US2624241A - Gun action - Google Patents

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Publication number
US2624241A
US2624241A US12554949A US2624241A US 2624241 A US2624241 A US 2624241A US 12554949 A US12554949 A US 12554949A US 2624241 A US2624241 A US 2624241A
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Prior art keywords
disk
bolt
cartridge
gun
magazine
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Expired - Lifetime
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John L Hill
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John L Hill
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A9/00Feeding or loading of ammunition; Magazines; Guiding means for the extracting of cartridges
    • F41A9/61Magazines
    • F41A9/64Magazines for unbelted ammunition
    • F41A9/65Box magazines having a cartridge follower
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A9/00Feeding or loading of ammunition; Magazines; Guiding means for the extracting of cartridges
    • F41A9/01Feeding of unbelted ammunition
    • F41A9/06Feeding of unbelted ammunition using cyclically moving conveyors, i.e. conveyors having ammunition pusher or carrier elements which are emptied or disengaged from the ammunition during the return stroke
    • F41A9/09Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines
    • F41A9/10Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines pivoting or swinging
    • F41A9/13Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines pivoting or swinging in a vertical plane
    • F41A9/16Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines pivoting or swinging in a vertical plane which is parallel to the barrel axis
    • F41A9/17Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines pivoting or swinging in a vertical plane which is parallel to the barrel axis mounted within a smallarm

Description

, INVENTOR Jab/7 A.

" H RNEK J. L.- HILL GUN ACTION Jan. 6, 1953 Filed Nov. 4, 1949 3 Sheets-Sheet J. L. HILL GUN ACTION ns N y ML m V T .Q m 0 O O Q w -Y Q Q i O I gm \B/ \\\v\\\\\ i Q Q v A Q A wmw mw Q Jan. 6, 1953 Filed Nov. 4, 1949 Jan. 6, 1953 J. L. HILL 2,624,241

GUN ACTION 2 3 Sheets-Sheet I5 Filed Nov. 4, 1949 INVENTOR. John L. /7/'// Patented Jan. 6, 1 953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Claims.

This invention relates to improvements in a gun action for automatic, semiautomatic and manually operated guns and refers more particularly to that portion of the action mechanism which transfers cartridges from the magazine to the gun barrel. This transfer mechanism comprises a rotatable disk constructed to receive the cartridges singly in a slot or trough formed on one of its faces, and rotate them through a 90 angle in alignment with the barrel bore so they are successively inserted into the firing chamber with each actuation of the bol It is recognized that many difierent types of mechanism have been employed to load cartridges from a magazine to the gun barrel. The difficulty with such apparatus, however, is that it almost invariably involves an intricate association of parts which are fragile, subject to breakage and failure with the continued rough use which mechanism of this sort is subjected.

An object, therefore, of the present invention is to provide a simple positive mechanism for transferring cartridges from the magazine to the gun barrel.

Another object is to provide a magazine in which the cartridges are arranged within an enclosure extending longitudinally or parallel with the gun barrel eliminating the necessity of an excessively strong spring necessary to support the weight of the column of cartridges as well as energy to feed the cartridges to the action.

A further object is to provide a mechanism in which the operating parts are reduced to a minimum, are rugged and designed to withstand wear and usage over long periods without failure.

Another object is to provide a gun action and magazine assembly permitting the use of pre-v loaded sealed dispensable containers for the cartridges wherein cartridges are charged asxa, unit in said preloaded container eliminating the necessity of filling a magazine with individual cartridges against the pressure of a strong magazine spring.

, Other and further objects will appear from the following description.

In the accompanying drawings which form a part of the specification and are to be read in conjunction therewith, there is shown an embodiment of the invention.

Fig. 1 is a side view of an automatic gun provided with a gun action and magazine which embodies the invention.

Fig. 2 is a top view of the gun indicating the position of the magazine extending parallel with the gun action and stock.

Fig. 3 is an enlarged vertical section of the action.

Fig. 4 is an enlarged horizontal section of the action and magazine.

Fig. 5 is a view taken along the line 5-5 in Fig. 3 in the direction of the arrows.

Fig. 6 is a view taken along the line 6-6 in Fig. 5 in the direction of the arrows.

Fig. 7 is an exploded View of the action and. bolt structure.

Fig. 8 is a side view of the transfer disk show-.

ing the grooved cartridge receptacle.

Fig. 9 is a reverse view of the disk from that shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10 is a view taken along the line l0l 0 in Fig. 8 in the direction of the arrows.

Fig. 11 is a perspective view of the dispensable container in which the cartridges are packed and loaded as a sealed unit into the magazine -seals port at perforations on three sides whenbroken by magazine follower and remain attached to the dispensable container.

To facilitate an understanding of the invention and to simplify its explanation, the bolt mechanism simulating that of a German automatic pistol is shown. Referring to the drawings and particularly Figs. 1 and 2, at I0 is shown a gun stock having mounted thereon a receiver H and a barrel l2 threaded at its rear end to engage the internally threaded portion of chamber block 13. The barrel is bored and rifled to receive cartridges It, best indicated in Figs. 3 and 4. Along one side of the receiver l l extends a magazine 15 with a loading port in its side for the introduction of cartridges introduced to the magazine in a sealed dispensable container 16, shown in Fig. 11. The port in the magazine through which the cartridge container is inserted has a closure plate I5a hinged at 1% and held shut by means of a spring latch I50. A knob led on the closure plate is an aid in opening and closing the loading port. To insert the cartridge container into the magazine, follower I1 is retracted against the force of coil spring l8 by manually moving the knob l9 rearwardly along a slot in the side of the magazine shown in Fig. 1. The handle or knob I9 is attached to the retractor rod 20 and coil spring l8 surrounds the rod. rearwardly of the follower which is attached to its forward end.

Behind chamber block 13 and within the receiver H is a bolt mechanism detailed in Figs. 3, 4 and '7. The bolt mechanism comprises bolt block 2| longitudinally drilled to receive the cartridge injector bolt and recoil mechanism. The bolt proper consists of an elongated rod, or cy1indrical member 22 threaded over a portion of its length as shown at 22a, to screw into the internally threaded portion of the bolt block. The forward end of the bolt, including the threaded portion, is longitudinally grooved at 221), as is the bolt block at Zia, to accommodate passage of the stationary ejector 23 upon reciprocation of the bolt. The ejector is attached to the receiver or outside case of the gun and trips the shell from the bolt after extraction from the barrel, as will be hereinafter described. The hole through the bolt block has a shoulder near the back upon which seats the rim of sleeve 24 enclosing the rear end of recoil spring 25. The sleeve has a rear closure Ma which fits into plate 26 at the end of the action. That portion of the bolt rearwardly of threads 22a is of reduced diameter and serves as a guide for the recoil spring. The rear end of the recoil spring abuts against the rear closure 24a and the forward end against a shoulder formed in the bolt 22, where the threaded portion of the bolt commences. Beneath the bolt and adjacent its forward end is an extractor 21 attached at its rear end to the bolt and having sufiicient resiliency to spring out and engage, by means of its hooked end, the rim of the cartridge prior to extraction of the cartridge from the barrel. Beneath the bolt block and rigidly attached thereto or forming an integral part of the block is the forwardly extending disk actuator 28. The front end of the actuator has an enlarged head with a shoulder for engagement with notches in the periphery of the transfer disk hereinafter explained. Positioned in a longitudinally drilled hole in the forward end of the bolt is a firing pin 220.

A rearwardly extending plate 13a from chamber block I 3 is apertured to receive a stud or stub shaft 29a extending from one side of transfer disk 29, shown in Figs. 4, 7, 9 and 10. In the same face of the disk from which stud extends is an arcuate slot 291) into which fits a pin or stop 30 mounted upon and extending outwardly from plate tea as shown in Fig. 7. Stub shaft 29a of the disk bears in the aperture formed in the chamber block and the disk has rotative movement through a 90 angle limited by the travel of the stop 38 in the arcuate slot 2%. The opposite face of the transfer disk from that abutting plate Isa has a groove r cartridge slot formed therein and extending diametrically across the face of the disk. Parallel ridges 2c and 29d extend across the disk and form the opposite sides of the trough or slot in which is retained the individual cartridges [4 as they are transferred from the magazine to the gun barrel. The ridge portion 290 is drilled to receive a detent 3| held in place by coil spring 32 and adapted to impose a tilting pressure upon each cartridge as it is received in the groove of the disk. The lower surface of the cartridge slot is tapered slightly, as shown in Fig. 8, to permit canting of the cartridge out of alignment with the firing pin to avoid accidental firing of the cartridge before it is injected into the barrel.

Extending between a socket 29h in the periphery of stub shaft 2% and a similar socket in the bottom of screw plug 33, best shown in Fig. 5, is an over-center spring 34. This spring assures positive rotation of the transfer disk through its 90 cycle. The edge of the disk is grooved at 2%, as indicated in Figs. 3, 5, 6 and 10, to receive the disk actuator 28 extending forwardly from bolt block 2|. The edge of the disk is notched within the groove, as indicated at 29 and 299 in Figs. 3

and 6, to be engaged by the disk actuator upon operation of the bolt which oscillates the disk through its cycle. Initially it is rotated by the bolt action to receive a cartridge from the magazine and, upon subsequent operation of the bolt, the cartridge slot and cartridge are brought into alignment with the bolt and positioned so the cartridge can be slid from the disk to the gun barrel upon further movement of the bolt.

The operation of the gun action is briefly as follows: To begin with, a sealed container preloaded with cartridges is inserted through the side port of the magazine with the follower l1 retracted. The front and rear ends of the dispensable container are perforated around the edges so the forward pressure of the follower disrupts or bends down the ends of the package and permits feeding of the cartridges forwardly through the magazine, as indicated in Fig. 4. With the bolt in a forward position, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, the cartridge groove or slot in the side of the transfer disk Will be parallel with the gun barrel and in alignment with the bolt. Cartridges fed from the magazine through its forward restricted end arrive at the transfer disk in a position 90 from the axis of the gun barrel and at right angles to the groove in the face of the disk, as indicated in Fig. 4. Retraction of the bolt by means of bolt handle 35 shifts the bolt mechanism rearwardly retracting with it disk actuator 28. Shoulder 28a on the actuator engages notch 29) on the disk rotating it through an angle of 90 so the cartridge groove in the disk is parallel with the axis of the incoming cartridge. The force of follower spring 18 causes the cartridge adjacent the disk to enter the groove, as indicated in Figs. 8 and 10. Positive action and rotation of the disk through an arc of 90 is assured by over-center spring 34, while the limits of the disk travel are governed by stop pin 36 operating in the arcuate slot 29b. With the bolt in a retracted position the cartridge slot of the disk is rotated so the most advanced cartridge in the magazine will register with and readily fall into the slot. At this time the recoil spring 25 is retracted within sleeve 24 with sear notch 36 in the bottom of the bolt block engaged by an upwardly extending sear not shown, actuated through pivoted levers by trigger 31. This trigger release mechanism for the bolt block including the sear and actuating levers is conventional and has, therefore, been omitted from the drawing. When the trigger is pressed to fire the gun the bolt block is released, the force of coil spring 25 carrying the block and bolt mechanism forward. Simultaneously, the disk actuating extension 28 moves with the block, its front end face 28b abutting the notch 28g of the transfer disk before the injector portion 22a of the bolt reaches the disk. This trips the disk and rotates it in an opposite direction through an angle of 90 limited again in its travel by stop 38 as shown in Fig. 3. The cartridge lying in the groove of the disk is now shifted to a position in alignment with the bolt and gun barrel. While so positioned the spring actuated detent 3| cants the cartridge in the manner shown in Fig. 8 so the primer is out of alignment with firing pin 22c and premature firing is avoided. The forward force of the recoil spring, besides actuating the disk, advances bolt 22 through the groove of the transfer disk sliding the cartridge from the diskinto the gun barrel. It is then fired by pin 220 when the forward end of the shell is seated against the shoulder lza machined in the firing chamber of the barrel.

6 As the injector bolt 22b pushes home the car- 1. In a gun action for automatic, semiautomatic tridge into the gun barrel the hooked end of eX- and manually operated guns, the combination tractor 21 engages the rim of the cartridge. with a bolt having an injector, extractor, ejector Upon firing of the cartridge the explosive force and disk actuator operable therewith, of a barrel, causes the bolt to be thrust rearwardly, the empty a cartridge magazine, a bolt actuated transfer cartridge case being extracted from the barrel disk between the barrel and cartridge magazine, due to engagement of extractor 21 to the rim of said disk having a cartridge groove extending the cartridge. The bolt and cartridge case slide diametrically across one face thereof, said groove through the disk slot and thence rearwardly to a lying in the plane of the barrel bore and oscilposition where ejector 23 abuts the top of the 10 lated with the bolt by means of the disk actuator cartridge and trips it downwardly through an to receive the individual cartridges from the ejection port 33 in the bottom of the receiver. magazine and transfer them into position for in- After the cartridge case has passed the transfer sertion into the barrel.

disk in its rearward travel, shoulder 28a of the 2. A gun action as in claim 1 with a cartridge disk actuator again trips the disk through its 90 magazine extending parallel with and at the side rotation placing the disk in its initial position to of the gun stock, the cartridges within said magareceive another cartridge from the magazine. zine positioned transversely with respect to the In this manner the cartridges are successively axis of the gun barrel and all in the same direcfed from the magazine to the disk, thence to the tion. gun barrel and after firing are extracted and 3. A gun action as in claim 1 wherein the carejected and a new cartridge loaded automatically tridge groove is rotated out of alignment with as long as the trigger is pressed to a firing posithe bolt when receiving a cartridge from the tion. Releasing of the trigger permits the trigmagazine and into direct alignment with the bolt ger sear to engage the notch in the bolt block when the cartridge is transferred from the disk and hold the block in a retarded position thereby to the barrel. temporarily interrupting firing action until the 4. A gun action as in claim 1 with an overtrigger is again pressed. center spring and a limiting stop operable with It will be noted that the cartridges are supplied the disk to effect positive oscillation of the disk to the magazine in preloaded dispensable conthrough its operating cycle. tainers by inserting a container unit ahead of 5. Ina gun action for automatic, semiautomatic follower l1. By locating the magazine parallel and manually operated guns the combination with the gun barrel and feeding the cartridges with a bolt mechanism including an injector, firthrough the magazine while held in a position ing pin, extractor, ejector and disk actuator all normal with the axis of the barrel there is avoided operable with the bolt, a cartridge magazine the necessity of using an excessively strong magaalong one side of the gun stock, a transfer disk zine spring and entailing no handling of indioscillatable in a plane parallel to the axis of a gun vidual cartridges in opera-ting the gun. Convenbarrel and having a cartridge groove extending tionally, the cartridges are fed through the magadiametrically ther Said disk actuator adapted zine from below so the spring must not only supwith the operation of the bolt mechanism to enport the Weight of the column of cartridges but 4 gage said disk and oscillate it from a position must have sufiicient force in excess of the weight where the groove receives a cartridge from the of the cartridges to feed them into the gun acmagazine to a posi i n in which h groove is in tion. It is appreciated that no novelty resides direct alignment with the bore of the barrel, and in the bolt and trigger mechanisms shown and means timing the bolt action with the bolt oscilexplained, but it is believed that the transfer lation whereby the injector, firing pin and exdisk, magazine design and the use of a dispensable tractor members of the bolt are advanced through sealed preloaded cartridge container are features he groove in the disk in the firing cycle and which are unique in automatic, semiautomatic withdrawn from the groove during the loading and manually operated gun construction. y

From the foregoing it will be seen that this 5 JOHN L. HILL. invention is one well adapted to attain all of the ends and objects hereinabove set forthto- REFERENCES CITED gether with other advantages which are ObVlOllS Th 1 and which are inherent to the structure. fil 2 owuzg rferences are of record In the It will be understood that certain features and e 0 15 subcombinations are of utility and may be employed without reference to other features and UNITED STATES PATENTS subcombinations. This is contemplated by and Number N Date is within the scope of the claims. 789,142 Chlchester May 9, 19 5 As many possible embodiments may be made of 1,451,339 Kottas pr. 10, 1923 the invention Without departing from the scope 2,248,081 Conway u 31, 1 8 thereof it is to be understood that all matter 79,770 015011 u 23, 1949 herein set forth or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and FOREIGN PATENTS not inalimiting sense. Number Country t Having thus described my invention, I claim: 710,232 France June 1, 1931

US2624241A 1949-11-04 1949-11-04 Gun action Expired - Lifetime US2624241A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2624241A US2624241A (en) 1949-11-04 1949-11-04 Gun action
GB2264052A GB729236A (en) 1952-09-09 1952-09-09 Improvements in or relating to guns, rifles or the like
US2758403A US2758403A (en) 1949-11-04 1952-09-25 Magazine and cartridge container assembly

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
BE515335A BE515335A (en) 1949-11-04
US2624241A US2624241A (en) 1949-11-04 1949-11-04 Gun action
US2758403A US2758403A (en) 1949-11-04 1952-09-25 Magazine and cartridge container assembly
FR1069097A FR1069097A (en) 1949-11-04 1952-11-03 Automatic rifle or gun, semi-automatic or manual conmande with device causing the gun to store cartridges by rotating on themselves
DE1952H0014412 DE934998C (en) 1949-11-04 1952-11-09 Patronenzufuehrung for selbsttaetige, halbselbsttaetige and manual loading firearms

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US2624241A true US2624241A (en) 1953-01-06

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US2758403A Expired - Lifetime US2758403A (en) 1949-11-04 1952-09-25 Magazine and cartridge container assembly

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BE (1) BE515335A (en)
FR (1) FR1069097A (en)

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2690024A (en) * 1951-07-17 1954-09-28 Clyde E Brush Feed mechanism for firearms
US2865254A (en) * 1953-10-01 1958-12-23 Bofors Ab Recoiling barrel operated pivoted loading tray mechanism
US4286499A (en) * 1979-10-24 1981-09-01 Gillum Richard R Cross axis shell feeding apparatus for firearms
US4524672A (en) * 1983-04-27 1985-06-25 Walter Balsavage Magazine and feed mechanism for firearms
US4825743A (en) * 1988-05-09 1989-05-02 Walter Balsavage Magazine and feed mechanism for firearms
US5239911A (en) * 1992-02-13 1993-08-31 Ostor Pierre A Multiple-round grenade launcher
EP0960316A2 (en) * 1997-02-11 1999-12-01 Marshal Arms Inc. Improved magazine and feed mechanism for firearms
US20110168009A1 (en) * 2007-11-20 2011-07-14 Robb Eric P Semiautomatic Rifle with Downward Ejection
US8464453B1 (en) * 2010-01-18 2013-06-18 Nordic Components, Inc. Blowback bolt upper receiver and barrel assembly

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2882635A (en) * 1956-12-19 1959-04-21 John L Hill Tubular combined cartridge container and magazine unit
US2963810A (en) * 1958-10-07 1960-12-13 Marlin Firearms Co Loading means for bolt-action rifles
BE1001469A3 (en) * 1988-03-02 1989-11-07 Nationale Herstal Fn Sa Fab Rip charger for personal weapon as-gunner gun, gun, gun, and like.
FR2707746B1 (en) * 1993-07-02 1995-11-10 Ilien Oulmiere Atelier Mecaniq Automatic Weapon parallel charger to the axis of the barrel.

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US789142A (en) * 1904-12-17 1905-05-09 Henry D Chichester Firearm.
US1451339A (en) * 1918-08-16 1923-04-10 Kottas Arthur Magazine firearm
FR710282A (en) * 1931-01-26 1931-08-20 Stanley Waffen G M B H loading device for automatic firearm
US2448081A (en) * 1944-07-20 1948-08-31 Woodville B Conway Automatic ammunition feed for firearms
US2479770A (en) * 1948-02-27 1949-08-23 Alton M Olson Cartridge feeding magazine for firearms

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2358792A (en) * 1940-12-02 1944-09-26 Woodville B Conway Firearm
US2352766A (en) * 1943-07-27 1944-07-04 Walter H Bogue Paper box
US2584336A (en) * 1949-12-13 1952-02-05 Eisenhardt Raymond Container and draw cord combination

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US789142A (en) * 1904-12-17 1905-05-09 Henry D Chichester Firearm.
US1451339A (en) * 1918-08-16 1923-04-10 Kottas Arthur Magazine firearm
FR710282A (en) * 1931-01-26 1931-08-20 Stanley Waffen G M B H loading device for automatic firearm
US2448081A (en) * 1944-07-20 1948-08-31 Woodville B Conway Automatic ammunition feed for firearms
US2479770A (en) * 1948-02-27 1949-08-23 Alton M Olson Cartridge feeding magazine for firearms

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2690024A (en) * 1951-07-17 1954-09-28 Clyde E Brush Feed mechanism for firearms
US2865254A (en) * 1953-10-01 1958-12-23 Bofors Ab Recoiling barrel operated pivoted loading tray mechanism
US4286499A (en) * 1979-10-24 1981-09-01 Gillum Richard R Cross axis shell feeding apparatus for firearms
US4524672A (en) * 1983-04-27 1985-06-25 Walter Balsavage Magazine and feed mechanism for firearms
US4825743A (en) * 1988-05-09 1989-05-02 Walter Balsavage Magazine and feed mechanism for firearms
US5239911A (en) * 1992-02-13 1993-08-31 Ostor Pierre A Multiple-round grenade launcher
EP0960316A2 (en) * 1997-02-11 1999-12-01 Marshal Arms Inc. Improved magazine and feed mechanism for firearms
EP0960316A4 (en) * 1997-02-11 2001-06-27 Marshal Arms Inc Improved magazine and feed mechanism for firearms
US6257115B1 (en) 1997-02-11 2001-07-10 Walter Balsavage Magazine and feed mechanism for firearms
US20110168009A1 (en) * 2007-11-20 2011-07-14 Robb Eric P Semiautomatic Rifle with Downward Ejection
US8464453B1 (en) * 2010-01-18 2013-06-18 Nordic Components, Inc. Blowback bolt upper receiver and barrel assembly
US8844423B1 (en) * 2010-01-18 2014-09-30 Nordic Components, Inc. Blowback bolt upper receiver and barrel assembly

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Publication number Publication date Type
US2758403A (en) 1956-08-14 grant
BE515335A (en) grant
FR1069097A (en) 1954-07-05 grant

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