstract), S. N. 627,080, January 17, 1950.

Claims (1)

1. A BATTERY COMPRISING A CASING, AN ALKALINE ELECTROLYTE IN SAID CASING, A POSITVE AND A NEGATIVE ELECTRODE OF SUBSTANTIALLY NON-COMPRESSIBLE, COMPACT MATERIAL IN SAID ELECTROLYTE, AND A MEMBRANE OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL INTERPOSED BETWEEN SAID ELECTRODES AND PERMEATED BY SAID ELECTROLYTE, SAID ELECTRODES AND SAID MEMBRANE FORMING PART OF AN ASSEMBLY FITTING TIGHTLY INSIDE SAID CASING, SAID PERMEATED MEMBRANE EXERTING PRESSURE UPON SAID ELECTRODES IN SAID CASING
US2635127A 1951-05-05 1951-05-05 Interelectrode separator for rechargeable batteries Expired - Lifetime US2635127A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2635127A US2635127A (en) 1951-05-05 1951-05-05 Interelectrode separator for rechargeable batteries

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
NL87193C NL87193C (en) 1951-05-05
US2635127A US2635127A (en) 1951-05-05 1951-05-05 Interelectrode separator for rechargeable batteries
DE1951Y0000041 DE902398C (en) 1951-05-05 1951-11-23 Separators for the electrodes of electric collector
GB1053352A GB708330A (en) 1951-05-05 1952-04-25 Improvements in separators for the electrodes of electric batteries and accumulators
FR1058023A FR1058023A (en) 1951-05-05 1952-05-02 Improvements to electric batteries

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DE (1) DE902398C (en)
FR (1) FR1058023A (en)
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NL (1) NL87193C (en)

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2812379A (en) * 1953-04-10 1957-11-05 Yardney International Corp Inter-electrode battery separator and process for making same
US2816154A (en) * 1951-10-07 1957-12-10 Yardney International Corp Separator for electric batteries
US2851509A (en) * 1954-11-05 1958-09-09 Yardney International Corp Electrode assembly for electric batteries
US2853537A (en) * 1956-11-30 1958-09-23 Sidney A Corren Sheet electrolyte for batteries
US2913511A (en) * 1955-06-29 1959-11-17 Gen Electric Fuel cell
US2918518A (en) * 1956-11-30 1959-12-22 Henry S Zablocki Battery component
US2945080A (en) * 1956-04-19 1960-07-12 Yardney International Corp Method of making battery separators
US2956100A (en) * 1955-10-12 1960-10-11 Yardney International Corp Electric battery structure
US2994728A (en) * 1957-02-20 1961-08-01 Accumulateurs Fixes Alkaline storage batteries
US3013099A (en) * 1952-05-02 1961-12-12 Yardney International Corp Separator for electric batteries
US3013100A (en) * 1957-05-02 1961-12-12 Yardney International Corp Diaphragm for electrolytic processes and method of making same
US3022367A (en) * 1958-04-23 1962-02-20 Yardney International Corp Separator for electric batteries
US3236695A (en) * 1962-07-16 1966-02-22 Yardney International Corp Electrochemical device
US3288642A (en) * 1961-01-05 1966-11-29 Union Carbide Corp Rechargeable dry cell having gelled electrolyte
US3655449A (en) * 1968-10-28 1972-04-11 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Dry cell comprising a separator composed of three layers
US4086405A (en) * 1971-12-16 1978-04-25 Compagnie Generale D'electricite S.A. Battery containing an alkaline electrolyte
DE2810202A1 (en) * 1977-03-16 1978-09-21 Comp Generale Electricite Separator for a galvanic cell, and methods for manufacturing this membrane
US4124427A (en) * 1975-09-11 1978-11-07 Amerace Corporation Method and apparatus for sealing a microporous plastic material
US4157423A (en) * 1971-12-16 1979-06-05 Compagnie Generale D'electricite Battery containing an alkaline electrolyte
US5075183A (en) * 1990-04-18 1991-12-24 Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. Lead acid storage battery
US20030044686A1 (en) * 2001-05-24 2003-03-06 Bushong William C. Conformal separator for an electrochemical cell
US20040229116A1 (en) * 2002-05-24 2004-11-18 Malinski James Andrew Perforated separator for an electrochemical cell
US20050084755A1 (en) * 2003-08-08 2005-04-21 David Boone High capacity alkaline cells
US20050271941A1 (en) * 2004-06-04 2005-12-08 Bushong William C Alkaline cells having high capacity
US20060257728A1 (en) * 2003-08-08 2006-11-16 Rovcal, Inc. Separators for use in alkaline cells having high capacity

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
BE537924A (en) * 1954-05-06
DE1068777B (en) * 1954-11-16
DE1274700B (en) * 1956-05-05 1968-08-08 Accumulateurs Fixes The sealed rechargeable battery, in particular alkaline battery
BE564234A (en) * 1957-01-28
FR2208196B1 (en) * 1972-11-30 1977-08-05 Comp Generale Electricite

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2176427A (en) * 1935-07-06 1939-10-17 Electric Storage Battery Co Electric storage battery retainer
US2256105A (en) * 1938-06-07 1941-09-16 Goodrich Co B F Battery plate
USRE22065E (en) * 1942-04-07 Anode
US2420456A (en) * 1943-04-29 1947-05-13 Electric Storage Battery Co Fabric envelope for storage battery plates
US2422045A (en) * 1945-07-10 1947-06-10 Ruben Samuel Alkaline dry cell
US2448052A (en) * 1945-05-14 1948-08-31 Roberts Ralph Active material for alkaline cells and method of preparing same
US2519399A (en) * 1945-11-14 1950-08-22 Roberts Ralph Active material for alkaline cells and method of preparing the same
US2566114A (en) * 1945-08-01 1951-08-28 Bloch Rudolf Electric cell
US2594712A (en) * 1949-02-22 1952-04-29 Yardney International Corp Silver and zinc accumulator having an insoluble negative electrode
US2594709A (en) * 1946-04-11 1952-04-29 Yardney International Corp Silver and zinc accumulator with insoluble negative electrode and invariable electrolyte
US2594713A (en) * 1949-11-29 1952-04-29 Yardney International Corp Electric accumulator

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
BE459506A (en) * 1942-10-17 1900-01-01
US2542527A (en) * 1942-10-17 1951-02-20 Electric Storage Battery Co Process of producing microporous material

Patent Citations (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
USRE22065E (en) * 1942-04-07 Anode
US2176427A (en) * 1935-07-06 1939-10-17 Electric Storage Battery Co Electric storage battery retainer
US2256105A (en) * 1938-06-07 1941-09-16 Goodrich Co B F Battery plate
US2420456A (en) * 1943-04-29 1947-05-13 Electric Storage Battery Co Fabric envelope for storage battery plates
US2448052A (en) * 1945-05-14 1948-08-31 Roberts Ralph Active material for alkaline cells and method of preparing same
US2422045A (en) * 1945-07-10 1947-06-10 Ruben Samuel Alkaline dry cell
US2566114A (en) * 1945-08-01 1951-08-28 Bloch Rudolf Electric cell
US2519399A (en) * 1945-11-14 1950-08-22 Roberts Ralph Active material for alkaline cells and method of preparing the same
US2594709A (en) * 1946-04-11 1952-04-29 Yardney International Corp Silver and zinc accumulator with insoluble negative electrode and invariable electrolyte
US2594711A (en) * 1946-04-11 1952-04-29 Yardney International Corp Zinc-silver accumulator
US2594710A (en) * 1946-04-11 1952-04-29 Yardney International Corp Zinc-silver accumulator
US2594712A (en) * 1949-02-22 1952-04-29 Yardney International Corp Silver and zinc accumulator having an insoluble negative electrode
US2594713A (en) * 1949-11-29 1952-04-29 Yardney International Corp Electric accumulator

Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2816154A (en) * 1951-10-07 1957-12-10 Yardney International Corp Separator for electric batteries
US3013099A (en) * 1952-05-02 1961-12-12 Yardney International Corp Separator for electric batteries
US2812379A (en) * 1953-04-10 1957-11-05 Yardney International Corp Inter-electrode battery separator and process for making same
US2851509A (en) * 1954-11-05 1958-09-09 Yardney International Corp Electrode assembly for electric batteries
US2913511A (en) * 1955-06-29 1959-11-17 Gen Electric Fuel cell
US2956100A (en) * 1955-10-12 1960-10-11 Yardney International Corp Electric battery structure
US2945080A (en) * 1956-04-19 1960-07-12 Yardney International Corp Method of making battery separators
US2853537A (en) * 1956-11-30 1958-09-23 Sidney A Corren Sheet electrolyte for batteries
US2918518A (en) * 1956-11-30 1959-12-22 Henry S Zablocki Battery component
US2994728A (en) * 1957-02-20 1961-08-01 Accumulateurs Fixes Alkaline storage batteries
US3013100A (en) * 1957-05-02 1961-12-12 Yardney International Corp Diaphragm for electrolytic processes and method of making same
US3022367A (en) * 1958-04-23 1962-02-20 Yardney International Corp Separator for electric batteries
US3288642A (en) * 1961-01-05 1966-11-29 Union Carbide Corp Rechargeable dry cell having gelled electrolyte
US3236695A (en) * 1962-07-16 1966-02-22 Yardney International Corp Electrochemical device
US3655449A (en) * 1968-10-28 1972-04-11 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Dry cell comprising a separator composed of three layers
US4157423A (en) * 1971-12-16 1979-06-05 Compagnie Generale D'electricite Battery containing an alkaline electrolyte
US4086405A (en) * 1971-12-16 1978-04-25 Compagnie Generale D'electricite S.A. Battery containing an alkaline electrolyte
US4124427A (en) * 1975-09-11 1978-11-07 Amerace Corporation Method and apparatus for sealing a microporous plastic material
DE2810202A1 (en) * 1977-03-16 1978-09-21 Comp Generale Electricite Separator for a galvanic cell, and methods for manufacturing this membrane
US5075183A (en) * 1990-04-18 1991-12-24 Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. Lead acid storage battery
US20030044686A1 (en) * 2001-05-24 2003-03-06 Bushong William C. Conformal separator for an electrochemical cell
US20040229116A1 (en) * 2002-05-24 2004-11-18 Malinski James Andrew Perforated separator for an electrochemical cell
US7931981B2 (en) 2003-08-08 2011-04-26 Rovcal Inc. Separators for alkaline electrochemical cells
US20050084755A1 (en) * 2003-08-08 2005-04-21 David Boone High capacity alkaline cells
US20060257728A1 (en) * 2003-08-08 2006-11-16 Rovcal, Inc. Separators for use in alkaline cells having high capacity
US7645540B2 (en) 2003-08-08 2010-01-12 Rovcal, Inc. Separators for alkaline electrochemical cells
US20100112431A1 (en) * 2003-08-08 2010-05-06 Rovcal Inc. Separators for alkaline electrochemical cells
US7763384B2 (en) 2003-08-08 2010-07-27 Rovcal, Inc. Alkaline cells having high capacity
US7740984B2 (en) 2004-06-04 2010-06-22 Rovcal, Inc. Alkaline cells having high capacity
US20050271941A1 (en) * 2004-06-04 2005-12-08 Bushong William C Alkaline cells having high capacity

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB708330A (en) 1954-05-05 application
DE902398C (en) 1955-09-15 grant
NL87193C (en) grant
FR1058023A (en) 1954-03-12 grant

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